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GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



iiiHf 

1833 01750 6129 



GENEALOGY 

942.006 

N844 

1862, 

PT.l 



G 



NOTES and QUERIES: 



iWrtiium of Intercommunication 



foe 



LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, 
GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



" When found, make a note of." — Captain Cuttle. 



THIRD SERIES. — VOLUME FIRST. 

January — June, 1862. 
LONDON: 

BELL & DALDY, 186, FLEET STREET. 

1862. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2014 



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NOTES and QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOR 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC 

" When found, make a note of." — Captain Cottle. 



No. 1.] 



Saturday, January 4, 1862. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. t«* & I. Jas. i, '62. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



1 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 4, 1862. 



CONTENTS.— N°. 1, 
Our Third Series, 1. 

NOTES : — Memoir of William Oldys, Esq., Norroy-King-at- 
Arms, 1 — Archbishop Leighton's Library at Dunblane, 
g— Toland, 6— America before Columbus ? 7 —The " Cot- 
greave " Forgeries of the late W. S. Spence, S. 

Minor Notes : — Cowell's Interpreter condemned — A 
Note to the " Voyages of Sir Francis Drake and Sir Thomas 
Cavendish" — Tho Saturday Half- Holiday — Petronius 
Arbiter — Armorial Glass, temp. James I., 9. 

QUERIES: —Wells City Seals and their Symbols, 10 — 
Avignon Inscriptions — Passage in Possuet — English Am" 
bassadors to France — Epigrams on the Popes of Rome' 
&c. — A Giant found at St. Bees — Italian Proverbs — Sir 
Henry Langford, Bart. — Lee of Quarendon — Mrs. Mur- 
ray—Paper Money at Leyden— Pascha's Pilgrimage to 
Palestine — Peace Congress proposed in 1693 — Prayer 
Book of 1604 — Dr, Richard Sibbcs — Standgate Hole — 
Stonchengo — St. Napoleon, 11. 

Queries with Answers: — Sir Francis Page — The Ass 
and the Ladder — Legends of the Wandering Jew — Quo- 
tation, 13. 

REPLIES ••—Epitome of the Lives of the Kings of France, 
14— Earthquakes in England: TTriconium, 15 — Biblical 
Literature: William Capenter — Article "Use and Have" 

— Representations in Sculpture of the First Person of the 
Holy Trinity — Enthusiasm in favour of Hampden — Mu- 
tilation of Sepulchral Memorials — Newtons of Whitby — 
Dr. Arne's Father — Clergyman's Right to take the Chair 

— St. Benigne, Dijon — Neil Douglas — James Glassford 

— Peter Watkinson Owtrcm — Sir Richard Shelley — 
Sir James Pemberton — Churchwardens —The Sleepers, 17 • 



OUR THIRD SERIES. 

Upwards of twelve years ago Notes and Queries 
was established for the purpose of supplying that me- 
dium of inter-communication, that channel for the an- 
nouncement of wants and discoveries, which had long 
been desired by literary men, and lovers of books. 

In our original Prospectus we stated that our object was 
to furnish to readers of that class, " A Common-Place 
Book, in which they might, on the one hand, record 
for their own use and the use of others those minute 
facts, — those elucidations of a doubtful phrase, or dis- 
puted passage, — those illustrations of an obsolete cus- 
tom, — those scattered biographical anecdotes, or unre- 
corded dates, — which all who read occasionally stumble 
upon ; — and, on the other, a medium through which 
they might address those Queries, by which the best 
informed are sometimes arrested in the midst of their 
labours, in the hope of receiving solutions of them from 
some of their brethren." 

The idea was considered a happy one. Notes and 
Queries immediately obtained the good wishes and 
cordial assistance of many ripe and good scholars, and 
thanks to their co-operation, to Notes and Queries 
may fairly be applied the noble lines which Ben Jonson 
addressed to Selden, and which have been pointed out to 
us by one of the first and most valued of our contri- 
butors : — 



" What fables have 3 T ou vexed, what truth redeemed, 
Antiquities searched, opinioi 8 disesteem;d. 
Impostures branded, and authorities urged! 
What blots and errors have you watched and purged 
Records and authors of ! how rectified 
Times, manners, customs! innovations spied! 
Sought out the fountains' sources, creeks, paths, ways, 
And noted the beginnings and decays! 
What is that nominal mark, or real rite, 
Form, act, or ensign that hath scaped your sight? 
How are traditions there examined ! how 
Conjectures retrieved ! and a story now 
And then of times (besides the bare conduct 
Of what it tells us) weaved in to instruct ! " 

It would not be difficult to prove how well these lines 
characterise the curious discoveries and happy illustra- 
tions, on every branch of literature, which have from 
time to time been made public through the columns of 
Notes and Queries. 

But it is needless to do so. The use and value of 
Notes and Queries is sufficiently shown by the favour 
with which our first two Series have been received: for 
with pride we acknowledge that Notes and Queries is 
now to be found in the library of nearly every Club, 
College, and Literary Institution in the United King- 
dom ; while our columns show that Correspondence reaches 
us from all parts of the World. 

We are now about to commence the Third Series. 
Our old Friends and Correspondents still support U3 ; 
and we are encouraged by their support, and by our twelve 
3 r ears' experience, to hope that as our Second Series 
has been recognised as a great improvement upon the 
First, so will the Third be better still. " Ab Jove 
tertius Ajax" 



$ates». 

* l MEMOIR OF WILLIAM OLDYS, ESQ., 

NORROY KING-AT-ARMS. 

The life of a literary antiquary is seldom suf- 
ficiently diversified to afford to a biographer many 
materials for his pen, so as to give interest and 
vivacity to the historic page. From the noiseless 
tenor of his daily pursuits, and the habit he has ac- 
quired of holding communion with the past rather 
than with the present, his existence is, generally 
speaking, subject to fewer vicissitudes than those 
which mark the mortal progress of persons be- 
longing to the more active professions : — 

" Allow him but his plaything of a pen, 
He ne'er cabals or plots like other men." 

Respecting the parentage of William Oldys there 
is some obscurity. Mr. John Taylor, the son of 
Oldys' s intimate friend, informs us that " Mr. 
Oldys was, I understood, the natural son of a 
gentleman named Harris, who lived in a respect- 
able style in Kensington Square. How he came 
to adopt the name of Oldys, or where he received 
his education, I never heard." * All his bio- 

* Records of my Li fe, i. 25, ed. 1832. 



2 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3* d S. I. Jan. 4, '62. 



graphers, however, speak of him as the natural 
son of Dr. William Oldys, Chancellor of Lincoln 
(from 1683 till his death in 1708), Commissary of 
St. Catharine's, Official of St. Alban's, and Advo- 
cate of the Admiralty. That even grave civilians 
will sometimes deviate from moral purity, is de- 
plored by Dr. Coote, who had been informed that 
Dr. Oldys " maintained a mistress in a very penu- 
rious and private manner." * 

The civilian died early in the year 1708, and 
in his will he " devises to his loving cozen Mrs. 
Ann Oldys his two houses at Kensington, with 
the residue of his property," and " appoints the 
said Ann Oldys whole and sole executrix of his 
Will." It has been conjectured, with some de- 
gree of probability, that under the cognomen of 
cozen is meant the mother of our literary anti- 
quary ; more especially as we find from the will 
of the said Ann Oldys, that after two or three 
trifling bequests, she " gives all her estate, real 
and personal, to her loving friend, Benjamin 
Jackman of the said Kensington, upon trust, for 
the benefit of her son William Oldys, and she 
leaves the tuition and guardianship of her son 
William Oldys, during his minority, to the said 
Benjamin Jackman." The Will is dated March 
21, 1710; and proved by Benjamin Jackman on 
April 10, 1711, when our antiquary was in the 
fifteenth year of his age. 

At the end of a pedigree of the Oldys family 
in the handwriting of William Oldys, now in the 
British Museum (Addit. MS. 4240 f, p. 14), is 
the following entry: "Dr. William Oldys, Ad- 
vocate General, born at Addesbury 1636 ; died at 
Kensington, 1708 ; Duxit Theodosia Lovet, Fil. 
Dom. Jo: Halsey : [Issue] William, nat. July 
14, 1696." That the Doctor married Theodosia 
Lovett there can be no doubt ; for not only is 
it stated by Burke, that " Robert Lovett, of Lis- 
combe in Bucks, married Theodosia, daughter 
of Sir John Halsey, Knt., of Great Gaddesden, 
Herts ; he died s. p. in 1683, set. 26," {Extinct 
Baronetage, ed. 1844, p. 325), but in a pedigree 
in the College of Arms, dated 1700, and sub- 
scribed by Dr. Oldys, his marriage with Theodo- 
sia Lovett is duly recorded. While as the Doctor 
there describes himself as " sine prole," and omits 
all mention of William Oldys in his will, but leaves 
to Oldys's mother the property which he even- 
tually inherited, there can be little doubt that 
the bend sinister ought properly to have figured 
in the arms of the future Norroy. That Oldys 
always claimed the civilian for his father, ap- 
pears from the following note in his annotated 
Langbaine, p. 131 : " To search the old papers 

* Lives and Characters of eminent English Civilians, 
p. 95, ed. 1804. 

f The same volume contains a long account of Dr. 
William Oldys, and other biographical notices of the 
family. 



in one of my large deal boxes for Mr. Dryden's 
letter of thanks to my father for some commu- 
nications relating to Plutarch, when they and 
others were publishing a translation of all Plu- 
tarch's Lives in 5 vols. 8vo, 1683. It is copied 
in the yellow book for Dryden's Life, in which 
there are about 150 transcriptions, in prose and 
verse, relating to the life, character, and writings 
of Mr. Dryden." Pompey the Great was the Life 
translated'by Dr. William Oldys. 

William Oldys, the son, was born July 14, 1696, 
and by the death of his parents was left to make 
his way in life by his own natural abilities. From 
his Autobiography we learn that he was one of the 
sufferers in the South Sea Bubble, which ex- 
ploded in 1720, and involved him in a long and 
expensive lawsuit. From the year 1724 to 1730 
he resided in Yorkshire, and spent most of his 
time at the seat of the first Earl of Malton, with 
whom he had been intimate in his youth. In 
1725, Oldys, being at Leeds, soon after the death 
of Ralph Thoresby, the antiquary, paid a visit to 
his celebrated Museum.* As he remained in 
Yorkshire for about six years, it is not improbable 
that he assisted Dr. Knowler in the editorship of 
the Earl of Strafforde's Letters, Sec. 2 vols. fol. 
published in 1739. In 1729, he wrote an "Essay 
on Epistolary Writings, with respect to the Grand 
Collection of Thomas Earl of Strafford. Inscribed 
to the Lord Malton." The MS. was probably of 
some utility to his Lordship, and his Chaplain, 
Dr. Knowler.f 

It was during Oldys's visit to Wentworth House 
that he became an eye-witness to the destruction 
of the collections of the antiquary Richard Gas- 
coyne, consisting of seven great chests of manu- 
scripts. Of this remorseless act of vandalism our 
worthy antiquary has left on record some severe 
strictures. Here is his account of this literary 
holocaust : — 

" Richard Gascoyne, Esq., was of kin to the Wentworth 
family, which he highly honoured by the elaborate gene- 
alogies he drew thereof, and improved abundance of 
other pedigrees in most of our ancient historians, and 
particularly our topographical writers and antiquaries in 
personal history, as Brooke, Vincent, Dugdale, and many 
others, out of his vast and most valuable collection of 
deeds, evidences, and ancient records, &c, which after 
his death, about the time of the Restoration, when he was 
about eighty years of age, fell with great part of his 
library to the possession of William, the son of Thomas 
the first Earl of Strafford, who preserved the books in 
his library at Wentworth Woodhouse in Yorkshire, and 
the said MSS. in the stone tower there among the family 
writings, where thev continued safe and untouched till 
1728, when Sir Tho. Watson Wentworth J, newly made or | 



* Life of Sir Walter Ralegh, p. xxxi. ed. 1736. 

f This MS. is also noticed in Oldys's Dissertation vpon 
Pamphlets, p. 561. 

X Thomas Wentworth of Wentworth Woodhouse, cre- 
ated Baron Malton 28 May, 1728 ; Baron of Wath and 
Harrowden, Viscount Iligham, and Earl of Malton 19 



S'<* S. I. Jan. 4, 'Gl] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



3 



about to be made Earl of Malton, and to whose father 
the said William Earl of Strafford left his estate, burnt 
them all wilfully in one morning. I saw the lamentable 
fire feed upon six or seven great chests full of the said 
deeds, &c., some of them as old as the Conquest, and 
even the ignorant servants repining at the mischievous 
and destructive obedience they were compelled to. There 
was nobody present who could venture to speak but my- 
self, but the infatuation was insuperable. I urged that 
Mr. Dodsworth had also spent bis life in making such 
collections, and they are preserved to this day with re- 
verence to their collector, and that it was out of such 
that Sir VVm. Dugdale collected the work which had 
done so much honour to the Peerage. I did prevail to 
the preservation of some few old rolls and publick grants 
and charters, a few extracts of escheats, and a few ori- 
ginal letters of some eminent persons and pedigrees of 
others, but not the hundredth part of much better things 
that were destroyed. The external motive for this de- 
struction seemed to be some fear infused by his attorney, 
Sam. Buck of Rotheram (since a justice of peace) a man 
who could not read one of those records any more than 
his lordship, that something or other might be found out 
one time or other by somebody or other — the descendants 
perhaps of the late Earl of Strafford, who had been at 
war with him for the said estate — which might shake his 
title and change its owner. Though it was thought he 
had no stronger motive for it than his impatience to pull 
down the old tower in which they were reposited, to 
make way for his undertaker Ralph Tunnicliffe to pile up 
that monstrous and ostentatious heap of a house which 
is so unproportionable to the body and soul of the pos- 
sessor, so these antiquities, as useless lumber, were de- 
stroyed too. Of that Richard Gascoyne see more in 
Thoresby's Topography of Leeds, fo). 1715; in Sir Wm. 
Dugdale's Antiquities of Warwickshire, where he is ap- 
plauded for his revival of theWentworth family, as he 
ought to have been respected by it for the honour which 
he, and the profit his kindred, brought to it (p. 554), 
how gratefully repaid appears above. Also in Dugdale's 
Memoirs of his own Life, in the note I have made upon 
Burton's Leicestershire (throughout enriched with his 
notes), in the Harleian Catalogue, vol. iii. p. 23,8°, 1744.* 



Nov. 1734; became Baron of Rockingham in Feb. 1746, 
and was created Marquis of Rockingham 19 April, 1746 ; 
died at Wentworth House 14 Dec. i750, and was buried 
in the Minster at York. Vide the pedigree of the family 
in Hunter's Doncaster, ii. 91. 

* Oldys's note is worth quoting. He says, " Through- 
out this much-esteemed work [Burton's Leicestershire, 
1622] there have been numberless notes transcribed in 
the margins, and almost all the pedigrees enlarged and 
corrected, from a copy of this book in the library of Jesus 
College, Cambridge. It has been new bound, and inter- 
leaved also throughout, to make room for anv further 
additions. The notes aforesaid were written by one of 
the most skilful antiquaries in Record-heraldry of his 
times (as T. Fuller has justly distinguished him),' Richard 
Gascoyne, Esq., of Bramham Biggen in Yorkshire. He 
was a descendant, from Judge Gascoyne (who committed 
the Prince of Wales, afterwards King Henry V., to prison 
for obstructing him in the course of justice on the King's 
Bench), and was also related to the first Earl of Straf- 
ford, whose grandfather married one of his family. Part 
of his pedigree may be seen in Mr. Thoresby's Antiquities 
of Ijeeds. He did singular honours to that Fail's name, 
in the most elaborate Tables of Genealogy which he drew 
out of a vast treasure of original charters, patents, evi- 
dences, wills, and other records, which he had amassed 
together; for which, and other such performances, he is 



Some men have no better way to make themselves the 
most conspicuous persons in their family than by de- 
Gtroying the monuments of their ancestors, and raising 
themselves trophies out of their ruins." 

We get a glimpse of Oldys's literary habits at 
this time from the following note : — 

"When 1 left London in 1724 to reside in Yorkshire, 
I left in the care of Mr. Burridge's family, with whom I 
had several years lodged, among many other books, goods, 
&c. a copy of this Langbaine, in which I had written 
several notes and references to further knowledge of these 
poets. When I returned to London in 1730, I under- 
stood my books had been dispersed; and afterwards be- 
coming acquainted with Mr. Thomas Coxcter, I found 
that he had bought my Langbaine of a bookseller, who 
was a great collector of plays and poetical books : this 
must have been of service to him, and he has kept it so 
carefully from my sight, that I never could have the 
opportunity of transcribing into this I am now writing 
in, the notes I had collected in that." * 

(To be continued.) 



ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON'S LIBRARY AT 
DUNBLANE. 

Having in preparation a new edition of Arch- 
bishop Leighton's Works y, I went to Dunblane on 
the 25th of last September, and spent a few days 
there for the purpose of making researches in the 
Library. I now send you a Note on the subject, 
which I dare say will be acceptable to many of 
your readers. 

By his Will, dated « Broadhursr, Feb.17, 1683," 
Abp. Leighton bequeathed his books " to the 
Cathedral of Dunblane in Scotland, to remain 
there for the use of the Clergy of that Diocese." 
Jerment says : — 

"His large and well- chosen Library and valuable 
Manuscripts, he disponed to the See of Dunblane ; with 
money towards erecting a house for the books, increas- 
ing their number, and paying a Librarian. It should be 
mentioned to the honour of his Executors, that they 
very considerably, and without solicitation, added much 
to that sum." — Life of Bishop Leighton, p. xlviii. 

But I believe part of this statement is errone- 



highl}' praised by Sir "Wm. Dugdale in his Antiquities of 
Warwickshire, and in his Account of his own Life. But 
how that treasure of Records was wilfully burnt, about the 
year 1728 need not to be remembered here. That he was 
the author of the notes in this book (as he was of the 
like in many other books of our genealogical and topo- 
graphical antiquities) appears on page 35, and in oilier 
parts of the book, that he wrote them in the year 1G56, 
at which time he was seventy -seven years of age. He 
was born at Sherfield, near Bumtwood, in Essex, and 
died, it is probable, at Bramham Biggen aforesaid, before 
the Restoration." Oldys has also given a digest of Bur- 
ton's Leicestershire in the British Librarian, pp. 287 — 
299. 

* Langbaine in British Museum with Oldys's* MS. 
notes, p. 353. 

f With regard to the need of a new edition, see my 
Papers in "N. & Q.," 2»* S. vol. viii. pp. 41, 61, 507, 525. 
Cf. also vol. x. pp. 124, 213. 



4 



NOTES AND QUERIES. p*&w***«L 



ous, for Leighton left no money with the books, 
his means having been completely exhausted at 
the time of his death. His relatives and execu- 
tors, the Lightmakers, contributed to the expense 
of providing the necessary building, presses, and 
furniture for holding the books. They also pro- 
vided for the future support of the library by 
what the Scotch law terms " a Mortification " of 
300/. Of this sum, 100/. was, at later period, 
spent in repairs ; so that the interest of the re- 
maining 200/. constitutes at present the whole 
yearly income which the trustees have to expend. 

The library was opened in the year 1688, four 
years after the donor's death. The books were i 
accompanied by a catalogue written by the arch- 
bishop himself. There is a MS. copy 'of this 
catalogue among the treasures at Dunblane, to 
which is prefixed a short account of the donor 
and of his bequest. This MS. volume was drawn | 
up in July, 1691, under the superintendence of 
Robert Douglas, Bishop of Dunblane, and Gas- 
par Kellie, Dean of Dunblane. It is written in 
the Scotch vernacular, and entitled : " Register 
of the Bibliotheck within the Citie of Dunblane, 
founded by the Most Rev d Father in God, Doc- 
tor Robert Leightone, &c." After the catalogue 
of the books follows a list of the Abp.'s MSS. 
which is worth giving here, as it is very interest- 
ing in itself, and has never been printed : — 

"The Manuscripts of Bishop Lightone's which 
are in this house. 

"There came down with the Books a little Box con- 
taining some of the Bishop's MSS. written by himself; 
being a Collection of some special Sentences and Observes as 
he was pleased to note in his readings for his own use; writ- 
ten promiscuously in Greek, Latine, and French. 

" Another parcel of the Bishop's MSS. received by Dr. 
Fall, Principal of the College of Glasgow, from Mr. 
Edward Lightmaker of Broadhurst, the Bishop's nephew 
and executor, were delivered into this house, and are as 
follows : — 

1. Two Books in 8vo. containing Sermons. 

2. One Book in 4to. containing the sum of several Ser- 
mons. 

3. Some learned and pious Annotations on the Psalms. 

4. Short Meditations on the Book of Psalms. Except 
the first 18, and the last 5. 

5. Sermons on the First Epistle of St. John. 

6. Some devout Meditations on the First Nine Chap- 
ters of St. Matthew's Gospel. 

7. Some notes of Sermons preached on the 39th 
Psalm. 

8. Three Bundles of MSS. in long sheets containing 
notes of Sermons, and other collections. 

" There i3 also put up with these a MS. of Mr. Edward 
Lightmaker of Broadhurst anent the preservation of the 
Bishop's MSS. 

" All these foresaid MSS. together with the authentic 
catalogue under the Bishop's own hand are locked up in 
this house." 

When the property of the Church in Scotland 
was alienated, and the Cathedral of Dunblane 
was handed over to the Presbyterians, Abp. 
Leighton's library was placed in the hands of a 



mixed committee of Churchmen and Presbyte- 
rians. The following passage is an extract from 
the New Statistical Account of Scotland. Black- 
wood : Edinb. 1845, vol. x., " Perth : " — 

" After the full establishment of Presbytery, Mr. Light- 
maker constituted seven Trustees of the library, — the 
Visct. Strathallan, Sir James Patterson of Bannockburn, 
Sir James Campbell of Aberuchill, John Graham, Com- 
missary-Clerk of Dunblane, and their heirs male, the 
Minister of Dunblane, and two other beneficed clergy- 
men of the Presbytery of Dunblane, chosen by the Synod 
of Perth and Stirling. Various additions by will and 
purchase have been made to the books. 100/. of the 
mortified money have been expended on the repairs of 
j the house. About 700 volumes have been lost during 
the last fifty j-ears." * 

" The Presbytery Records of Dunblane extend back as 
far as 1616. The Record of the Episcopal Synod of Dun- 
blane from 1662 to 1688, is extant, comprehending the 
whole of Leighton's Episcopate. It might be interesting 
to some if published." 

The present trustees are the Hon. Capt. Drum- 
mond of Inchbrakie, Crieff; Sir James Campbell; 

Ramsay, Esq. of Barnton ; the Presbyterian 

Incumbent of Dunblane, and two other beneficed 
ministers. 

The bishop's palace was burned down in the 
troubled times which ushered in the Reformation, 
and was never inhabited by any of the reformed 
prelates. Its ruins are still to be seen to the 
south of the cathedral, both overhanging the 
River Allan. The library is said to be an un- 
doubted portion of the ancient deanery which 
Leighton lived in as his episcopal residence. 

The present trustees, notwithstanding their very 
limited means, have done much for the Library. 
One of them, who has for many years taken the 
most active part in the management of the Li- 
brary, tells me, that — 

" Within the last several year3 there has been some 
30/. odd laid out in rebinding the books; about 50/. laid 
out in new books ; and a Catalogue made of the books, 
which cost about 28/. And there was also a private sub- 
scription collected for putting the cases on the book- 
shelves, which I think came to nearly 38/." 

Under the former trustees, from all that I can 
gather, the Library seems to have been a sort of 
lumber-room, with the books lying about quite 
uncared for, and unprotected. 

The Catalogue referred to was " printed at 
Edinburgh, 1843." In the preface we are told : 

" The only printed Catalogue of the Library is dated 
1703. The present one has been compiled with greater 
attention to accuracy in regard to the titles of the books 
and the dates, under the direction of Messrs. Maclachlan, 
Stewart, & Co., Booksellers, Edinburgh." 

The present Librarian, Mr. Stewart, is an aged 
man who had been formerly the parish school- 
master. His salary as librarian is but 51. a-year. 
He is a faithful and zealous guardian of the books, 

* It is probable that these lost books were not all of 
them Leighton's, at least it is to be hoped not. 



3 rd s. i. Jan. 4, 'G2.] . ■ NOTES AND QUERIES. 



and is watchful lest they should be in any way 
lost or damaged. This is especially necessary and 
important when we remember that the books are 
lent out to any person who subscribes five shil- 
lings a-year. It is very satisfactory to know that 
the books are now really looked after; and, on 
the other hand, very sad to hear that until about 
twenty years ago the library was almost totally 
neglected, and sustained the serious loss of some 
seven hundred volumes within fifty years before 
that time. As Leighton's library is of a mediaeval 
character, containing a class of books little read 
in these days *, and not likely to be in request in 
a remote country place like Dunblane, the duties 
of a librarian there are of a simple and mechanical 
kind, not requiring a highly-educated and highly- 
qualified person. 

The library is a gloomy forlorn-looking room. 
The books are in very good condition internally, 
b«t are sadly in want of dusting, cleaning, and 
lettering on the back ; and, in some cases, of 
vamping and binding. It is greatly to be regret- 
ted that the little money in the hands of the 
trustees seems to have been laid out from time to 
time, not in preserving and rendering available 
Leighton's books, but in buying other books. 
These other books are all mixed up with Leigh- 
ton's, and usurp the necessary room. Thus many 
books I was anxious to see, and which were in 
the printed Catalogue, were not to be found when 
we came to look for them ; they were supposed 
to be lying amongst certain dusty and disorderly 
masses of books which lay behind the front rows 
on the shelves. Thus, I was unable to get a sight 
of St. Thos. a Kempis Opera Omnia, 1635 ; of an 
old English translation of the Theologia Ger- 
manica, and of several other works. The same 
confusion and mixture of books extends to the 
printed Catalogue ; in which, unfortunately, Leigh- 
ton's books are in no way separated or distin- 
guished from the books which have been after- 
wards added to the library.f This is in many 
respects much to be regretted : Leighton's books 
were the choicest works procurable in the age in 
which he lived, and afforded an interesting and 
characteristic memorial of his mind and judgment ; 
I they may be said also to have an historical in- 



* Witness Abp. Tenison's Library in London (recently 
dispersed), and Abp. Marsh's in Dublin ! 

f It has a strange and incongruous elFect to see mixed 
'[ up with Leighton's hooks, the writings of Hartley, Hel- 
vetius, Hoadley, Bolin^broke, Pope, Paley, Priest le v, 
Swift, Chesterfield, Conyers Middleton, Voltaire, Frede- 
rick the Great of Prussia, Rousseau, See; Bell on the 
Cow Pox, Colquhoun on Police, Harris's Mammon, Sec. &c. 
However, there is no difficulty in deciding about these, 
I as they are obviously out of place and out of date ; but 
I when we come to such a book as Thomas Adams of Wil- 
I lington's Exposition of the Second Epistle of St. Peter, 
if Lond. 1633, folio, we can find out that it is not one of 
1 Leighton's books, only by referring to the MS. Catalogue. 



terest and importance. In other respect?, this 
Catalogue is^unsatisfactory and inaccurate. Thai, 
it does not contain the library in its integrity 
as it came from the hands of Leighton, but 
only the books at present to be found ; and even 
in this respect it does not seem to be quite ac- 
curate, for I came accidentally upon the book 
which Leighton, next to his Bible, prized most 
highly of all his treasures — his favourite copy 
of his favourite book — viz. a miniature edition 
of the De Imifatione Christi, evidently his pocket 
companion, which he carried about with him 
everywhere : scored throughout with pencil marks, 
and with the fly-leaves all written over, — yet 
this little volume was not in the Catalogue. 
The title is wanting, but it is apparently Ros- 
weyd's miniature edition of Colon. Agrip. 1622. 
The Catalogue, moreover, mentions the year ; but 
not the place in which each book was printed. 
Besides, it does not give a list of the MSS. be- 
queathed along with the books, or of those still 
extant. Again, we have such entries as that of 
De Vargas' work on the Jesuit Order, which is 
described as Relatio de Stratagcmatis Politicis 
Societatis — the distinctive word "Jesu" being 
omitted ; a work of Bp. Taylors on the H. Kucha' 
rist is described as " Real Presence and Spiritual 
of Christ in the Sepulchre, 8vo, 1654;" the 
Mystical Theology of a certain Father John, a 
Carmelite Friar, is entered under Maria, — 
" Maria Theologia Mystica" and there are several 
other similar blunders. 

I have reason to believe that Abp. Leighton 
and his Works are beginning to be better known, 
and more appreciated, in this country than for- 
merly ; and I have little doubt but that a fund 
could be easily raised to carry out the most ne- 
cessary and desirable reforms with regard to the 
library ; and, at the same time, that the trustees 
would readily sanction and forward such mea- 
sures, if provided with the necessary funds. The 
measures which seem to me most necessary and 
desirable are : — 

1. To have Leighton's books carefully separated 
from the others, and kept by themselves. To give 
them ample room, and to have them placed in an 

! orderly and available manner on the shelves. 

2. To have the books dusted, cleaned, lettered 
on the back, and repaired or bound as they re- 

j quire. Most of them want little more than to be 
| brightened up, and have lettered leather labels on 
j the back. 

3. To have a careful and accurate Catalogue 
! drawn up of all the books, in alphabetical order. 
, The lost books might be distinguished by an 
j asterisk.* Any books that have been added to 

* One of the trustees of the library, when I made this 
J suggestion, thought it right in principle, but expressed a 
fear that the Catalogue would thereby " shine by the 
j light of too great a multitude of stars." 



G 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3«> S. I. Jan. 4, 5 G2. 



the library, might be given in a separate Appen- 
dix. After Leighton's books, to print an accurate 
list of the MSS. originally sent along with the 
books ; distinguishing any that have been lost. 
It would be desirable also, to prefix to the Cata- 
logue the account of Abp. Leighton and of the 
bequest, which is prefixed to the MS. Catalogue, 
and which has never been printed. Such a Cata- 
logue, well edited, and with a suitable introduc- 
tion, would command a general (though, of course, 
not a popular) sale, and pay its own expenses. 

4. If the MS. Common-place Book of Abp. 
Leighton can be found, which is enumerated in 
the list of MSS. which came along with the books 
to Dunblane, it would be well to print it. A 
very interesting supplementary work might be 
compiled by having all the sentences, apothegms, 
&c, which Leighton wrote in his books, tran- 
scribed and printed under the heading of the 
books in which they were written. To make this 
work available and interesting to the general 
reader, translations might be subjoined, and a 
careful Index might be appended to complete the 
book. Besides the value which such a work would 
have in itself as a collection of choice extracts 
gathered by a man of such profound learning and 
spiritual discernment, as well as exquisite judg- 
ment — and besides its value as a relic of so 
saintly and revered a bishop — it would doubtless 
be of great use to a careful editor, and help to 
illustrate and enrich Leighton's Works; verify- 
ing many references, and leading to the restora- 
tion and identification of many quotations at 
present mixed up with the text. 

5. It would be desirable to print the Record of 
the Episcopal Synod of Dunblane, from 1662 to 
1688 ; which is still extant, and which compre- 
hends the whole of Leighton's episcopate, as well 
as that of his successor. 

I may here mention, in concluding these sug- 
gestions, that I have heard of a MS. History of 
Dunblane Cathedral, written by a Presbyterian 
minister named M c Gregor; who died in Dun- 
blane, or its neighbourhood, not very many years 
ago. 

For the sake of persons interested in the sub- 
ject, I may refer to the Rev. J. W. Burgon's de- 
lightful Memoir of Patrick Fraser Tytler, Lond. 
1859 ; in which we have an account of a visit Mr. 
Tytler paid to Abp. Leighton's library at Dun- 
blane in 1837 : — 

" In his pocket diary, against August 9th, there is the 
following entry : — ' Passed a sweet day at Dunblane, in 
dear Leighton's library.' And, on the 14th, 4 went again 
to Dunblane.' This visit, I remember, delighted him 
much ; and he brought away an interesting memorial of 
it, by transcribing the abundant notes with which Leigh- 
ton has enriched * his copy of Herbert's Poems. That 



* I believe sonr.e one of Herbert's editors, or admirers, 
deceived perhaps by the above statement, obtained a 



saintly man seems to have delighted in the practice of 
writing Sentences from the Fathers, and short pious 
Apothegms in his books; several of which Tytler also 
transcribed, and, some years after, showed me." — P. 250. 

I may add also, that about two years ago, 
Archdeacon Allen published a short letter in The 
Guardian Newspaper (vol. xiv. p. 768), in which 
he gave some account of a visit he paid to Dun- 
blane, and quoted some of the sentences which 
Leighton had written in his books. I mention 
these instances, and could add others*, to show that 
there is a more general appreciation of Leighton 
than formerly, and an increasing love and vener- 
ation for that 

" Dear, loved, revered, and honoured name, 
Whose sound awakes Devotion's flame." f 

Any persons wishing to contribute to the Fund, 
or to co-operate in the measures above proposed, 
will perhaps kindly communicate with me on the 
subject. 

As soon as I get the requisite aid, I shall at 
once, with the sanction of the trustees, and the 
help of some competent bookseller, such as Mr. 
Stillie or Mr. Stevenson of Edinburgh, get an 
accurate catalogue made of all the books bearing 
date not later than 1684 ; and also a transcript of 
the MS. catalogue with the memoir prefixed, and 
then prepare them for the press. The MS. cata- 
logue does not contain the dates or full titles of 
the books, and gives the books in the order in 
which they were originally set up in the several 
presses and shelves. I counted the volumes enu- 
merated in the MS., and they amounted to 1 390, 
besides a number of " Slight Pieces, Little Trea- 
tises, Single Sermons, &c, put up in six bun- 
dles," amounting to 149, making a total of 1539 
articles. I hope shortly in another Note to give 
a cursory survey of the contents of the library. 
Let me say in conclusion that I received much- 
courtesy and kindness from the Trustees and all 
persons connected with the library at Dunblane, 
as well as from the Presbyterian and Episcopal 
incumbents. Eirionnach. 



TOLAND. 

Among some extracts which I made when I 
was at Lambeth, I find a notice of this writer, 



transcript of these " abundant notes " ; however, he must 
have been disappointed, as I can testify that the afore- 
said notes have no connexion with Herbert's Poems. The 
Archbishop, according to his wont, merely used the fly- 
leaves as a Common-place Book. 

* E. g. See Mr. Bruce's preface to the Calendar of 
State Papers, Domestic Series, of the Reign of Charles I. 
1628-29. Lond. 1859. See also a remarkable volume of 
poems entitled: The Bishop's Walk, and the Bishop's 
Times. Poems on the Days of Abp. Leighton and the 
Scottish Covenant. By Orwell. Macmillan, 1861. 

t From some lines by Mrs. Grant of Laggan, written 
after a visit to Dunblane. 



3** S. t Jan. 4, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



7 



which may perhaps be worthy of a place in " N. 
& Q." It occurs in a letter from Dr. Charlett 
to Arehbp. Tenison, dated from University Col- 
lege Oct. 25, 1695, that is, when Toland was 
about five or six-and-twenty years old : — 

" As to Mr. Tulons [sic] behaviour, it was so publick 
and notorious here, that the late Vice-Chancellor ordered 
him to depart this place, w ch he accordingly promised to 
do, and did for some time, but afterwards in y° V-C ri 
absence returned. Evidence was then offered upon 
Oath, of his Trampling on y« Common prayer book, 
talking against the Scriptures, commending Common- 
wealths, justifying the murder of K. C. l u , railing against 
Priests in general, with a Thousand other Extravagancys 
as his common Conversation. His behaviour was the 
same in Scotland and Holland, where he quarrelled with 
the Professors. He had the vanity here to own himselfe 
a spy upon ye University, and insinuated that he re- 
ceaved Pensions from some great men, and that his cha- 
racters of Persons here were the only measures followed 
above: This insolent carriage made him at last con- 
temptible, both to y e Scholars and ToAvnsmen. I was 
always apt to Fancy, he would appear at last to be a 
Papist. He pretended to great Intrigues and correspon- 
dencys, and by that means abused the names of some 
very great Men. He boasted much of the young L d 
Ashtly Cooper— how he had framed him and that he 
should outdo his Grand Father in all his glorious de- 
signs. — At his going away he pretended some consider- 
able office would force him to declare himselfe of some 
church very speedily, and that He should be a Member 
of Parliament, and then should have an opportunity of 
being revenged on Priests and Universitys. When he 
came down first he promised himself very many dis- 
coverys from y e freedom of my conversation, but before 
I came from London, he had so exposed himselfe, that a 
very worthy Person M r Kennet, who was to introduce 
him to my acquaintance gave me timely Caution, so 
that I saw him but once at my door and ever afterwards 
he reputed me among his worst enemies, for which he 
vowed revenge : M r Creech and M r Gibson, whom he 
courted much, very little valued his Learning to which 
he so much pretended, however I presume he might have 
done well eno, in case he could have commanded his 
temper, which is so very violent as to betray him in all 
places and Couutrys he has been in. I beg your Pardon 
for this Length, and humbly thank you for the Approba- 
tion of our Music which my Friend M r Pepys very much 
admires. I humbly beg leave to remain your Grace's 
most Dutifull Servant, Ar. Charlett." 

S. R. Maitland. 



AMERICA BEFORE COLUMBUS? 

u La majestd de grands souvenirs semble coucentreo 
sur le nom de Christophe Colomb. C'est Toriginalitc de 
sa vaste conception, l'ctendue et la mcondite' de son ge'nie, 
le courage oppose a de longues infortunes qui ont eleve 
l'amiral au-dessus de tous ses contemporains." — Alex- 
andre de Humboldt. 

An anonymous adventurer in the bewitching 
path of discovery has prevailed on Mr. Sylvanus 
Urban to give publicity to some very curious 
speculations in an essay entitled America, before 
Columbus. 

The essayist almost doubts the existence of 
Christoforo Colombo of Genoa, and seems inclined 
to transform him into one Christopher of Cologne, 



but as that speculation is expressed with provok- 
ing obscurity, it would be a waste of time to com- 
ment on it. 

His tangible arguments in refutation of the 
current opinion on the discovery of America, and 
on the merits of Columbus, are 1. The cartogra- 
phic evidence, dated in 143G, of the existence of 
an island in the Atlantic named Brasile ; and 2. 
The assumption that Brasil wood was imported 
into Italy, and paid tax at the gates of Modena, in 
1306 ; also, into England, paying tax at the gates 
of London, in 1279, in 1453, etc. He thence in- 
fers that " a regular trade with central America 
had been going on for some two centuries before 
the first voyage of Christopher of Cologne." lie 
means, no doubt, Christoforo Colombo alias El 
almirante D. Cristobal Colon. 

As the arguments are quite distinct, I shall 
assign to each a separate examination, and in the 
order above indicated. 

1. The chart of Andrea Bianco, dated in 1436, 
was in part published by Vincenzio Formaleoni, at 
Venice, in 1783. In the Atlantic Ocean, and in 
the parallel of Lisbon, appears a nameless group 
of islands — undoubtedly the Azores ! One of the 
islands is named Corbo =■ Isla del Cuervo, and 
another Y a de Zan Zorzi = Isla de San Jorge. 
The island named Y a de Brasil is Tercera : " Por 
la mediania y en lo mas meridional de esta Isla," 
says D. Vicente Tofino, "se eleva el monte del 
Brasil, bastante alto y tajado a pique hacia el 
mar." 

Now, the question is — Did the S. American 
Brasil give its name to the Isla de Brasil? I 
cannot discover an argument in favour of such a 
conclusion. Brasil was not an aboriginal name, 
nor was it the earliest name imposed on the pro- 
vince. A manuscript work, described by Antonio 
de Leon in 1629, was entitled Santa- Cruz, pro- 
vincia de la America Meridional, dicha vulgar- 
mente el Brasil; and the learned Isidoro de 
Antillon, in his Carta esf erica del Oceano Atluntico^ 
published at Madrid in 1802, writes Brasil 6 
\ Trra de Sta Cruz. To conclude — inverting the 
: order of time — Antonio de Herrera, Coronista 
mayor de las Indias, affirms that Brasil was for- 
, merly named Tierra de Santa Cruz, and enume- 
i rates as articles of its produce " algodon, y palo de 
I brasil, que es el que la dio el nombre." 
! 2. The inference that " trade with central 
j America had been going on for some two centuries 
before the first voyage of Columbus " remains for 
I examination. 

The essayist is too modest. By adopting the 
| mode of argument which he pursues, I can soon 
prove that the trade in question had been carried 
on for more than four centuries before the first 
voyage of Columbus ! I require one concession. 
Admit that brasil and brasd-wood are synony- 
mous terms — on which point the Promptorhun 



8 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 f d s. I. Jan. 4, '62. 



parvulorum is my voucher — and the rest is mere 
transcription : — 

" Leges regis Edwardi Confessoris. De Lon- 
donia. VIII. Mercator itaque foranus, postquam civi- 
tatem introierit, quocumque placuerit ei hospitetnr. Sed 
videat etc. — Et si piper vel cuminum vel gingiber vel 
alumen vel brasit vel laco vel thus attulerit, non minus 
quam xxv. libras si mill vendat," — Ancient laivs and in- 
stitutes of England, 8vo, i. 463. 

" Brezilh, s. m. bresil, sorte d'arbre. 
Anet trobar 
Grana et roga e brezilh. 

Evang. de VEnfance. 
II alia trouver ecarlate et garance et bresil. 
No fassa mescla de bresil 
ni de rocha am grana. 

Cartulaire de Montpellier, fol. 192. 
Qu'il lie fasse melange de bresil ni de garance avec 
ecarlate. 

Cat. ESP. Brasil It Brasile. 
II est reconnu que le Bresil, contree de l'Amerique 
nie'ridionale, fut ainsi nomme par les Europeens a- cause 
de la grande quantite de bresils qu'on y trouva." 

J.-M. Raynouard, Lexique Roman, ii. 258. 

In the document of 1279, as printed by the 
essayist, and in the document of 1453, as printed 
by Mr. Heath, we have four articles — brasil, 
quicksilver, vermilion, and verdegris >— in the very 
same order ! I conclude, from that circumstance, 
that many similar instances are on record, and 
wish Mr. DufFus Hardy would set the matter at 
rest. 

The writer who censures an unsound theory, 
should he effect its demolition, is not bound to 
provide a substitute for it — but he may attempt 
it, and run the chance of recrimination. 

By the narrative of Herrera, published in 1591, 
we learn that the nine islands which compose the 
group of the Azores were not named at random. 
Tercera was so named because it was the third is- 
land discovered. Santa Maria was so named be- 
cause it was discovered on the day of her com- 
memoration. San Jorge and San Miguel were so 
named for similar reasons. Fayal was so named on 
account of its beech-trees; Pico, from its shape; 
Graciosa, from its cheerful aspect ; Flores, from 
the richness of its vegetation ; and Cuervo, from 
its cormorants. 

Now, whence came the earlier name of Tercera 
— Isla de Brasil? The island is volcanic, and I 
conceive it to have taken its name from brasa = 
red-hot charcoal, or from brazal — brasier, or 
from bresil — a red wood. The essayist may 
choose whichever he prefers. 

I make no pretensions to discovery on this 
occasion. The notion that brasil-wood derives its 
name from the transatlantic Brasil was refuted 
by Bishop Huet, whose arguments on that point 
were printed in 1722 ; and Mr. Tyrwhitt, the 
learned editor of The Canterbury Tales of Chau- 
cer, produced unanswerable evidence to the same 
effect in 1778. Nevertheless, the evidence now 



given, being of earlier date than any which has 
been quoted in this controversy, may interest 
many readers ; and it seems to me that the ques- 
tion should not be passed over in a journal de- 
voted to the establishment of historic truth. 

Bolton Cornet. 

Barnes, S.W. 

i THE " COTGREAVE " FORGERIES OF THE 
LATE W. S. SPENCE. 

I believe that the Editor of " N". & Q." will 
render good service to the cause of historical 
truth, and save many a future fellow- worker in 
the field of genealogy a vast amount of labour 
and confusion, if he will allow me to re-caution 
the public as to these fabrications, and give some 
additional information respecting them. As I 
know them to be much more numerous than one 
would imagine, when the clumsy compilation of 
their author is considered, and the great facilities 
that exist for verifying such matters, and as, 
moreover, they have deceived many persons who 
have actually reproduced them in works of other- 
wise undoubted authority, the importance of my 
Note will not, I think, be questioned. 

The subject was first mooted by Mr. Dixon, of 
Seaton Carew, who in a letter ("N. & Q." 1 st S. 

ix. 221) sought such information as would enable 
him to authenticate, or otherwise, the account of 
his family (Dixon, of Beeston), offered, for a pe- 
cuniary consideration, by William Sidney Spence 
of Birkenhead, whose letter thereon he appends. 
This brought replies (id. pp. 275 — 6) from Lord 
Monson, Mr. Evelyn Shirley, M.P., G.A.C., 
and the Editor of " N. & Q.," which satisfac- 
torily proved not only the fictitious character of 
the Dixon pedigree by Mr. Spence, but that his 
genealogical researches had not been exclusively 
confined to that family. The Note of P. P. (vol. 

x. 255) discloses two other instances of his dis- 
honest and injurious practices. 

In my investigations with respect to the Welsh 
branch of my family, I received a long time since 
some papers belonging to the late Mr. Tucker- 
Edwardes of Sealyham, co. Pembroke, which 
property was conveyed by the marriage of Cathe- 
rine Tucker, the heiress, with his grandfather : 
amongst these I found a Tucker pedigree from 
the " Cotgreave Papers," which I at once recog- 
nised as the work of Spence : indeed, had I not 
previously known of his frauds, I should immedi- 
ately have perceived the pretended facts to be in- 
correct ; but beyond assuring the present members 
of Mr. Tucker-Edwardes' family that it was a 
forgery, I did not then take any further trouble 
in the matter : I, however, subsequently found 
out that 51. had been paid for this trash, and, 
worse still, that it had been accepted as genuine 
by the late Mr. Joseph Morris, of Shrewsbury (a 



8"» S. I. Jan. 4, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



9 



gentleman very well informed in Welsh pedigrees) 
and Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick, who had actually 
appended it as a note to the Tucker pedigree in 
his edition of Lewys Dwnn's Visitation! I then 
thought the matter worthy some notice* as Sir 
Samuel's books are now and ever will be received 
and quoted with credit, and therefore at once set 
about so far returning Mr. Spence's compliment 
as to trace his pedigree and his fruitful source of 
information, the " Cotgreave Papers." The first 
I found to be far less honourable than many he 
has drawn, and the latter I found not at all, 
existing, as they did, in his imagination only. 

The late Sir John Cotgreave (formerly a Mr. 
Johnson, who assumed his more aristocratic sur- 
name by virtue of being descended from the 
family), was knighted as Mayor of Chester in 
1816, "on the marriage of the Princess Char- 
lotte." He married twice : by his first wife (Miss 
Cross) he had no issue, but by his second, a dress- 
maker, Miss Harriett Spence, he had children 
both before and after marriage. Sir John died 
1836: his widow survived till 1848. William 
Sidney Spence was her brother. I have not dis- 
covered, nor is it material, whether or not Lady 
Cotgreave connived at or derived benefit by the 
forgeries of her brother, or attested them, as he 
asserted : it is clear, however, that his pedigrees 
before 1848 (when she died) are verified by the 
signature of " Harriet " Cotgreave, and those 
subsequently by " Ellen" Cotgreave, the "Miss" 
C. whose attestation he offered in all cases after 
his sister's death. It is not a little singular that 
while I was actually engaged in my investigations 
with regard to Spence, his " ruling passion strong 
in death" manifested itself in another hideous 
appearance of his trickery, to taunt me in my 
work, and, as it proved, to spur me to more 
6peedy action : I had occasion to trace the de- 
scent of a manor lately inherited by a friend and 
neighbour, who, to assist me, sent a bundle, 
labelled " Pedigree papers," belonging to the late 
Squire (Pudsey). A motley collection I found 
them. First, the original parchment roll of 
Registers of the next parish from 1561 to 1729 
i (which I at once restored to the Incumbent), 
' then some old accounts, and lastly, a glowing his- 
' tory of the Pudseys, furnished by Mr. Spence ! 
a My friend was quite " taken out of conceit" when 
!' he heard the value I placed on the information in 
)t his " bundle," but it tended to show how whole- 
i" sale a business Spence conducted with his " Cot- 
fl" greave Papers." Had he confined his victimising 
$ to guileless country squires, or to those who, as 
& Lord Monson writes, gladly accept and pay for 
ols flattering notices of their ancestry on Count 
d Hamilton's maxim, that " On croit facilement ce 
iA qu'on souhaite," he would probably have found 
jne more dupes ; but in addressing his lies to either 
(a that nobleman (Lord Monson), or Mr. Shirley, 



— both eminent genealogists, and perfectly con- 
versant with every detail of their descent — he (I 
trust they will forgive me for figuratively saying) 
" caught a Tartar." 

I court, therefore, additions to the numerous 
instances already known to me of the existence 
of Spence's fraudulent pedigrees, to the end that 
a list may, with the Editor's approval, be here- 
after recorded in "N. & Q." for the warning of 
present and future genealogists, and references 
made to such works where they have been ac- 
cepted and quoted. S. T. 

Minor ®att$. 

Cowell's Interpreter condemned. — Having 
in my hand the other day a proclamation, printed 
in 1610, by Robert Barker, being in fact the 
identical proclamation produced and read in evi- 
dence on the trial of Abp. Laud, 13th March, 
1643-4, I made the following extract therefrom, 
relative to this work : — 

" The proof whereof wee have lately had by a booke 
written by Doctour Cowell, called The Interpreter: for 
hee being only a civilian by profession, and upon that 
large ground of a kinde of Dictionary (as it were) follow- 
ing the alphabet, having all kind of purposes belonging 
to government and monarchie in his way, by medling iu 
matters above his reach, he hath fallen in many things 
to mistake, and deceive himself. In some thinges dis- 
puting so nicely upon the history of this monarchic, that 
it may receive doubtfull interpretations: yea, in some 
points very derogatory to the supreme power of this 
crowne. In other cases, mistaking the true state of the 
parliament of this kingdome to the fundamental! consti- 
tutions and priviledges thereof, and in some other points 
speaking irreverently of the common law of England, 
and of the workes of some of the most ancient and fa- 
mous judges therein; it being a thing utterly unlawfull 
to any subject to speak or write against that lawe under 
which he liveth, and which we are sworne and are re- 
solved to maintaine." 

Ithuriel. 

A Note to the "Voyages of Sir Francis 
Drake and Sir Thomas Cavendish." — In the 
Journal of the first voyage of the Dutch, as a 
nation, to the East Indies, under the command of 
Jan Jansz. Molenaer and Cornelis Houtman, 
from April, 1595, to August, 1597, there occur 
the following passages : — 

"As our fleet was lying off Balembuang on Jan. 22, 
1597, a nobleman of the insularies came on board ; and 
informed us, amongst other particulars, that the father of 
the present King of Balembuang was still living (a very 
old man), and then residing in the interior. Now, as our 
informant furthermore remembered a ship of the same 
shape as ours, which had visited the port some ten years 
before, we concluded that this old man was the identical 
person spoken of by Sir Thomas Candish, in his Voyages, 
as then past 150 years of age." 

And further : — 

" Between whiles (on the 9th of February 1597) our 
ship Mauritius had anchored in the bay of PadaDg, 



10 



where we were told by the natives that, eighteen years 
ago, just such men as we had been on shore, who had cut 
a piece of cable in jive or six parts, and afterwards had 
joined them again into a whole. We conjectured these to 
have been Sir Francis Drake and his fellows." 

John H. van Lennep. 

Zeyst, near Utrecht. 

The Saturday Half-Holiday. — Some of the 
advocates of the Saturday half-holiday may not 
be aware that they have in their favour an un- 
repealed law of King Canute : — 

" Let every Sunday's feast be held from Saturday's 
noon to Monday's dawn." (" Healde raon ajlus Sunnan- 
dages freolsunge fram Saternesdages none Monandages 
lihtinge.") — See Thorpe's Ancient Laws and Institutes of 
England, " Laws of Cnut," i. 14. 

F. M. N. 

Petronius Arbiter. -— 

1. "Heu, Heu, quotidie pejus: haec Colonia retrouersus 
crescit, tanquam coda vituli." — Satyr, c. xliv. p. 125, edit. 
Anton. 

Is our vulgar expression, to "grow downwards 
like a cow's tail," fetched from this passage ; or is 
it merely a curious undesigned coincidence ? 

2. " Triraalchio . . . basiavit puerum, ac iussit supra 
dorsum ascendere suum. Non moratur ille, usus equo, 
manuque plena scapulas eius subinde verberavit, interque 
visum proclamavit: (Croesus) buccte! buccse! quot sunt 
hie?"— Satyr, c. lxiv. pp. 191, 2, edit. Anton. 

Is this the original of our nursery game, where 
one child stands behind another who shuts his 
eyes, while the former holds up some of his 
fingers, and cries, " Buck ! buck ! how many 
horns do I hold up ? " and repeats the perform- 
ance until the number is guessed ? Deeniel. 

Armorial Glass, temp. James I. — In Sir 
William Heyrick's accompt book, under the year 
1612, I find the following item : — 

"Paid to Butler for the King's armes, the Goldsmith's 
armes, and the Citties armes, and my YVife's 3/. 5s. Orf." 

Sir William Heyrick then had houses at Beau- 
manor in Leicestershire, at Richmond in Surrey, 
and in Cheapside. I imagine these arms were 
for the last : and that they were probably in 
stained glass for his windows. The entry fur- 
nishes only another example of a very common 
usage in the erection by a citizen of the arms of 
his sovereign, his company, and the city ; but as 
little is known of our old glass-painters, it may 
be worth while to note the name of Butler. 

J. G. N. 



WELLS CITY SEALS AND THEIR SYMBOLS. 

The city of Wells is well known to have de- 
rived its name from the remarkable springs near 
the eastern end of the Cathedral there. The 
principal spring has been, from the earliest times, 



known as " St. Andrew's Well." The quantity 
of water rising in these springs is very large, the 
whole of which is discharged into the moat which 
surrounds the Bishop's Palace, except that por- 
tion wHich flows through pipes to the great con- 
duit in the market place, near the site of the 
ancient high cross. This right to the water, as 
well as the conduit, was the gift of Bishop Thomas 
Beckington, a.d. 1451. The town was incorpo- 
rated by Bishop Robert (1135 — 1165), whose 
Charter was confirmed, and the privileges granted 
by it increased by Bishops Reginald Fitz Joce- 
lyne and Savaric. King John gave the city its 
first royal Charter, Sept. 7th, in the third year of 
his reign. There were numerous other charters 
granted by succeeding kings and queens ; one of 
the latest and most important and valuable was 
by Queen Elizabeth in the thirty-first year of 
her reign. 

There are three different seals belonging to 
the Corporation. The earliest is circular in form, 
and of silver ; in size about the same as the half- 
crown piece. On it is a tree, which appears to 
be standing on a spring of water, and at the root 
is a fish, which a bird seems about to seize. In 
the branches of the tree are other birds," appa- 
rently of a smaller kind. On each side of the 
tree is a figure of a human head, one of which, I 
believe, is intended to represent St. Peter, and 
the other St. Andrew, the latter being the patron 
saint of the cathedral. The legend on the seal is 
much worn, but may be read thus, — " Sigillvm 
Seneschalli Comvnitatis Bvrgi Wellise." Among 
the Corporation records is a document with an 
impression of this seal appended to it, dated in 
1316. This, until about a hundred years ago, 
was used by the mayor for the time being, and was 
called the mayor's seal. After this it wns used 
by the " Justice," i. e. the person who had served 
the office of mayor, and as such is justice of the 
peace for one year after he ceases to hold office. I 

The second seal is in two parts, obverse and 
reverse, and nearly two inches in diameter. The 
material is a kind of bell-metal, sometimes, in 
early documents, I believe, called Laten. On 
one of the sides, a tree is represented as growing 
over a spring of water, in which is a fish about f 
to be seized by a large bird. Another bird ap- I 
pears to be flying down from the tree, and a third 
at the edge of the spring, both seeming also to 
be locking towards the fish. In the branches of 
the tree are other smaller birds. - On the other 
side of the seal, an ancient building with three 
gables, apparently a church, is represented. InJ 
the centre under an arch, is the figure of a man. j 
On the centre gable is a head surrounded by a 
nimbus, and on the other gables are other heads,l 
one apparently intended to represent the sun. andi 
the second the moon. The building is raised on 
three arches, under which a stream of water seem» 



3'd S. I. Jan. 4, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



11 



to be running. Round the edge of the last men- 
tioned side of the seal is the following legend : — 
H Sigillvm Commvne Bvrgi Wellie," and on the 
other side, " Andrea Famvlos More Tvere (Tuere) 
Tvos (Tuos)." There is an existing document, 
with this seal attached, dated in 1315. The third 
seal is also of silver, and oval in shape. This is 
modern, having been given to the corporation for 
the use of the mayor, in the year 1754, soon after 
which the' use of the first-mentioned seal was 
abandoned by the mayor, as before stated. The 
legend on this seal is " Hoc Fonte derivata in 
Patriam Populumque fiuit " (probably suggested 
by two lines in Horace) — 

"... Hoc fonte derivata clades 
In Patriam, populumque fluxit." 

The armorial bearings of the city are described 
by Edmondson as follows : — " Per fess argent 
and vert, a tree proper, issuant from the fesse 
line : in base three wells, two and one, masoned, 
gules." The same authority, in speaking of the 
ancient arms of the city, says : — 

" I am doubtful whether the arms of this city are such 
as are here blazoned ; as on a strict inquiry made in that 
city, I could not find the blazon or description of any 
arms that belonged thereto. The Corporation seal, which 
is very ancient, represents a tree, from the root whereof 
runs a spring of water: on the sinister side thereof stands 
a stork, picking up a fish ; on the dexter side of the tree 
is another bird, resembling a Cornish Chough." 

The arms, as blazoned by Edmondson, were 
obtained, I believe, at the time when Queen 
Elizabeth's Charter was granted, as they are not 
noticed in the city records before that date. 

Probably some light would be thrown on the 
subject by referring to the Heralds' Visitations, 
one of which is thus noticed in the Corporate 
proceedings, 23rd August, 21 James I. : — 

"This day motion was made by Mr. Maior that the 
King's Majesties Heralds have required this Corporation 
to show their antient Charters and liberties, and the 
Amies of this citie, and to have the same entered into 
theire booke made for that purpose: whervppon it is 
condiscinded that the saide Heralds shall see the Char- 
ters and both the Seales, viz. the Corporacoti Seale. and 
the Maior's; and it is agreed that the Receiver shall pay 
vnto them xl', whiche was taken out of the Chest in 
tho little purse, in whiche ther is left £xii xviii*." 

If any of the readers of "N". & Q." can give 
any particulars from the Heralds Visitation just 
referred to, I shall be obliged, and particularly I 
am most desirous of knowing the real meaning 
of the symbolical representation on the old seals 
of the fishes and birds. I may observe, that it 
has been suggested by a gentleman learned in 
such matters, that the fish is symbolical of the 
Saviour, and the birds of souls of the departed. 

Ina. 



Avignon Inscriptions. — Avignon was twice 
the residence of the exiled Royal family of Eng* 



land. James III. (the old Pretender) held his 
court there for some time, and thither his son 
Charles retired after the defeat of Culloden. It 
is probable that in the burial grounds of that 
city, and its neighbour hood, are to be found me- 
morials of some of their followers. Any reader of 
"N. & Q." who happens to wander thus far, would 
be doing good service by transcribing these re- 
mains, if such there be. Edward Peacock. 

Passage in Bossuet. — In one of Alexis de 
Tocqueville's letters to Mad. Swetchine, dated 
Sept. 1856, he refers to a passage from Bossuet 
quoted by the latter — at the same time expressing 
his surprise at his never having met with it. I 
have searched in vain to find it, but without suc- 
cess. Perhaps some of your readers can give me 
the reference ? The passage is as follows : — 

" Je ne sais, Seigneur, si vous etes content de moi, et je 
reconnais meme que vous avez bien des sujets de ne 
letre pas. Mais pour moi, je dois cont'esser h votre gloire 
que je suis content de vous, et que je le suis parf'aite- 
ment. II vous importe peu que je le sois ou non. Mais 
apres tout, e'est le te'moignage 1c plus glorieux que je 
puisse vous rendre; car dire que je suis content de vous, 
e'est dire que vous etes mon Dieu, puisqu'il n'y a qu'un 
Dieu qui puisse me contenter." 

Lionel J. Robinson. 

Audit Office. 

English Ambassadors to France. — I request 
to be informed who were our ambassadors to 
France during a part of the reign of George III. 
(with the exact date of their several appoint- 
ments), beginning with John Frederick Sackville, 
Duke of Dorset, K.G., till the time when M. 
Chauvelin, the minister from France, was chasse 
by our government early in 1793, and when, I 
conclude, our ambassador, Granville Leveson, Earl 
Gower, K.G. (postea Marquis of Stafford), with- 
drew, and all amicable relations between the two 
countries ceased for the time. My principal ob- 
ject is to ascertain who was our minister-residen- 
tiary in Paris on the 14th July, 1789, the epoch 
from which all the French date their Revolution 
(la prise de la Bastille). Permit me to add, I 
have consulted Beatson's Political Index, and have 
not succeeded in the object of my inquiry. Jlis 
list, I suspect, is incomplete for the above period. 

Secundum Ordinem. 

EriGRAMS ON THE PorES OF ROME, ETC. — A 

friend lately mentioned to me that there was pub- 
lished about six years since a collection of epi- 
grams on the Popes of Rome, including both the 
pre- And post' reformation ones. What is the title 
of the collection, and publisher's name ? Is there 
any list of similar works ? Aiken Irvine. 

Fivemiletown. 

A Giant found at St. Bees. — In Jefferson's 
History and Antiquities of Allcrdale Above Der- 
icent, 1 find the following curious account of the 
discovery of the remains of a giant at St. Bees 



12 



NOTES AND QUERIES. im$.iamim- 



Cumberland, extracted from a MS. in the li- 
brary of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle : — 

"A true report of Hugh Hodson of Thorneway, in 
Cumberland to S r Bob. Cewell (qy. Sewell) of a gyant 
found at St. Bees in Cumberland. The said Gyant was 
buried 4 yards deep in the ground, w ch is now a corn 
field. It was 4 yards and a half long, and was in com- 
plete armour: his sword and his battle axe lying by 
him. His sword was two spans broad and more than 
two yards long. The head of his battle axe a yard long, 
the shaft of it all of iron, as thick as a man's thigh, 
and more than two yards long. His teeth were 6 inches 
long and 2 inches broad ? ; his forehead was more than 
two spans and a half broad. His chine bone could con- 
taine 3 pecks of oat meale. His armour, sword, and 
battle-axe are at Mr. Sands of Redington (Rottington), 
and at Mr. VVybers of St. Bees."— Machel MSS. vol. vi. 

Can you or any of your correspondents give 
any further information upon the subject? Is 
any of his armour still in existence? Or did 
the information exist only in the imagination of 
" Hugh Hodson." Henry. 

Cumberland. 

Italian Proverbs. — I shall feel obliged if any 
of your readers will explain the allusions to local 
or national peculiarities referred to in the follow- 
ing proverbs : -— 

1.. " All' amico mondagli il fico, 
AH' inimico il persico." 

2. " A Lucca ti vidi, a Pisa ti connobbi." 

3. " Egli ha fatto come quel Perugino, che subito che 
gli fa rotto il capo, corse a casa per la celata." 

4. " Piii pazzi che quei da Zago, che davan del letame 
al campanile perche crescesse." 

And the probable date of this one : — 

5. " L' Inglese italianizzato 

Un diavolo incarnato." 

With regard to proverb 1, I can suggest two 
explanations : — 

1. In Italy the fig is considered the most whole- 
some and the peach the most unwholesome fruit. 

But, qucere, is this the fact ? or 

2. It is easy enough to peel a peach, but very 
difficult to perform the same operation on a fig. 

And perhaps proverb 2 may have some con- 
nection with a story that is told by Horace Wal- 
pole, of a person recognizing in London an 
acquaintance which he had made in Bath, much 
to the others disgust : — 

« < Why, my lord,' said he, 'you knew me in Bath.' 
" ' Possibly in Bath I might know you again,' replied 
his lordship." 

But was Pisa so deserted at the birth of this 
proverb as now ? Lionel G. Robinson. 

Audit Office. 

Sir Henry Langford, Bart. — Will some of 
your numerous readers favour me with any 
genealogical particulars respecting this gentleman, 
who was sheriff of the county of Devon, temp. 
George I. G. A. A. 



Lee or Quarendon. — • Are there any existing 
monumental memorials of the family of Lee, a 
branch of the Quarendon Lees, which flourished at 
Warwick in the middle of the sixteenth century, 
one member of which married Alice, daughter of 
Richard Dalby, Esq., of the same county ? If so, 
where are they to be found ? F. G. L. 

Aberdeen. 

Mrs. Murray. —-In Mr. C. Bedding's Fifty 
Years' Recollections , there is some notice (vol. i. p. 
6), of Mrs. Murray, author of a work called The 
Gleaner, three vols., and some dramatic pieces. 
Mrs. Murray was the wife of the Rev. J. Murray, 
a Universalist preacher in America about the end 
of last century, who was known by the name of 
" Salvation Murray." Can you give me any ac- 
count of Mrs. Murray, the titles and dates of her 
works, &c. ? R. In g lis. 

Paper Money at Leyden. — Mr. Dineley, in 
his MS. account of the Low Countries, written 
in 1674, describes the paper money made at the 
siege of Leyden in 1574, in these words : — 

"During the siege of this city (Leyden), which held 
even almost to the famishment of many, the}' made 
money of paper, with these devices — flcec libertatis ergo ; 
Pugno pro patrid ; Godt behoed Leyden. Some of their 
pieces remain to this day in the hands of the curious of 
the University. This siege began a little after Easter, 
and was raised, and ended the 3rd of October, 157-i." 

Paper in this description must mean pasteboard, 
for pen-and-ink drawings of these coins are shown 
in Mr. Dineley's book, about the size of crown- 
pieces, with a lion crowned, and cross-keys as de- 
vices. 

Is there any instance of this kind of money in 
use in any other country than Holland ? 

Thos. E. Winnington. 

Pascha's Pilgrimage to Palestine. — I have 
a small volume, edited by Peter Calentijn at 
Louvain in 1576, as a posthumous work by Ian 
Pascha. The title is Een deuote maniere om 
Gheestelyck Pelgrimagie te trecken, tot den heyli- 
ghen lande" Sfc. The book is in Flemish, and 
consists of two portions : the former preliminary 
instructions and prayers for the pilgrim ; the 
latter, a daily itinerary, and directions for the 
accomplishment of the pilgrimage in a year. 
There are some curious details respecting the 
places visited, and a number of rude cuts, of 
which some are remarkable. The letter-press con- 
sists of 159 leaves, and is followed by a MS. which 
is mainly a copy of part of the text. I want to 
know if anything is recorded of the author, or if 
any importance attaches to the book. The title- 
page says that Pascha was a doctor in divinity, 
and a Carmelite in the Convent at Mechelen or 
Malines. Among the cuts the " Sacri sepulchri 
templum," and the "Interius sacellum sepulchri 
Christi," seem to merit attention B. H. C. 



3'd S. I. Jan. 4, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13 



Peace Congress proposed in 1693. — Who is 
the author of a, little book, of which the following 
is the title : — 

" An Essay towards the Present and Future Peace of 
Europe, bytlie Establishment of an European Dyet, Par- 
liament, or Estates. Bead Paci/ici. Cadant Anna 
Sogce (sic). London j Printed in the Year 1G93. 24mo, 
67 pp., and 3 pp. " To the Reader." 

The writer proposes that the sovereign princes 
of Europe should meet by their stated deputies 
in a General Diet, Estates, or Parliament ; and 
then establish rules of justice for sovereign 
princes to observe one to another. The volume 
has the appearance of having been privately 
printed, and the copy which is here described be- 
longed to Bindley and Heber, having been for- 
merly in the possession of an Earl (Qu. the 
name), whose coronet is on the side of the book. 

P. C. P. 

Prayer Book of 1604. — What are the special 
peculiarities of the celebrated and rare edition of 
the Book of Common Prayer, published in 1604? 

F. S. A. Clerictjs. 

Dr. Richard Sibbes. — Unknown book or 
tractate by Dr. Richard Sibbes. My attention I 
has been called by a book-loving friend to the 
following quotation from a book or tractate of Dr. 
Sibbes's, hitherto unheard of : — 

"Dr. Sibbs thus [in the margin opposite Gospel 
Anointings, p. 94] .... Particular visible churches are 
now God's Tabernacle. The church of the Jews was a 
National Church; but now God hath erected particular 
tabernacles," &c. 

This paragraph (which it is not necessary to 
my purpose to give in full) occurs in a tract by 
Philip Nye, entitled The Lawfulness of the Oath 
of Supremacy and Power of the King in Ecclesias- 
tical Affairs [4to, 1683, p. 41]. I never had 
heard before of Gospel Anointings, and since have 
failed to trace it to any public or private library, 
or even catalogue ; and yet the name of Philip Nye 
carries authority with it inasmuch as he (in conjunc- 
tion with Dr. Goodwin) was one of the publishers \ 
of Sibbes's numerous posthumous works. May I 
ask readers of " N. & Q." to kindly aid me in j 
recovering a copy of Gospel Anointings ? I would 
take the opportunity of adding that I am still j 
without a copy of Sibbes's Saints' Comforts, 12mo, I 
1638. As the new collective edition of Sibbes's 
Works must be put to press immediately, I ven- \ 
ture to say inopi beneficium bis dat, qui datceler iter. 

Alexander B.. Grosart. 

1st Manse, Kinross, N. B. 

Standgate Hole. — I have heard Standgate j 
Hole mentioned among the most notoriously dan- j 
gerous localities in the neighbourhood of London 
for highway robbery in the last century. Where i 
was Standgate Hole ? I do not find it mentioned 
in Cunningham's Handbook for London. S. 



Stonehenge. — Can Sir Roger Murchison, or 
any other authority, favour the Antiquarian Re- 
public with the proper geological term for the 
stones of which Stonehenge is composed ? Many 
of the common people insist that they are artifi- 
cial. Geoffrey affirms that they were brought from 
the plain of Killara in Ireland (Tara); and a friend 
tells me he believes the stones there are of the 
same character as those of Stonehenge. The altar 
is said to be porphyry, which also is the geologi- 
cal character of the famous London stone, now 
enclosed in another stone with a circular aperture, 
on the north side of Cannon Street, city. It was, 
we know, the milliarium from which the Romans 
measured all the mileages in the kingdom. It 
was also the altar of the Temple of Diana, on 
which the old British kings took the oaths on their 
accession, laying their hands on it. Until they 
had done so they were only kings presumptive. 
The tradition of the usage survived as late at 
least as Jack Cade's time, for it is not before he 
rushes and strikes the stone, that he thinks himself 
entitled to exclaim — 

" Now is Jack Cade Lord Mayor of London ! " 

Tradition also declares it was brought from Troy 
by Brutus, and laid down by his own hand as the 
altar-stone of the Diana Temple, the foundation 
stone of London and its palladium — 

" Tra maen Prvdain 
Tra lied Llyndain." 

" So long as the stone of Brutus is safe, so long 
will London flourish," which infers also, it is to 
be supposed, that if it disappears London will 
wane. It has from the earliest ages been jeal- 
ously guarded and imbedded, perhaps from a su- 
perstitious belief in the identity of the fate of 
London with that of its palladium. At any rate 
it is a very famous stone, and it is desirable we 
should get all the knowledge about it we can. 

Mor Merrion. 

St. Napoleon. — Napoleon is, I believe, a pro- 
per name of ancient standing among the Italians. 
Thus Napoleone Orsino (what a conjunction !), 
Count of Monopello, appears about 1370, under 
Urban V. (Pope), as one who had devised pro- 
perty for the erection of a monastery at Rome. 
The name is connected with the history of the 
church and monastery of Holy Cross. I wish to 
know who Saint Napoleon was, and where I can 
find his biography ? B. H. C. 



gtucrtetf tottl) ^fntfieucnf. 
Sir Francis Page. —The character of this 
" hanging judge " is rendered memorable by Pope, 
the Duke of Wharton, Savage, Fielding, and 
Johnson ; but little is told of the incidents of his 
life, his lineage, or his death. Can any of your 



14 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. I. Jan. 4, '62. 



correspondents enlighten me in reference to these 
particulars ? I shall be grateful for any informa- 
tion. Edward Foss. 

[Sir Francis Page was the son of the Vicar of Blox- 
ham in Oxfordshire. He assumed the coif Dec. 14, 1704 ; 
became king's sergeant Jan. 26, 1714-L5; a baron of 
the Exchequer May 22, 1718; a justice of the Com- 
mon Pleas Nov. 4, 1726, and a justice of the King's 
Bench Sept. 27, 1727. He always felt a luxury in con- 
demning a prisoner, which obtained for him the epithet 
of " the hanging judge." Treating a poor thatcher at 
Dorchester with his usual rigour, the man exclaimed 
after his trial — 

" God, in his rage, 
Made a Judge Page." 

Page was the judge who tried Savage for murder, whom 
he seemed anxious to condemn; indeed, he owned that 
he had been particularly severe against him. When de- 
crepid from old age, as he passed along from court, a 
friend inquired particularly of the state of his health. 
He replied, " My dear Sir, you see I keep hanging on, 
hanging on." He died on Dec. 18, 1741, aged eighty, at 
his seat at North Aston in Oxfordshire. — Vide Noble's 
Biog. History of England, iii. 203. Perhaps some of our 
genealogical friends may be able to supply our corre- 
spondent with an account of the " birth, parentage, and 
education " of this notorious judge.] 

The Ass and the Ladder. — In Biblia Sacra 
Hebraica (Bibliotheca Sussexiana, vol. i. p. xi.) is 
the following expression, " May this book not be 
damaged, neither this day nor for ever, until the 
ass ascends the ladder" Query, the legend ? 

A. W. H. 

[The passage at the end of this manuscript (Ssec. xiii.) 
reads as follows: " I, Meyer, the son of Rabbi Jacob, the 
scribe, have finished this book for Rabbi Abraham, the 
son of Rabbi Nathan, the 5052nd year (a.d. 1292); and 
he has bequeathed it to his children and his children's 
children for ever. Amen. Amen. Amen. Selah. Be strong 
and strengthened. May this book not be damaged, neither 
this day nor for ever, until the Ass ascends the Ladder." 
Like the Latin phrase of Petronius " asinus in tegulis " 
(an ass on the housetop), which is supposed to signify 
something impossible and incredible, the saying " until 
the ass ascends the ladder," is a proverbial expression 
among the Rabbins, for what will never take place; e. g. 
" Si aseenderit asinus per scalas, invenietur scientia in 
mulieribus ; " — a proposition so uncomplimentary to the 
superior sex, that we leave it in Buxtorf 's Latin.] 

Legends of the Wandering Jew. — Would 
you kindly inform me whether there are in the 
English language many versions of the legend of 
the Wandering Jew, what these are, and where 
they are to be met with ? 

A French Subscriber. 

24, Avenue de la Porte Maillot, Paris. 

[The earliest mention of this legend is in Matthew 
Paris, or rather in Roger of Wendover's Chronicle, s. a. 
1228. See vol. iv. p. 176, of English Historical Society's 
edition, or vol. ii. p. 512, of the edition published by 
Bohn. A ballad of The Wandering Jew is printed by 
Percy, Reliques, ii. 301 (edit. 1794). Brand, in his Po- 
pular Antiquities (Bohn's edition), iii. 309, makes refer- 
ence on this subject to Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible 
and Turkish Spy, vol. ii. book iii. let. l.j and there is 
an article in Blachvood's Magazine, vii. 608, entitled 



«* The Legend of the Wandering Jew from Matthew 
Paris." The fullest particulars of the legend will how- 
ever be found in Grasse, Die Sage vom Ewigen Juden, 
fyc, Dresden und Leipsig, 1844.3 

Quotation. — Whence are the two noble lines :-— 

" Of this blest man, let this just praise be given, 
Heaven was in him before he Avas in heaven." 

J. c. 

[This couplet was written by Izaak Walton in his 
copy of Dr. Richard Sibbes's work, The Returning Back' 
slider, 4to. 1641.] 



EPITOME OF THE LIVES OF THE KINGS OF 
FRANCE. 

(2 nd S. xii. 457.) 

R. B. The curious in books for the people of the 
latter part of the seventeenth century are familiar 
with the initials " R. B," said by Dunton to be 
assumed by INat. Crouch, and affixed by him to 
the marvellous books which issued from his shop, 
the Bell in the Poultry, for the delectation of the 
million. 

Turning over a lot of these, I have singled out 
one of early date, which, I would submit, may be 
the father of the race, and that which probably 
suggested to the cunning bookseller that successful 
series of chapman's books which must have' en- 
riched him and his successors for some genera- 
tions. My book is — 

" An Epitome of all the Lives of the Kings of France, 
from Pharamond the First to the now most Christian 
King Lewis the 13th, with a delation of the Famous 
Battailes of the two Kings of England, who were the 
first Victorious Princes that Conquered France. Trans- 
lated out of the French Coppy by R. B., Esq., 12mo. 
London : P. by I. Okes, and are to "be sould by I. Beckit." 
&c, 1639. 



This little book has an emblematical frontis- 
piece by, or in the style of, Marshal, and the 
effigies of the sixty-four kings, whose lives it pro- 
fesses to give, in a bold cut upon the page, which 
fashion of illustration was one of the great attrac- 
tions of the people's library under remark. Al- 
though claiming for this book the credit of having 
originated the Burton Family, my belief is that 
the R. B. upon the title indicates Richard Brath- 
wait ; and that, consequently, to him rather than 
to the mythic R. Burton, are the people indebted 
for the example so successfully followed up by 
NTat. Crouch, alias R. B., of abridging or melting 
down the standard literature, popular stories, and 
folk lore of the day into a racy vernacular, which 
suited their capacities, and at a price which came 
within their means. R. B., the imitator, did not 
come before the public until 1678 : the oldest of 
the Burton books in my possession is The Sur- 
prizing Miracles, Sfc, which professes to be by 
" R. B., author of the History of the Wars, frc. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Lond., printed for N. Crouch, 1683." At the end 
is " an Advertisement of books lately printed by 
R. Burton, and sold by N. C." Here would 
seem to be two distinct persons, so that it was not 
until a later period that Crouch assumed the 
initials either to put himself into the shoes of a 
defunct digcstor, or to identify himself with a Mr. 
Harris of his own creating ; for it is evident that 
whoever was the compiler of these books, he had 
no fixed idea of the meaning of his own initials, 
sometimes when he extended them, calling him- 
self Richard, and sometimes Robert Burton ; and 
my theory is that Brathwait, to veil his eccen- 
tricities, often put forth books with his initials 
only, and that Crouch, falling in with The Epi- 
tome, took it for the model of his " swelling shil- 
ling books;" and either through ignorance or 
design, gave a new interpretation to the R. B. he 
found upon the title. 

The foregoing scribble about R. B. I intended 
for " N. & Q." a long time back, and the Query of 
Regulus has just reminded me of it. Certainly 
there is no doubt about The Epitome being by 
Brathwait, and its omission ir» Haslewood's list 
could only arise from his not having seen it. As 
it lies on my table beside The Lives of all the 
Roman Emperors, by R. B. G. 1636 (included by 
him in said list), there can be but one opinion, 
for the same family features are unmistakably upon 
the face of both. My attention having been again 
drawn to the subject of R. B., I have taken a look 
at the small book in the Grenville library, bear- 
ing the date 1678, and apparently the first of the 
series of the Burtoji boohs. It bears the title : — 

" Miracles of Art and Nature, or a Brief Description of 
the several Varieties of Birds, Beasts, Fishes, Plants, and 
Fruits of other Countries. Together with several other 
remarkable things in the World." 12mo, pp. 120, 
with seventy-one short chapters treating of the 
said miracles, but in a more sober style than its 
followers. It purports to be by R. B., Gent, and 
is " printed for W. Bowtel." Brathwait was then 
dead, but here are his initials as in The Lives of the 
Romans, and no shadow of the coming Crouch, 
alias Burton, unless it can be discovered in the 
homely address " To the Ingenious Reader." I 
have no doubt, however, that this is the first book 
of the popular series ; and as it forms a kind of 
epoch in our literary history, perhaps you will 
agree with me that this address is worth reprint- 
ing in " N. & Q." : — 

" Candid Reader," says R. B., " what thou findcst 
herein are collections out of several ancient authors, 
which (with no small trouble) I have carefully and dili - 
gently collected, and compressed into this small book at 
some vacant hours, for the divertisement of such as thy- 
self who are disposed to read it; for, as the several cli- 
mates of the world have not only influenced the inhabi- 
tants, but the very beasts with natures different from one 
another, so hast thou here, not only a description of the 
several shapes and natures of variety of birds, beasts, 
fishes, plants, and fruits, but also of the dispositions and 



customs (though some of them barbarous and inhumane) 
of several people who inhabit many pleasing and other 
parts of the world. I think there is not a chapter in 
which thou wilt not find various and remarkable things 
worth thy observation, and such (take the book through- 
out) that thou canst not have in any one author, at least 
modern, and of this volume. And if what I have done 
shall not dislike thee, I shall possibly proceed and go on 
to a further discovery in this kind, which doubtless can- 
not (as all variety doth) please thee. 'Tis probable they 
are not so methodically disposed as some hands might 
have done; yet for variety and pleasure's sake they are 
(I hope) pleasingly enough intermixed. And as I find 
this accepted, so I shall proceed. — Farewell, R. 15." 

I have only to say, in conclusion, that this book 
of The Miracles of Art and Nature, bears no re- 
semblance to R. B.'s Surprizing Miracles of 1683. 

J. O. 



EARTHQUAKES IX ENGLAND: URICONIUM. 

(2 nd S. xii. 397.) 

Philips' s statement is very curious, and de- 
serves investigation, though there can be little 
doubt that it will prove to be groundless. " Fires, 
and the frequent fall of houses," symptomatic 
though they may be of earthquakes, are especially 
mentioned by Juvenal as among the causes which 
rendered even the wretched loneliness of the 
country preferable to a residence in the Roman 
cities. 

As regards earthquakes in England, I can see 
no improbability in the statement of Col. Wild- 
man, such shocks being far more common than is 
generally supposed. Some of these shocks have 
been sufficiently violent to throw down buildings, 
to divert rivers, and to open large fissures in 
the earth ; and, but for their limited extent, would 
no doubt have been regarded as very serious 
earthquakes. 

A picturesque and interesting account of that 
which occurred in London and its neighbourhood 
in 1750, is given by the author of Mary Powell, 
in her Old Chelsea Bun House. There were two 
shocks, at a month's interval ; and such was the 
predisposition for something dreadful in the pub- 
lic mind, that the drunken ravings of pseudo- 
prophets actually led many to believe that a third, 
far more destructive, would take place after a 
similar interval. As the details of this event are 
too well known to need repetition, I shall content 
myself with noting such particulars only as are 
not likely to have come under the notice of the 
readers of "N. & Q." The Methodists, at that 
time exceedingly zealous and active, declaimed 
fearfully on the subject out of doors ; and the 
celebrated George "Whiteficld ventured into Hyde 
Park at midnight and preached a sermon ; which 
has been described as " truly sublime," and "strik- 
ingly terrific." Mason, the author of a well- 
known treatise on Self Knowledge, says that there 
were four remarkable circumstances attending 



KOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 r ^ S. I. Jan. 4, '62. 



these concussions : that the shock was repeated— 
that the last shock was strongest — that both were 
much more violent in the cities of London and 
Westminster than in any place beside ; and that 
both happened when there was the greatest con- 
course of people there out of the country. 
^ It is far from easy, however, to obtain a con- 
sistent account of this occurrence ; almost every 
record of it being more or less coloured by theory, 
superstition, or a desire to " improve the occa- 
sion." The theologian, who had made up his 
mind to doom our metropolitan Babylon, dis- 
covered that it was confined to London and West- 
minster; whilst "such an honest chronicler as 
Griffith," would find out that it did most mischief 
at Lambeth, Limehouse, and Poplar; and was 
sensibly felt all the way from Greenwich to Rich- 
mond ! The Methodists generally tracked it 
eastward and westward — from Whitechapel to 
Charing Cross — in order that it might make a 
clean sweep of "guilty London"; whilst another 
account says, that "it seemed to move in a north 
and south direction," and was sensibly felt at 
Highgate and Hampstead ! 

A very remarkable earthquake, on a small scale, 
occurred at a place called the Birches, between 
Buildwas andMadeley, in Shropshire, on the 27th 
May, 1773; and is minutely described in a small 
volume, the title of which I have forgotten, by 
the celebrated John Fletcher, vicar of the latter 
place. It opened large fissures in the earth, 
transported trees and fields, destroyed a bridge, 
towed the river out of its proper channel, strew- 
ing the adjoining lands with fish, removed a barn 
entire a considerable distance, and broke up the 
hard-beaten road into fantastic forms resembling 
the shattered lava of Vesuvius. As the work re- 
ferred to is now rare, A. A. may consult The 
Youths' Magazine for 1846 (p. 208), where he will 
find further particulars. 

On the 15th Nov. 1844, a somewhat similar 
disturbance took place at St. Peter's Quay, about 
three miles from Newcastle ; breaking up a large 
dry dock, and opening several considerable fis- 
sures in the earth. Such occurrences are ap- 
parently not unusual, as the residents in those 
parts have a name for them, and call them 
" Creeps." Douglas Allpokt. 



Illness has prevented me from searching sooner 
for the following extract from the journal which 
I was in the habit of keeping in bygone years. 
Since your correspondent A. A. says that his 
"object is to collect any evidence as to earth- 
quakes in England," I presume it will have some 
interest for him. 

March 17th, 1843 (near Liverpool). 
" Shortly before 1 o'clock a.m., not having yet fallen 
asleep, I was suddenly and most effectually roused by a 
sharp shock of an earthquake. I instantly felt assured 



that it was one ; for it was too peculiar to suggest (to 
me) any other idea, though I find that some others who 
felt it were at a loss. 

"There were ten or twelve distinct 'vibrations : the 
first very strong, shaking the bed and the whole house, 
and rattling the slates and chimney-pots, accompanied 
too by a rumbling sound ; and they gradually subsided thus. 
The whole mfiy have lasted from t wenty to thirty seconds. 

" If not positively alarming, for I certainly did not 
look for any harm, it yet was awful and highly startling. 
I heard my heart beating for many minutes afterwards, 
and had some trouble in inducing nryself to walk to the 
window to examine the night. It was light, and per- 
fectly calm. To-day has been unnaturally warm : I went 
to town and returned, with burnt face and quite op- 
pressed, as in the dog da} r s." 

Thus far my extract ; to which I may add, 
that a man-servant, awake on the ground floor 
of the house, felt nothing; but his canary beat 
itself frantically about its cage, so that he struck 
a light, thinking that a cat must be frightening it. 
He looked too at his watch, and the hour corre- 
sponded with that of the earthquake. The cage 
was full of feathers, and the bird seemed sick for 
several days. 

Two children, brought up in a high degree of 
religious excitement in the same neighbourhood, 
were greatly terrified. A nervous girl, of twelve, 
thought the vibrations were the steps of an angel 
crossing the room, and believed it a warning that 
she must die. A delicate boy, of five, was so terri- 
fied, that he had a fever. Policemen, on duty 
at the Liverpool docks, said that the barrels 'on 
the quay rolled about and knocked against each 
other ; and one thought he heard a heavy cart 
passing over the wooden bridge. They had no 
thought of earthquake. 

The papers recorded that a lone house in York- 
shire was thrown down with the shock. It was 
felt also in Dublin. 

I have since felt severe shocks of earthquake in 
Italy, which caused me no greater personal sensa- 
tions than this one in England. M. F. 

Shanakiel. 



A brother of mine, who had passed many years 
in the West Indies, and was at St. Vincent's at 
the time of the eruption of the SoufFriere moun- 
tains, was on a visit at Mansfield at the time of 
the earthquake in Notts, referred to by A. A. 
He was instantly aware what the shock meant ; 
and, in much alarm, rushed out of doors. Al- 
though the shock, or shocks, , were severe, and 
accompanied by shaking of doors and windows, 
&c, no mischief was done in the town. Mans- 
field is some six or seven miles from Newstead. 

If I am not mistaken, it occurred in 1825 ; and, 
I think on Sunday, just before or after church. 

R. W. 



The derivation of Wreckenceaster, Wreckceter, 
or Wroxeter, from wrceced, "wrecked or de- 



17 



stroyed," will not hold water. The word wrecken 
is evidently a corruption of " Uriconium " itself. 
Uriconium, in Ptolemy Viroconium — found writ- 
ten Vivecinum and Virecinutn, and called by 
Nennius, Caer Vruach — is, without doubt, merely 
the Latin form of its original British name ; which 
it may have had from its situation at or near the 
confluence of the Tern (which I take to have 
been what is now called the "Bell Brook") with 
the Hafren, i. e. the Sabrina, or Severn. If so, 
the word Uriconium may be derived from the 
Brit. Uar-i-con-iu y i. e. "upon or near the head 
of the river or water." Indeed, Ariconium, by 
corruption Sariconium, may be the same word : 
for Camden tells us that the latter stood on " a 
little brook called the Ine, which, thence encom- 
passing the walls of Hereford, falls into the Wye." 
There was also a place called Uricona at Sheriff- 
Hales. The initial letter in Sariconium has doubt- 
less crept in, in the same way that it has in 
Sabriua from Hafren, and in many other names. 

R. S. Charnock. 



Biblical Literature : William Carpenter 
(2 nd S. xii. 521.) — Regard for an old friend, 
and sympathy with a hardworking literary man 
under a sad calamity, induce me to ask permission 
to add one remark to your editorial answer to 
Mr. Bartlett. Mr. William Carpenter is still 
living, rather advanced in years, and has been 
recently visited with the affliction of blindness. 
The sijjht of one eye has left him, and the other 
is so weak as to be useless for literary labour. 

I do not know what was his reply (if any) to 
the accusations of the Christian Remembrancer in 
1827 ; but he has ever since then been an active 
member of the " fourth estate." He once had the 
honour of a state prosecution for political libel. 

I am violating no confidence (I regret to say) 
in revealing his present misfortunes, for a public 
subscription was set on foot for his relief. 

Job J. Bard well Workard, M.A. 

Article "Use and Have" (not Have and 
Use) (2 nd S. xii. 4.56.) — This article appeared in 
Chambers' Journal for February 28, 1835. v C. 

Representations in Sculpture of the First 
Person of the Holy Trinity (2 nd S. xii. 348, 
443, 483.)— In the Church of the Jesuits, at Rome, 
is a colossal group of this subject. The foot of 
the First Person is planted upon a globe of lapis 
lazuli, perhaps the largest in the world. Tad 
group is in white marble. A carved oak panel, 
in my possession, represents the baptism of our 
Lord. His head is surrounded by a glory of a 
lozenge form. The Holy Ghost, as a dove, with 
wings expanded, is descending in the centre of a 
round nimbus ; whilst, in clouds above, the First 
Person is represented as an old and bearded man, 



without nimbus or tiara, but holding a mound in 
his right hand, and pointing downwards with his 
left. W. J. Bernhard Smith. 

Temple. 

Enthusiasm in favour of Hampden (2 nJ S. 
xii. 232, 277.) — The following entry is copied 
from a catalogue just issued by Mr. J. C. Hotten 
of Piccadilly : — 

"75. Two most curious petitions from the inhabitants 
of the county of Buckingham to the parliament, relative 
to Popish lords and bishops. Folio, tine copy, 7s. Gd. 
Printed by K. C. 1G42." 

From Col. Whalley the regicide's curious li- 
brary. At the foot it says : — 

" These petitions were brought by thousands of the in- 
habitants of the co. of Buckingham, riding orderly by 
three in a ranke, thorow London, on 11th Jan. to the 
Houses of Parliament." 

W. D. Macray. 
Mutilation of Sepulchral Memorials (2 nd S. 
xii. 12, &e.) — I have the fragments of eight stone 
coffin slabs, decorated with crosses tastefully de- 
signed, from 1250 to 1490. The fragments were 
found forming the sells and jambs of apertures 
for the admission of light (instead of the old 
Norman loophole) in the south wall of the church 
of this parish, and of a "perpendicular" window 
in the east wall ; the wall and its window being in 
•the place of the original anse and its centre light. 

C. £. B. 

Wiston, Colchester. 

Newtons of Whitby (2 nd S. xii. 237, 352, 
444.) — The pedigree given by Dugdale shows 
that I was right in supposing that Isaac Newton, 
who purchased Bagdale Hall, was the Isaac, the 
son of Christopher, baptized in 1608. 

The second Isaac, mentioned in that pedigree 
as aged thirty-two in 1665, may have been, and I 
think was, the Isaac first mentioned in the ab- 
stract referred to in my former note. The latter, 
and his second son Ambrose, were dead before 
1739 ; and Ambrose's son Richard was then more 
than twenty-one, as he executed a deed of that 
date. It is, therefore, very probable that the last 
Isaac of the pedigree, and the first Isaac of the 
abstract, were the same person ; and, if so, the 
pedigree is completed from George Newton. 

I have never seen three pairs of crossbones. 

C. S. Greaves. 

I beg to inform £. Conduitt Dermkr, that Sir 
David Brewster is perfectly correct in speaking 
I of Sir Richai'd Newton, of Newton ; and that he 
was quite a different individual from Sir JMivhal 
Newton. Sir Richard was the last heir male of 
a family of considerable antiquity seated at New- 
ton, in East Lothian, or Haddingtonshire. An 
account of the grounds, such as they are, for sup- 
posing that Sir Isaac Newton might have been 
a cadet of his family will be found in Burke's 



18 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[><i S. I. Jan. 4, '6f . 



Commoners (vol. iii. p. 28, note), under the title 
of " Hay Newton, of Newton." Sir Richard was 
knighted by William III. ; and having no issue, 
entailed his estate on a younger branch of the 
noble house of Tweeddale, by whom it is now pos- 
sessed, without the infusion of Newton blood. 

R. R. 

Dr. Arne's Father (2 nd S. xii. 364.) — The 
Post-Boy, London newspaper, of Dec. 15th, 1698, 
contains the following announcement : — 

" Thomas Arne, Upholsterer, who lately lived at the 
George and White Lion, in the Great Piazza, Covent 
Garden, is now removed to the George in Bedford 
Court, near Bedford Street." 

The circumstances of the surname, trade and 
place of abode of the advertiser and those of 
Arne's father corresponding so closely, have al- 
ways led me to believe in the identity of the par- 
ties. It does not appear from the statement of 
my friend Dr. Rimbault, where the EdwardArne, 
who perished so miserably in the Fleet Prison in 
1728, resided; and so far there is nothing be- 
yond the name and trade to identify him with the 
father of the composer. Can it be likely that he 
was the elder son, and successor in the business 
of the Thomas Arne mentioned above ? It would 
be very interesting to learn something more of 
the family of one of our most gifted native com- 
posers, than is to be gathered from the very 
meagre information in the general biographical 
notices of him. The Arnes were Roman Catho- 
lics, which may in some measure account for the 
scanty particulars of them to be gleaned from the 
parish registers, but perhaps something respecting 
them might be found in the rate-books. Can any 
reader of " N. & Q." supply from these, or other 
sources, any accurate information on this subject ? 

W. H. Husk. 

Clergyman's Right to take the Chair (2 nd 
S. xii. 454.) — 

" The minister has a right to preside at all vestry 
meetings : for a [minister is not a mere individual of 
vestry ; on the contrary, he is always described as the 
first, and as an integral part of the parish, the form of 
citing a parish being ' the minister, churchwardens, and 
parishioners ; and putting any other individual in com- 
petition with him for the office of chairman, would be 
placing him in a degraded situation, in which he is not 
placed by the constitutional establishment of this coun- 
try. He is the head and presses of the meeting. Thus it 
has been held, that at a vestry meeting summoned by 
the churchwardens for the purpose of electing new church- 
wardens in a parish, regulated by stat. 58 Geo. III. c. 
69, the rector has a right to preside. But the minister is 
not an integral part of the vestry.' 

" Stat. 58 Geo. III. c. 69, s. 2, directs that if the rector 
or vicar, or perpetual curate, be not present, the persons 
assembled must forthwith nominate by plurality of votes, 
to be ascertained as therein directed, one of the inhabit- 
ants to be chairman; which is nearly tantamount to a 
declaration, or by necessary implication declares, that if 
the rector, vicar, or curate be present, he shall preside ; 
and the legislature must evidently have considered that 



by law and usage he was entitled to preside." — Stephens 
on the Laws relating to the Clergy, vol. ii. p. 1328. 

The stipendiary curate is not an integral part of 
the parish. He is only the representative of the 
minister, and consequently not entitled to preside. 

S. L. 

At every vestry meeting, " the incumbent pre- 
sides by right, whether rated or not ; and whether 
rector, or vicar, or perpetual curate. If he be ab- 
sent, the meeting elect a chairman." The right 
to preside, therefore, does not extend to his sti- 
pendiary curate. I imagine that no meeting, ex- 
cept a vestry, could transact parochial business : 
and that the incumbent could not demand the 
chair at any unauthorised meeting, assembled 
merely for discussion, whether of church matters 
or otherwise. See Dale's Clergyman's Legal 
Handbook, 1859, p. 80, 81 ; and Harding's Handy 
Book of Ecclesiastical Law, 1860, p. 90, -91. 

Job J. Bard well VVorkard, M.A. 

St. Benigne, Dijon (2 nd S. xii. 168, 402.) — 
From the information given by Mr. Corney, it 
would certainly appear that Fergusson, in his 
Handbook of Architecture, has fallen into error. 
There is a want of precision in his statements 
that makes it rather difficult to ascertain where 
the error really lies. But it is clear that he has 
not been guilty of so mere a blunder as Mr. 
Corney imputes to him, of confounding the church 
of Ste. Madeleine with the church of St. Benigne. 

I find that, in p. 684, he describes the cathedral 
as belonging to the latter half of the thirteenth 
century. At p. 652 he speaks of St. Benigne as 
having been one of the oldest churches in Bur* 
gundy, and probably an excellent type of the 
style of the country; but in p. 619 it is stated 
that, in the year 1271, the nave was rebuilt in the 
perfect pointed style of that day. So far as re- 
gards the nave, therefore, St. Benigne could be 
no type of the older style of the country : and it 
is worthy of remark, that the time when the nave 
was rebuilt agrees precisely with the date attri- 
buted to the cathedral. 

In p. 619, Fergusson gives a plan of St. Be- 
nigne, taken (apparently with some modifications) 
from Bom Plancher ; and in this plan is shown 
the singular Rotonde, or circular choir, mentioned 
by Mr. Corney. 

Does this Rotonde now exist ? I have seen the 
cathedral, but have no recollection of anything of 
the sort. Is it not possible that, during the Re- 
volution, the circular choir may have been de- 
stroyed, while the rest of the church was left 
standing to form the present cathedral ? 

Perhaps some correspondent at Dijon may be 
able to state whether this supposition is correct. 

P. S. C. 

Neil (not Niel) Douglas (2 nd S. xii. 472.) — 
A. G. will find " biographical particulars " of this 



3'i S. I. Jan. 4, '62.] 



19 



mistaken, but in many respects excellent and re- 
markable man, in Dr. Struther's well-known 

History of the Rite, Progress, and Principles of 
the Relief Church (Glasgow, Fullarton & Co., 
1843, 1 vol. 8vo), of which at one time he was a 
minister. — See chap. xxii. and note x. in Appen- 
dix. A. G. will also do well to consult the (now 
extinct) "Universalist" periodicals of Scotland 
of the period, edited by, and containing many of 
the ablest productions of Douglas. A curious 
squib (in verse) concerning him may be seen in 
the letter-press attached to Kay's Caricature- 
Portraits (2 vols. 4to). A. G. is correct in his 
identification of the heterodox divine with the 
seditionist (so-called) of 1817 — one of the blood- 
red pages of the anarchic political times of Scot- 
land, r. 

Mr. Neil Douglas, Universalist preacher of 
Stockwell Street, Glasgow, was tried on the 2Gth 
of May, 1817, before the Court of Justiciary in 
Edinburgh, on a charge of having used scanda- 
lous expressions regarding the King, Prince Re- 
gent, and Royal family, in his prayers before his 
congregation. Mr. Jeffrey was his counsel. The 
jury brought in a verdict of not guilty. 

I remember seeing this old gentleman in the 
Old Tolbooth of Edinburgh, at the time of his 
trial. 'J he evidence there given shows strong 
traces of eccentricity, but none of rancour or 
spite. It would be interesting to many in Scot- 
land if A. G. would give in " N. & Q." a few 
snatches of the literary curiosities attributed to 
Mr. Douglas. C. 

James Glassford (2 n< * S. xii. 397, 429.)— Mr. 
Glassford had no claim to the prefix of "Rev.," 
given him by M. H. R., who might have ascer- 
tained this by looking at the title-page of both 
editions* of Lyrical Compositions selected from the 
Italian Poets, with Translations, by James Glass- 
ford, Esq., of" Dougalston. He was an advocate 
at the Scottish Bar, and the author of various 
legal and literary works. The following is his 
version of Guarini's madrigal : — 

" This mortal life, 
Seeming so fair, is like a feather tossed, 
Borne on the wind, and in a moment lost. 

Or, if with sudden wheel, it flies 
Farther sometimes, and upward springs, 

And then upon its wings 
Sustained in air, as if self-balanced lies, 
The lightness of its nature is the cause; 

And swiftly, after little pause, 
With thousand turns, and thousand idle stops, 
Because it is of earth to earth it drops." 

R. R. 

Peter YVatkinson Owtbem (2 nd S. xii. 485.)— 
It seems not unlikely, from the connexion of Peter 
Watkinson of \Yirksworth with the Heathcote 



* 1834 and 1846 (the latter posthumous). 



family, then of Chesterfield, that he belonged to the 
Watkinsons of Brampton, near Chesterfield. One of 
these Watkinsons was high sheriff for Derbyshire 
in the earlier half of the last century, but I do 
not find that they ever bore arms. Nor have I 
discovered that any arms are attributed to flic 
Derbyshire family of Outram, from whom I be- 
lieve Sir James Outram to be descended. A 
Thomas Ov/tram, of the parish of Dronfield, died 
in 1811. If I can afford your correspondent any 
information relative to North Derbyshire families, 
I shall be glad to do so, and accordingly subjoin 
my address. J. H. Clark. 

Whittington, near Chesterfield. 

Sir Richard Shelley (2 nJ S. xii. 470.) — Eric 
will find a long account of this eminent person, 
Grand Prior of England and Turcopolier, in " N. 
& Q." 1 st S. xi. 179. 

The following extract from Moule's Herald?^ 
of Fish (p. 227) will answer his other queries : — 

" Sable, a fess engrailed between three wilks, or; are 
the arms of Sir John Shelley, Baronet, of Maresfield in 
Sussex, the representative of one of the heiresses of the 
Barony of Sudeley. 

" Of the same lineage was Sir Richard Shelley, Prior 
of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem; who, in loGl, 
was ambassador from the King of Spain to Venice aud 
Persia. 

" The same arms are also borne by Sir Timothy Shel- 
ley, Baronet, of Castle-Goring in Sussex, father of the 
late Percy Bysshe Shelley, the poet." 

See also the History of the Rape of Bramber. 

J. Woodward. 

Shoreham. 

Sir James Pemberton (2 nd S. xii. 474.) — The 
armorial bearings assigned in Heylin to Sir James 
Pemberton, Lord Mayor of London, 1611, are those 
of his successor Sir John Swinnerton, Lord Mayor 
in 1612. Pemberton's arms were, "Argent, a 
chevron between three buckets sable, hoops or " 
(vide Burke's Armory). H. G. 

Churchwardens (2 nd S. xii. 471.) — Ina will 
find in my History of Henley, 1861 (pp. 50, 319), 
that the churchwardens have been appointed by 
the corporation of Henley, for nearly six cen- 
turies. John S. Burn. 
The Grove, Henley. 

Time out of mind it has been customary for the 
Vicar of Doncaster to appoint one of the church- 
wardens, and the mayor the other, styled respec- 
tively the Vicar's churchwarden and the 

Mayor's Churchwarden. 

The Sleeters (2 n<1 S. xii. 457.) — The verses 
inquired for are by Mary Anne Browne. She 
published six small volumes of poems, in London 
and Liverpool, between the years 1827 and 1838. 
Many of her minor pieces are marked by the 
same delicacy of feeling and grace of expression 
as " the sleepers." M. A. E. G 



20 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. i. Jan. 4, > 62 . 



Wolves eating Earth (2 nd S. ii. 328.) — 

"Quelques-uns ont cru qu'il se nourissoit de terre: 
cette vieille erreur vient de ce que le loup est extreme- 
ment econome, et quil cache sous terre une partie de set 
proie pour s'en servir dans le besoin." — Trade Historigtte 
et Moral du Blazon, par J. B. du Puy Uempostes, torn. ii. 
ch. xii. : a Amsterdam et h Berlin, chez Jean Neaulme 
Libraire, 1754. 

J. San. 

Journal of Louise de Savoie (2 nd S. xii. 
233.) — May I be permitted to answer my own 
Query, as I have since discovered that this curious 
document has been printed in Guichenon's His- 
toire de Savoie, torn. v. p. 461. I have not, how- 
ever, succeeded in finding the account of the ex- 
humations at St. Denis, concerning which I beg 
leave to repeat my Query. Hermentrude. 

Rousseau on the Rearing of Infants (2 nd S. 
xii. 394.) — See Jean Jacques's E'mile, liv. i. 

R. S. Charnock. 



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3 rd S. I. Jan. 11, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



21 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 11, 18G2. 



CONTENTS.— N». 2. 

NOTES : — Memoir of William Oldys, Esq., Norroy-King-at- 
Arms, 21 — The Word " Any," 23 — Newton's Home in the 
Year 1727, 21 — Anna Seward and George Hardinye, 26 — 
Jacob's Well at Chester, lb. 

Minor, Notes: — London Libraries — Early Editions of 
Jeremy Taylor's "Great Exemplar" — New Word — 
Pronunciation of Proper Names — St. Mary's Church, 
Utrecht, 27. 

QUERIES: — The Pamily of Llewcllin, 28 — Anonymous ~ 
Authorship of MS. wished — Mr. Serjeant John Birch, 
Cursitor Baron — Cerigotto — Coney Pamily — Dwelling 
near the Hose — Hendrik en Alida — Heraldic Query — 
"Husbandman" — Samuel Johnson, LL.D. — The Laugh 
of a Child— Legend of the Beech Tree — William Lith- 
gow's Poems — Men Kissing each other in the Streets — 
Old Engraving of a Sea Eight — Pius IX., Acts of Pontifi- 

| catc of — Sham Heraldry — Tarnished Silver Coins — 
Tenants in Socage — Mr. Turbulent — Sir William Webbc 

— Thomas White, Esq. — Willett's Synopsis Papismi, 28. 

Queries witii Answers : — The Trial of the Princess of 
Wales : " A Delicate Investigation " — Isabella Whitney 

— MS. Dramas — Khevenhuller Volunteers — The Rev. 
John Peter Dim, 32. 

REPLIES : — Lord Nugent on Capital Punishments : 
Jemmy the Gypsy, 33 — The Egg, a Symbol, 34 — Yctlin, 
or Yetling: Blesupg, lb.— Seattle's Poems, 35 — Gram- 
mar Schools — "Sic Transit Gloria Mundi" — Learner — 
Lambeth Degrees — Recovery of Things lost — Errors in 
Books on the Peerage — Gilbert Tyson — Lengo Moundino 

— Commissariat of Lauder — Orkney Island Discoveries — 
Laminas— Mary Woffington — Heraldic — Edward Halsey 
Bockett, Ac, 35. 

Notes on Books. 



MEMOIR OF WILLIAM OLDYS, ESQ., 
norroy king-at-arms. 
(Continued from 3 rd S. i. 3.) 

In October, 1728, Mr. Henry Baker, the na- 
turalist, under the assumed name of Henry Stone- 
castle, projected The Universal Spectator, to which 
periodical Oldys, in 1731, had contributed about 
twenty papers.* On his return to London, in 
1730, he found Samuel Burroughs, Esq. and others 
engaged in a project for printing The Negotia- 
tions of Sir Thomas Jtoc. To assist in so desirable 
an undertaking, Oldys drew up " Some Con- 
siderations upon the Publication of Sir Thomas 
Roe's Epistolary Collections." f 

It was about the year 1731 that Oldys became 
acquainted with that noble patron of literature 
and learned men, Edward Harley, the second 
Earl of Oxford. It has been wisely and beauti- 

* The Universal Spectator continued to appear weekly 
until the latter end of the year 1742. In 173G a selection 
from these papers was first printed in 2 vol3. 12mo ; a 
second edition appeared in 1747, in 4 vols. 12mo ; and a 
third in 1756, in 4 vols. 12mo. John Kelly, the dramatic 
poet, and Sir John Hawkins, were occasional contributors. 

t Only one volume of the Negotiations was published 
in 1740. Oldys's " Considerations " for their publication 
is in the British Museum, Addit. MS. 4168. Vide "N. 
& Q." 2» d S. xi. 102 ; and Bolton Corney's Curiosities of 
Literature Illustrated, second edition, 1838, p. 165. 



fully said, that "those who befriend genius when 
it is struggling for distinction, befriend the world, 
and their names should be held in remembrance." 
We learn from his Autobiography, that Oldys 
must already have become, to some extent, a col- 
lector of literary curiosities. He says, 

" The Earl invited me to show him my collections of 
manuscripts, historical and political, which had been the 
Earl of Clarendon's; my collections of Royal Letters, and 
other papers of State; together with a very large collec- 
tion of English heads in sculpture, which alone had 
taken me some years to collect, at the expense of at least 
threescore pounds. All these, with the catalogues I drew 
up of them, at his Lordship's request, I parted with to 
him for 40/. ; and the frequent intimations he gave me of 
a more substantial recompense hereafter, which intima- 
tions induced me to continue my historical researches, 
as what would render me most acceptable to him." — 
Autobiography. 

Oldys likewise informs us, in a note on Lang- 
baine, that he had bought two hundred volumes 
at the auction of the Earl of Stamford's library in 
St. Paul's Coffee-house, where formerly most of 
the celebrated libraries were sold. 

That Oldys has already become a diligent stu- 
dent at the Harleian Library is evident from the 
publication at this time of his very curious work 
on Pamphlets. It first appeared with the follow- 
ing title : A Dissertation upon Pamphlets. In a 
Letter to a Nobleman [probably the Earl of Ox- 
ford], London : Printed in the year 1731, 4to. 
In the following year it re-appeared in Morgan's 
Phoenix Britannicus, Loncl. 1732, 4to ; and has 
since been reprinted in Nichols's Literary Anec- 
dotes, iv. 98 — 111. Oldys also contributed to the 
Phoenix Britannicus, p. 65, a bibliographical his- 
tory of " A Short View of the long Life and 
Raigne of Henry the Third, King of England : 
presented to King James by Sir Robert Cotton, 
but not printed till 1627." 

It is stated by Dr, Ducarel that Oldys was one 
of the writers in The Scarborough Miscellany, 
1732-34. This appears probable, as John Taylor, 
the author of Monsieur Tonson, informed Mr. 
Isaac D'Israeli that " Oldys always asserted that 
he was the author of the well-known song — 

, ' Busy, curious, thirsty fly ! ' 
And as he was a rigid lover of truth, I doubt 
not that he wrote it." The earliest version of it 
discovered by Mr. D'Israeli was in a collection 
printed in 1740 ; but it had appeared in The 
Scarborough Miscellaiiy for 1732, eight years 
earlier. As it slightly varies from the version 
quoted by D'Israeli, we give it as originally 
printed : — 

" The Fly. 

"An Anacreontic!;. 

° Bus}', curious, thirsty Fly, 
Gently drink, and drink as I ; 
Freely welcome to my Cup, 
Couki'st thou sip, and sip it up ; 



22 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. I. Jan. 11, '62. 



Make the most of Life you may, 
Life is short and wears away. 

" Just alike, both mine and thine, 

Hasten quick to their Decline ; 

Thine's a Summer, mine's no more, 

Though repeated to threescore ; 

Threescore Summers when they're gone, 

Will appear as short as one." * 
The London booksellers, having decided on 
publishing a new edition of Sir Walter Ralegh's 
History of the World, enlisted the services of 
Oldys to see it through the press. To this edi- 
tion is prefixed " The Life of the Author, newly 
compil'd, from Materials more ample and authen- 
tick than have yet been publish'd, by Mr. Oldys." 
The Life makes 282 pages, and from the autho- 
rities quoted in the numerous notes must have 
been a task of considerable labour and research. 
The complete work is in two volumes, fol. 1736, 
and contains a very copious Index. Gibbon medi- 
tated a Life of Ralegh ; but after reading Oldys's, 
he relinquished his design, from a conviction that 
" he could add nothing new to the subject, except 
the uncertain merit of style and sentiment." 

While engaged on this great work, Oldys was 
permitted to consult the valuable library of Sir 
Hans Sloane, as we learn from the following let- 
ter to the worthy baronet, dated Sept/29, 1735: — 
" Most honoured Sir, 
" When I was last favoured, through your'noble cour- 
tesy, with a sight of some curious Memorials relating to 
Sir Walter Ralegh, I said there would be one or two 
little printed pieces which 1 should have occasion to 
make more use of than 1 could take the liberty of doing 
in your house. One of them, however, which is the Life 
of Mahomet, I have been since provided with ; but the 
other, called News of Sir Walter Ralegh, &c., printed 4°, 
1618, and marked among the MSS. B. 1288, is now, that 
I am arrived (through above forty sheets) at the last 
two years of his Life, immediately wanting. 

" As a troublesome cold confines me a little at present, 
I shall take it as the greater favour if you will let me 
have it, when it may be most convenient, by the bearer ; 
and I shall, in two or three weeks, wait on you with it 
again ; as also, with an entire copy from the press, of 
that Narrative which it will help to illustrate. If it may 
not be too ambitious in me to make so much addition to 
your library, it may exalt the fame of my Worthy, or 
extend the date of it, to have his Life preserved in such 
a magnificent repositarj 7 , notwithstanding the defects of 

" Honoured Sir, 

" Your most obliged and obedient Servant, 
" William OLnys." f 
Soon after the publication of the Life of Sir 



* Ritson has printed " The Fly " in his English Songs, 
and added the following note : " Made extempore by a 
gentleman, occasioned by a fly drinking out of his cup of 
ale." In Park's edition of Ritson's Songs, ii. 19, edit. 
1813, a third verse is added from the Rev. Mr. Plumptre's 
Collection of Songs, i. 257 ; and in Hone's Table Book, ii. 592, 
it appears with five additional verses. Vincent Bourne's 
translation was first printed in the Appendix to the third 
edition to his Poems, 1743. After all, there is an uncer- 
tainty respecting its authorship. 

t Addit. MS. 4054, p. 250, Brit. Museum. 



Walter Ralegh, some booksellers thinking Oldys's 
name would tend to sell a work then in the course 
of publication, offered him a considerable sum of 
money, if they would allow him to affix it ; but he 
rejected the proposal with the greatest indigna- 
tion, though at the time he was in the greatest 
pecuniary distress. 

At the commencement of the last century Bib- 
liography as a science had not been cultivated in 
England. Sale-catalogues and lists of books, espe- 
cially when interspersed with remarks of their 
rarity and value, were collected and prized by 
bibliographers ; but Oldys was among the first in 
this country to make an attempt to divert the 
public taste from an exclusive attention to new 
books, by making the merit of old ones the sub- 
ject of critical discussion.* His Life of Ralegh 
had not only brought him into closer ties of friend- 
ship with the Earl of Oxford ; but the knowledge 
of our earliest English literature displayed in 
that work had so increased his fame, that he was 
now frequently consulted at his chambers in 
Gray's Inn on obscure and obsolete writers by the 
most eminent literary characters of the time. It 
redounds to the honour and memory of William 
Oldys that he was ever easy of access to all who 
sought or desired his assistance, and free, open, 
and communicative in answering the inquiries 
submitted to him. His friendly aid and counsel 
were not only cheerfully rendered to Thomas 
Hayward for his British Muse, and to Mrs. Cooper 
for The Muses 1 Library, but even his jottings for 
a Life of Neil Gwyn were freely given to the 
notorious Edmund Curll, whose fame wjill never 
die, gibbeted as he has been to immortality in 
the full blazon of his literary knavery. 

In 1737 Oldys published anonymously his cele- 
brated work, entitled 

"The British Librarian: exhibiting a Compendious 
Review or Abstract of our most scarce, useful, and valu- 
able Books in all Sciences, as well in Manuscript as in 
Print : with many Characters, Historical and Critical, of 
the Authors, their Antagonists, &c, in a manner never 
before attempted, and useful to all readers. With a 
Complete Index to the volume. London : Printed for T. 
Osborne, in Gray's-Inn, 1738, 8vo." 

It was published as a serial in six numbers ; 
No. I. is dated for January, 1737 ; and the last, 
No. VI. for June, 1737; but yet the Postscript 
at the end of it is signed " Gray's Inn, Feb. 18, 
1737 [1737-8]. Some copies have separate 
titles to the six numbers. The work is highly 
valuable as containing many curious details of 
works now excessively rare. Had it been con- 
tinued, it would, in all probability, have contained 

* The only treatise on Bibliography which had ap- 
peared in this country, was the erudite work of Sir 
Thomas Pope Blount, entitled "Censura Celebriorum 
Authorum : sive Tractatus, in quo varia Virorum Doc- 
torum de clarissimis cuj usque Sieculi Scriptoribus judi- 
cia traduntur." Lond. 1690, fol. 



3 rd S. I. Jan. 11, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



23 



an accurate account of a very curious and valu- 
able collection of English books : it ceased, how- 
ever, at the end of the sixth monthly number, 
when Mr. Oldys could neither be persuaded by 
the entreaty of his friends, nor the demands of 
the public, to continue the labour. Dr. John 
Campbell, in his Rational Amusement, 8vo, 1754, 
says, that no work of the kind was so well re- 
ceived ; and adds, " If its author, who is of all 
men living the most capable, would pursue and 
perfect this plan, he would do equal justice to the 
living and to the dead." 

It may seem to many a very meagre and un- 
satisfactory labour to compile a chronological 
Catalogue of standard works, intermixed with 
remarks and characters. But (as Oldys cites 
from Lord Bacon) " learned men want such in- 
ventories of every thing in art and nature, as 
rich men have of their estates." When we first 
enter on any branch of study, it is palpably use- 
ful to have the authors to whom we should resort 
pointed out to us. " Through the defect of such 
intelligence, in its proper extent," says Oldys, 
" how many authors have we, who are consuming 
their time, their quiet, and their wits, in search- 
ing after either what is past finding, or already 
found ? In admiring at the penetrations them- 
selves have made, though to the rind only, in 
those very branches of science which their fore- 
fathers have pierced to the pith ? And how many 
who would be authors as excellent as ever ap- 
peared, had they but such plans or models laid 
before them as might induce them to marshal 
their thoughts into a regular order ; or did they 
but know where to meet with concurrence of 
opinion, with arguments, authorities, or examples, 
to corroborate and ripen their teeming concep- 
tions?" 

In the Postscript to this valuable work Oldys 
thus acknowledges his obligations to his literary 
friends for the loan of manuscripts and other rare 
books : — 

" Among the books conducive to this purpose, those[for 
whicli gratitude here demands chiefly the publication of 
our thanks, are the manuscripts. Such, in the first place, 
is that here called Sir Thomas Wriothesly's Collections ; 
containing the arms and characters of the Knights of the 
Garter, and views of the ancient ceremonies used in 
creating the Knights of the Bath, &c. For that sketch 
which the Librarian has here given the publick of it, 
they are both beholden to the permission of his Grace the 
Duke of Montagu, the noble owner of that valuable 
volume ; and to some explanations thereof, which were 
also courteously imparted by John Anstis, Esq., Garter, 
principal King of Arms, whose extensive knowledge in 
these subjects, his own elaborate publications, in honour 
of both those Orders, have sufficiently confirm'd. Nor 
will it be thought a repetition unnecessary, by grateful 
minds, that the Librarian here renews his acknowledg- 
ments to Nathaniel Booth, Esq. of Gray's Inn, for his 
repeated communications ; having been favour'd not only 
with that curious miscellanj', containing many of the 
old Earl of Derby's papers, which, in one of the foregoing 



numbers is abridg'd ; but others out of his choice collec- 
tions, which may enrich some future numbers, when op- 
portunity shall permit the contents thereof to appear. 
Other manuscripts herein described, were partly the col- 
lection of Mr. Charles Grimes, late also of Gray's Inn, 
and in the bookseller's possession for whom this work is 
printed; except one ancient relique of t!ie famous Wick- 
life, for the use of which, many thanks are here returnM 
to Mr. Joseph Ames, Member of the Society of Antiqua- 
ries. The author of this work is moreover obliged to the 
library of this last worthy preserver of antiquities, as 
also to that of his ingenious friend Mr. Beter Thompson, 
for the use of several printed books which are more scarce 
than many manuscripts ; particularly some, set forth by 
our first printer in England ; and others, which will rise, 
among the curious, in value, as, by the depredations of 
accident or ignorance, they decrease in number. We 
must take some further opportunity to express our obli- 
gations to other gentlemen who have favour'd us with 
such like literary curiosities; and to some hundreds un- 
known, who have shewn a relish for the usefulness of this 
performance, by encouraging the sale of it." 

(To be continued.) 



THE WORD " ANY." 

The following remarks arise out of logical con- 
troversy : but the inquiry I want to provoke will 
be most satisfactory to your readers in a perfectly 
detached form. High authority has declared that 
the word any is " exclusively adapted to negation." 
I try this point in my own way, and I hope to in- 
duce others to attend to it. Very little has been 
done towards exposition of the actual uses of our 
terms of logical quantity. 

My conclusion is that, so far from being ex- 
clusively adapted to negation, any is in negatives 
as ambiguous as a word can well be, and in affirm- 
atives nearly as precise. So it is in the instances 
which suggest themselves to me : how will it be in 
those which suggest themselves to others ? 

Certainly the word is not exclusively adapted to 
negatives : any one may see that ; any one will 
admit it. Any has the force of each, every, all, at 
least in affirmatives. What any one can do, all 
can do ; what all (distributively used) can do, 
any one can do. The qualifying parenthesis is 
wanted by all; not by any, which is as definite in 
affirmatives as each and every. 

Even if we choose to use the word any in the 
predicate of an affirmative, we cannot by straining 
escape the meaning which grammar imposes. He 
who should say that " Any man is any biped," 
may be forced to acknowledge that he has affirmed 
that there is but one man, but one biped, and 
that the man is the biped. 

When we come to negatives, we find that any 
may have either of two senses : universal, or par- 
ticular. It may be " any one of all," or " any one 
of some." For instance, some persons hold, in all 
its rigour, the stern maxim that " a healthy person 
who cannot eat any wholesome food, does not de- 



24 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[3 r <* S. I. Jan. 11, '62. 



serve to have any food to eat." The first " any " 
is particular, the second is universal : the maxim 
lays down that he who refuses some one whole- 
some food, were it that one only, does not deserve 
to have any of all possible eatables. But if we 
state affirmatively that " he who can eat any 
wholesome food may be allowed any food," we 
see that both the words are universal. Under the 
first law a refusal of cold mutton alone would 
infer the penalty: under the second a person 
must be ready for cold potatoes with it before he 
can claim to be qualified. 

I cannot find any trace of the double meaning 
in affirmatives : but I wait for others. I have 
clearly shown that the word any is ambiguous in 
negatives ; but I will not say that it is not so in 
affirmatives. 

In negatives, context must often determine the 
meaning. " A person who cannot do anything" — 
the meaning of this commencement is ambiguous. 
If the ending be " ought not to have anything to 
do," the first any was universal : if it be " had 
better to let it alone," the first any was particular. 
But, " a person who can do anything," is not am- 
biguous. The explanatory additions in " any — 
whatsoever," "any — at all," are evidences of the 
ambiguity. In affirmatives, they are but tauto- 
logy : in negatives, they distinguish. Thus, " he 
may have any," and " he may have any whatso- 
ever," only differ in that the second gives stress 
to the meaning already in the first. No one 
would say that the " whatsoever " of the second 
may destroy some reserved exceptions in the first. 
But " he may not have any," may mean that there 
are some which he must not have, though he may 
have others : " he may not have any whatsoever," 
makes the word universal. Notice of bail must 
be given,. because the magistrate cannot accept 
any man ; but when he cannot accept any man 
whatsoever, the notice need not be given. 

Among the proposals of our day, founded on 
the assumption that any is peculiarly adapted to 
negatives, is that of expressing the proposition 
" No x is t," by " Any x is not any y." No objec- 
tion could be taken to this, if the universal sense 
were expressly postulated : but when the pro- 
posal is based upon the assertion of its self-evi- 
dent propriety, there is something to say against 
it. When a sentence is ambiguous, the mind 
takes the true sense, if there be one. For ex- 
ample : " I thought this room was higher than it 
is." A room higher than it is would be difficult 
to find ; so we always accept the phrase as mean- 
ing higher (in thought) than it is (in reality). 
Now let us take the proposition, "No fish is a 
fish," which we may deny. If we say, " Any fish 
is not any fish," we can only deny when the uni- 
versality of the second any is noted : prior to 
which, the mind would go, for truth's sake, to the 
particular meaning. Surely any fish is not any 



fish : turbot is not salmon, for instance. But 
even here the any of the subject, that which pre- 
cedes negation, is unambiguous : in " Any x is 
not any y," we can make nothing of the first 
" any," except each or every. A. De Morgan. 



NEWTON'S HOME IN THE YEAR 1727. 

Since April last, endeavours have been made to 
identify the house in which, as different histories 
record, Sir Isaac Newton died. 

"Newton died at his home in Orbell's Buildings, near 
Pitt's Buildings, Kensington, between one and two o'clock 
in the morning of Monday the 20th of March, 1727, in 
the eighty-fifth year of his age." 

This extract is from the Penny Magazine., 22nd 
Dec. 1832, and agrees with other accounts that 
have been published. No one, however, who has 
been seen or heard of, identifies the house. 

The name " Orbell's " has long been disused, 
and also " Pitt's Buildings," for the houses to 
which they were once applied. The houses that 
were formerly known to the inhabitants of Ken- 
sington by such descriptions, have been since, and 
are now, called by different names. And the same, 
a later name, has been moved from one house to 
another still more recently. Of all this the new 
and vastly increasing inhabitants of Kensington 
have no knowledge, and comparatively few of the 
old inhabitants remain to relate correctly to re- 
cent residents what they may have heard respect- 
ing Sir Isaac. 

A house, now called- " Woolsthorp House," is 
pointed out as a residence of Sir Isaac's. Its 
present name is comparatively recent. It was 
formerly called " Carmarthen House." But this 
now is certain, that whether Sir Isaac ever occu- 
pied that as a summer's retreat from St. Martin's, 
Leicester Square, or sat under the mulberry-tree 
in that garden or not, he did not die there. 

As Sir Isaac's remains were removed from Ken- 
sington, and laid in state in Jerusalem Chamber, 
Westminster, it was at an early period of this 
inquiry conjectured that some parochial account 
of the removal, and from what house, might be 
found. Any such information from Mr. Hall, 
Vestry Clerk, whose father was vestry clerk be- 
fore him, and who had furnished many particu- 
lars to Faulkner, the historian of Kensington, or 
from the Eev. Archdeacon Sinclair, could not be 
obtained. Mr. Hall, in looking over the names 
in Pigott's Directory for Kensington for 1822, 
observed, that now almost ail the names there 
given of the inhabitants were names of persons 
not only removed but dead ! It was then sup- 
posed that, as Sir Isaac's funeral was public, some 
other record might be got at. Mr. Banting was 
then applied to, who kindly undertook to make in- 
quiry at the office of the Lord Chamberlain ; but 



3 rd S. I. Jan. 11, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



25 



there were no records there, for although a pub- 
lic funeral, it was not made at government ex- 
pense. Mr. Banting made many other inquiries 
and researches, and at his suggestion, the Royal So- 
ciety, and also the Royal Astronomical Society were 
written to, and subsequently calls have been made. 

As it would be useless to enumerate all that has 
been done, where nothing satisfactory could be 
found, it will be better at once to relate those 
steps which have led to the discovery of "New- 
ton's Home in 1727 " as they have been de- 
veloped. It was thought that possibly some of 
the old inhabitants, however few may be remain- 
ing, might be able to. remember something that 
would elicit further inquiry. 

Having occasion to call on Mr. George Goodacre 
in Church Lane, who repairs broken china, glass, 
umbrellas, &c. &c, and seeing that he was aged, 
but by no means an old man, Mr. Goodacre was 
asked how long he had resided there ? He re- 
plied " thirty years, and that his wife was born in 
Kensington." He was then told that an effort 
was being made to ascertain where Sir Isaac New- 
ton died. Mr. Goodacre then said that he is a 
descendant of a niece of Sir Isaac's ; that he had 
made inquiries respecting some property; and that 
a very old man of the name of " Jones," who was 
born, lived, and died in Kensington, had pointed 
out the house, now called " Bullingham House," 
as the house where his mother, or his grandmother, 
assisted to lay out Sir Isaac after his death. 

All this was confirmed by Mrs. Goodacre, who 
came in at the time ; and they stated that a son 
of this old person, "Jones," is still living in 
Charles Street, Kensington ; whom, with his wife 
also, the inquirer has visited. They both fur- 
ther confirmed what their very aged relative had 
frequently said, respecting the laying out of Sir 
Isaac after his death, in the now "Bullingham 
House." 

The "Joneses" trace their connexion with 
Kensington for some one hundred and seventy 
years back. The ancestor "Jones" they refer 
to was gardener to a gentleman, and he took 
premises in High Street for his wife to sell fruit. 
In the Directory already referred to, the aged 
"Jones" is described as a builder and fruiterer; 
and the™ are still several inhabitants who re- 
member him. 

Mrs. Jones, now in Charles Street, stated that 
her father was servant to Capt. Pitt, and travelled 
with him throughout England, Ireland, and Scot- 
land ; and that she remembers some of the older 
branches of the Pitt family. 

Having got so much information outside, it was 
thought desirable to make inquiry of Miss Blair, 
who has resided some thirteen years in " Bulling- 
ham House." Although it was called " Bulling- 
ham House " before Miss Blair became tenant, it 
had not that name when Mr. Saunders, the Secre- 



tary of the Great Western Railway, lived there 
about twenty years ago. 

A house in Vicarage Place, Church Street, 
was at some time before called " Bullingham 
House." When and how it was discontinued has 
not been ascertained, but that house and ground 
are now divided. 

Miss Blair states that her late landlady Mrs. 
Pitt, widow of ■ Pitt, who had long lived 
in the adjoining house, and continued to reside 
there for some years after Miss Blair became 
tenant of " Bullingham House," repeatedly stated 
that the now "Bullingham House" is the identical 
house where Sir Isaac Newton lived and died. 
After Mrs. Pitt left, the adjoining house, where 
she had so long resided, received the name of 
" Newton House," which has produced error and 
confusion. Mrs. Pitt recently died, at a great age, 
in Somersetshire. 

Miss Blair has a small flint or agate, with a 
white vein in it, that was found in the garden. 
It has been ground into a spherical form ; thus 
giving an appearance of Jupiter with a belt. A 
small plane at one part allows it to stand on a 
table, with the belt in a vertical position. It does 
not appear improbable that this spherical stone 
may not only have been Sir Isaac's, but also that 
it may have been of his own grinding. Sir Isaac 
not only ground glass, but he investigated the 
degrees of transparency of different substances ; 
and flint or agate may have been included in his 
experiments. Such appear to be as likely sub- 
stances for such examinations as the transparency 
of " melted pitch " ! 

So much having been ascertained of the home 
of Newton, Mr. Downes, Photographer to Her 
Majesty, took a view of the front, and purposes 
to take others both inside and out. The house 
still remains, mostly in its ancient state. Next, 
ascertaining that the property is " copyhold," the 
inquirer called on Mr. Brown, Lady Holland's 
agent, who at once undertook to search the re- 
cords. The name " Orbell " was suggested, 
which Mr. Brown ultimately found. . Orbell died 
seven years after Sir Isaac (1734). Orbell 
had a daughter, who had become Mrs. Pitt. 
Mrs. Pitt was admitted tenant to five messuages, 
stables, &c. on payment of eighteen pence ! 

Mr. Brown observed the names "Newtin" and 
" Newtinet" in the records ; but as the object of 
the inquiry was accomplished in finding how 
the property passed from "Orbell" to "Pitt," 
which family has ever since retained it, and 
given the name "Pitt" to the adjoining street, 
further research was not for that purpose needed. 
Having thus identified Sir Isaac Newton's home 
in 1727, the next object was to consider, how to 
prevent the place being again lost sight of. This 
may very soon take place without some perma- 
nent record. 



26 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



As copyhold can now be enfranchised, such a 
valuable position as " Campden Hill," the very 
best part of Kensington left for improvement, 
will not be overlooked, so immediately connected 
as it is with the very inadequate and only opening 
between Notting Hill and Kensington High 
Street. 

On the western front of Bullingham House is 
a long garden, adjoining another, and that by a 
third, to the north. On the south side of the 
garden to Bullingham House is a wall ; the prin- 
cipal entrance being at the east end, and a return 
southward has a small door and coach gates to the 
back yard past the side of the house. There 
are many old trees in these gardens. The north 
and west sides of the gardens referred to have 
been paved outside ; but as the paving ceases ab- 
ruptly at the south-west corner, it was suggested 
that the parish should also pave from thence along 
the south wall past the entrances. This, after 
having been viewed by the Committee of Works, 
has been ordered to be done. 

While the Committee were at the place, the 
words " Newton's Home, 1727," were shown to 
them ; but that, they appeared then to think, was 
not for them, as a " Works Committee," to enter- 
tain. However, Mr. Banting, who was one, said 
that he would find a stone. Subsequently the 
idea advanced, and the inquirer applied to the 
Vestry for permission for a memorial to Sir Isaac 
New ton to be placed against the Garden Wall of 
Bullingham House. This having been granted, 
it has been suggested that a chamber for de- 
posits should be formed underground, and to be 
opened every half century for examination, and to 
report or make additions, as may then be thought 
desirable, to perpetuate Newton and his dis- 
coveries. 

• Photographs of the front and other parts, on 
glass, burnt in and enamelled, have been suggested. 
Sir Isaac's town house may there also be thus 
recorded. 

A slate slab has been temporarily fixed against 
the garden wall, on which the design for the me- 
morial has been sketched. An effort will now be 
made to obtain the requisite assistance and sug- 
gestions, so as to have the memorial placed on 
the 20th March, ] 862, — the anniversary of the 
day of the death of the great Sir Isaac Newton, 

This is a very brief statement of inquiries made 
and facts obtained up to this time. When the 
object is accomplished, it is hoped something more 
may be added for record in a subsequent paper. 

Joseph Jopling. 

Vassall Terrace, Kensington, W. 



'ANNA SEWAKD AND GEORGE HARDINGE. 
Celebrities in their day : the lady, with little 
vitality of her own, but consigned to "a lasting 



tomb" in Doctor Johnson's Biography ; the gen- 
tleman with even less, — eighty years ago a Welsh 
judge, a humorist, and a small essayist, but still 
disinterrable from the dust of four octavo vo- 
lumes. My father, who died in 1815, a septuage- 
narian, told me a pleasant anecdote wherein they 
figured, as related to him by the lady herself ; 
and, having now overlived his date by fourteen 
years, I begin to think it should no longer be 
trusted to so frail a tradition. Let me premise 
that he knew both its actors, as he did most of the 
literati and <b of his time ; that he was an accom- 
plished scholar, and no mean poet. But to his 
story : — 

One afternoon Miss Seward received a card, to 
the effect that Mr. Hardinge, in passing through 
Lichfield, desired to pay his respects to a lady so 
distinguished, &c. &c, which was as complimen- 
tarily acknowledged by an invitation to " a dish 
of tea." Mr. Hardinge presented himself accord- 
ingly; and, the souchong being removed, ab- 
ruptly, and a propos de rien, asked her had she 
ever heard Milton read ? The Paradise Lost was 
produced, and opened at a venture ; the judge 
jumped upon the table, and read some pages, not 
to her astonishment only, but to her profound 
admiration. "Never," said Miss Seward to my 
father, " never before did I hear Milton read, 
and never since." As abruptly, her visitant closed 
the volume, descended from the table, made his 
bow, and without a word disappeared. 

But the story did not end here. The next 
morning apacquet was transmitted to Miss Seward, 
enclosing an elaborate critique on the English 
Homer, and with it a most delicate (life-size) pat- 
tern of a lady's shoe, with a note attached — that 
Mr. Hardinge had imagined this to be the faithful 
model of Miss Seward's foot, and begged her to 
satisfy him of the correctness of his fancy. " Of 
mine ! " exclaimed the poetess, disclosing to my 
father an inch or so of ankle, not exactly Cinderillan 
in its proportions. 

My tradition, if admitted into " N. & Q. ," is 
likely to induce three questions — Did my father 
relate it to me ? Did Miss Seward relate it to 
him? Did it occur as she related it? To the 
first of these I reply — yes, on my own personal 
credit; to the second— yes, on my trust in my 
father's veraciousness ; to the third, that I leave 
it with the readers of Jemmy Boswell. 

Old Mem. 



JACOB'S WELL AT CHESTER. 
In the Groves, on the south western margin of 
St. John's churchyard, there is, or rather was, to 
be seen an ancient spring, called Jacob's Well. 
The water from this well had been for many years 
in great request by both rich and poor, especially 
in time of cholera or other serious sickness. The 



3 rd S. I. Jan. 11, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



27 



late Rev. Chancellor Raikes Lad so high a regard 
for tbis spring that, many years before his death, 
he re-edified the well at his own expense, erecting 
an arch over the spring, and attaching a metal 
chain and spoon thereto for the convenience of 
visitors. By the way, we may fairly claim for the 
well that it was the first actual fountain erected 
in this neighbourhood since the revival of these 
popular institutions, jln November, 1854, the 
good old Chancellor passed away to his rest, and 
Jacob's Well thereby lost its protector and friend. 
Sauntering past the spot some two or three 
months afterwards, I noticed that this favourite 
well was dry, and that the basin was filled up 
with rubbish. An old man, who seemed from his 
medals to be a Chelsea pensioner, was standing 
close by, and we fell into conversation. I asked, 
"How came it to pass that the well was dry ?" 
" Ah, Sir," said he, " there's a mystery about it I 
can't quite get over. I used daily, for years, to 
fetch water from this" well for the gentry here- 
abouts, and I never knew the spring to fail even 
in the height of summer. But you know, of 
course, that the Chancellor is dead, and that he 
spent a power of money in keeping up the well. 
Now, Sir, I tell you as a fact, that on the day the 
old gentleman was carried to his grave, I came 
here as usual to fetch water for my folks, when 
lo ! and behold ! Jacob's Well was dry; and, more 
than that, it has been dry ever since, I give you 
my word, for I've been here many a time since on 
purpose to see ! I leave it to you, Sir, after what 
I've told you, to say how it came to pass : all I 
know is, it's a mystery to me, and to other sharper 
folks than me." The old man's experience rather 
puzzled me at the moment, but I have since un- 
riddled the mystery. It seems that when the well 
was restored by the late Chancellor, the artificial 
basin was raised several inches above the natural 
bed, for the convenience of the public, a cemented 
passage being formed for conducting the water. 
About the date of his death this channel got ra- 
dically out of order, and the spring fell away to 
its original level, finding an outlet elsewhere. Thus 
the visible well became useless and dry, while a 
shred of harmless folk lore has been manufactured 
in its stead. T. Hughes. 

Chester. 



Minor #otcrf. 

London Libraries.— Vol. xi. (2 nd S.) of N. & Q. 
contains some interesting notices of public Libraries 
in London and Westminster, among others of the 
Tenison Library, now sold and dispersed. The 
subjoined memorandum relates to the founding 
of that library, and presents a curious picture of 
the manners and wants of the time. It may also, 
by the contrast it affords to the present day, fur- 



nish some justification for the resolution taken 
by the Charity Commissioners with respect to Dr. 
Tenison's benefaction. It is an extract from the 
Vestry Book of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields in the 
year 1684. Dr. Tenison was then Vicar of St. 
Martin's. 

« 1G84. 27 March. D r Thomas Tenison, having con- 
sidered that in the Precinct of the Citty and Lib'? of 
Westminster there are great numbers of Ministers and 
other studious persons, and especially in the Parish of 
St. Martin's, where, besides the Vicar and his assistants, 
there are severali noblemen's Chaplains perpetually re- 
siding — as also that there is not in the said Precinct 
(as in London) any one shop of a Stationer fully fur- 
nished with books of various learning, or any noted 
Library excepting that of St. James (which belongs to 
His Maj tie and to which there is noe easy access), that of 
S r Robert Cotton which consisteth chiefly of booka re- 
lating to the Antiquities of England, and the Library of 
the Deane and Chapter of St. Peter's Church in West- 
minster, which is (as the two other are) inconvenient 
for the use of the said Precinct by reason of its remote 
situation, Hath been inclined upon the above considera- 
tions (if his worth}' friends the Gentlemen of the Vestry, 
and present Churchwardens approve of this designe), to 
erect a Pabrick for a Public Library for the use of the 
Students of the aforesaid Precinct." 

The Minute contains further details of the pro- 
posed building, and concludes by recording the 
approbation of the vestry. Francis Nichols. 

Early Editions of Jeremy Taylor's " Great 
Exemplar." — I find a statement, in an old book- 
seller's Catalogue, that Dibdin seems ignorant of 
any edition of this celebrated work earlier than 
that of 1703, and that he mentions Faithorne's 
plates as " very secondary specimens of art." 

There is much confusion elsewhere on this 
point, but I can affirm, from copies in my library, 
that the first edition was printed in 4to, 1649, 
and the second (or first with plates) in 1653, in 
folio. These plates do not deserve Dibdin's al- 
leged censure. Lord Orford speaks highly of the 
" title plate," and of that of the Annunciation, 
and praises all. 

Can any of your readers give a reference to 
the passage in Dibdin ? I do not find it in any of 
his Indexes.* 

The date of 1649 is important, as it confirms 
Bonney's opinion as to the greater part of this 
work being composed during the lifetime of Charles 
I. His death was on Jan. 30, 1648-9 ; and it is 
scarcely likely that a volume of such deep thought 
and elaborate argument, exceeding 600 4to pages, 
could have been composed and printed within 
the remainder of the year. Lancastriensis. 

New Word. — " To manufacture by machinery" 
(to .make by hand by machinery), is a contradic- 
tion in terms. As we have no word to express 
machine-made, I would suggest that machifacture 



[* Vide Dibdin's Library Companion, p. 54, edit. 1824 
—Ed.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



|>d S. I. Jan. 11, »62. 



(machina, facio), analogous to manufacture, be 
used. F. W. Smith. 

Dublin Library. 

Pronunciation of Proper Names. — It has 
often been remarked that the ancient pronun- 
ciation of proper names is commonly retained in 
spite of all orthographical changes. Thus Castle 
Hedingham, in Essex, is now usually pronounced 
ly the natives Heningham, which was the old way 
of spelling that name. W. J. D. 

St. Mary's Church, Utrecht. — In Mr. Dine- 
ley's MS. tour, I find this curious account of St. 
Mary's Church at Utrecht : — 

u The English church called St. Marie's hath one of its 
pillars built upon bull-hides, there being no other means 
to secure the foundation, by reason of the many springs, 
which sunk it as soon as layd. The pillar hath this in- 
scription : — 

" ' Accipe, Posteritas, quod per tua specula narres, 
Taurinis cutibus fundo solidata columna est.' 
Belonging to this church is a library wherein, among 
other choice MSS., is one very ancient, viz. the Old 
and New Testament in seven volumes, wrote on skins of 
parchment in black and letters of gold, esteemed the 
finest manuscript in Europe. 

c *Here are also kept as rarities two Unicorn's horns ( ?) , 
an horn made of an Elephant's tooth hollowed, and several 
Pagan Idols presented to this church by Charles V. On 
the door in the inside of this library are these words writ- 
ten — 

" * Pro Christi Laude libros lege postea Claude.' " 

T. E. Winnington. 



THE FAMILY OF LLEWELLIN. 

I am anxious to obtain information about the 
family of Llewellin, and I hope I may find some 
of the readers of "E & Q." able and willing to 
help me. Martin Llewellin is mentioned in the 
Athence Oxon., where he is said to have been the 
seventh son of Martin Llewellin, and that he was 
born 12 Dec. 1616. It also appears that he died 
17th March, 1681, and was buried in Great Wy- 
combe Church. In his epitaph the names of 
George, Richard, Maurice, Martha and Maria 
occur. He wrote some laudatory lines on the 
death, in 1643, of Sir Bevil Grenville, which are 
engraved on the monument erected to his memory 
on Lansdown, near Bath. 

The name of Llewellyn, or Llewellin, is fre- 
quently found in the Wells City Records, as 
early as the sixteenth century. In 1550, Maurice 
Llewellin was one of the High Constables of 
Wells, and served the office of Mayor in 1553 and 
1555. In 1553 he was M.P. for the city. In 
1564 Thomas Llewellyn was admitted and sworn 
a " burgess " of Wells, and in 1572 he formed one 
of a deputation who waited on the then Bishop of 
Bath and Wells, in defence of the chartered rights 



of the citv. Henry Llewellin was a resident in 
Wells, and by his will, dated 20th July, 1604 
(in which he is described as "gentleman"), he 
founded one of the most valuable charities ex- 
isting in the city, which is now known as " Llew- 
ellyn's Almshouse." In his will he mentions the 
names of his father and mother (whose names 
were Thomas and Mary), and his brothers Martin 
and William, together with a sister Maria, wife of 
William Moore. Three daughters of his sister 
Mary are also named ; Elizabeth, who appears to 
have been then the wife of Cannington ; Brid- 
get Munoye ; and Mary Beamon, or Beaumont. 
The husbands of Mrs. Cannington and Mrs. Beau- 
mont both, I believe, lived in Wells. The testator 
made his brother-in-law, Wm. Moore, his ex- 
ecutor, and John Lund and Edmund Bower, over- 
seers of his will. He died in July, 1614, and was 
buried, on the 26th of that month, in the north 
aisle of the chancel of St. Cuthbert's Church, 
Wells, where his monument still remains, in which 
is represented a kneeling figure, clothed in the 
" trunk-hose " of the period. 

David Llewellyn (alias Lewce) practised as a 
surgeon at Castle-Cary, Somerset, and was buried 
there 5th May, 1605, having left 10Z. by his will 
for the use of the poor there. In 1608 there is 
recorded, in the proceedings of the Corporation 
of Wells, the receipt of 101. for the poor of Wells 
from Richard Llewellyn (alias Lewce) of New- 
port, co. Southampton, being a gift by his father, 
the said David Llewellyn, of Castle Gary. 

In 1604, there is a notice, in the Corporate 
Records, of a suit at law, and a decree against 
Henry Llewellyn, brother-in-law and adminis- 
trator of David Cerney, for the recovery of 101. 
given to poor infants of Wells by Dr. Philip 
Bisse. 

In 1632, a Bill in Chancery was filed by Mau- 
rice and Martin Llewellyn, against the Corpora- 
tion of Wells, respecting the money left to the 
poor of Wells by Henry Llewellin, as before no- 
ticed. Ina. 



Anonymous. — 1. Can any of your Irish readers 
inform me who was Editor of The Dublin Literary 
Gazette, 1830, printed by J. S. Folds, 56, Great 
Strand Street, Dublin? 2. Who is author of 
Horce Germanics, translations from the poetry of 
Germany, which appeared in this periodical, by 
" JRosencranz " ? 3. Also, of St. Leonard's Priory, 
a dramatic legend, Stamford, 1838, 8vo ? 4. Also, 
of The Deposition, a drama, Edinburgh, 1757? 
This piece was published at the time Home's 
tragedy of Douglas appeared on the Edinburgh 
stage. In this drama, called The Deposition, the 
principal persons for and against Douglas are in- 
troduced. 4. Can any Paisley correspondent tell 
me who is author of a curious and scarce drama- 



6 



3 rd S. I. Jan. 11, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



29 



tic piece entitled Jack and Sue, printed at Paisley 
about the beginning of this century? 5. Wm. 
Jlussel, Batchelorof Music, organist of the Found- 
ling Hospital, who died in 1813, is the musical | 
composer of two oratorios — The Redemption of 
Israel and Job. Who is the author or compiler 
of the words of these oratorios, and when were ; 
they performed ? R. Inglis. 

Authorship of MS. wished. — Among numer- 
ous similar MSS. in my library, I possess a thick 
quarto (pp. xxxii. 532) in a remarkably distinct 
and beautiful style of caligraphy, which bears this 
title, " Heart Treasure, or the Saints' Divine 
Riches: being in small Tracts on II. Peter i. 1, 
4 and 10." " An Epistle Prefatory " is dated No- 
vember 7th, 1684." The following are the sub- 
titles of the separate tracts — (1.) "The Excel- 
lency of Believing, or the Riches of Faith ; " (2.) 
u The Worth of God's Word, or the Riches of the 
Promises ; " (3.) " The Believer's Great Prize, or 
the Riches of Assurance." Can any reader in- 
form me whether any such book has been pub- 
lished ? No name occurs throughout. r. 

Mr. Serjeant John Birch, Cursitor Baron. 
— Will some of your correspondents kindly in- 
form me who were the father and mother of this 
gentleman ? I take him to have been the nephew 
of Colonel John Birch, the eminent Parliamentary 
Commander, who was High Steward of Hereford 
in 1645, and elected to represent the borough of 
Leominster in the Long Parliament in 1646 ; 
from which he was excluded in 1648 for voting 
" That the king's answers to the propositions of 
both Houses were a ground for peace." He of 
course was not one of Cromwell's Barebone's Par- 
liament, but was member of every other during 
the Interregnum, either for the city of Hereford, 
or for Leominster. For the latter he was re- 
turned to the Convention Parliament of 1660; 
and for Weobly in the last three parliaments of 
Charles II. ; and again in the Convention Parlia- 
ment of January, 1689; which he continued to i 
represent till his death in 1691. I conclude he j 
left no issue, because Anthony Wood tells us that j 
his nephew threatened to bring an action against >. 
the Bishop of Hereford for defacing the inscrip- | 
tion on his monument, which was thought to 1 
contain words " not right for the church institu- 
tion."— (Whitelocke's Memorials, 184 ; Pari. Hist. 
j iii. 1428 ; Wood's Ath. Oxon., Life, cxviii.) 

This nephew, I imagine, was the Cursitor Baron, 
because he was elected Member for Weobly in the 
Colonel's place, and though that election was de- i 
(dared to be void, he afterwards represented that \ 
borough for a long continuance of years. He was j 
expelled the House in 1732, for some corrupt ! 
dealing as a Commissioner for the sale of the 
Forfeited Estates. He took the degree of Serjeant 



in ] 706, became Cursitor Baron in 1729, and died 
in"l735. 

Any information as to his lineage and de- 
scendants will be gratefully received by 

Edward Foss. 

Cerigotto. — In the life of the late Professor 
Edward Forbes, it is mentioned that, having 
heard that the island of Cerigotto was slowly 
rising from the sea, he paid it a visit, and finding 
evidence that such was the case, he cut a deep 
score in the face of the rock and date 1841, at 
eleven feet above the then water-line. Can any 
of your readers inform me whether the island 
has made any appreciable upward movement since 
that time, now over twenty years ? Carl B. 

Coney Family. — Thomas Coney, of Basing- 
thorpe, Lincolnshire, built the manor-house there 
in 1568. Wm. Coney, a Captain of a man-of- 
war in Queen Anne's service (son of Edward 
Coney, Esq., of South Luffenham, Rutland) was 
a descendant. He married Katherine, daughter 
of Thomas Pleydell, of Midgehill, Wilts. Any ac- 
count of the posterity of Wm. Coney and Kathe- 
rine Pleydell, or the present representatives, will 
be acceptable to John Ross. 

Newland, Lincoln. 

Dwelling near the Rose. — Whence comes 
the passage frequently quoted, to the effect that 
the speaker, although " not the rose, has lived be- 
side the rose " ? 

There is an expression resembling it in the 
Mocaddamah, or introduction to the Gidistan of 
Sadi ; where, alluding to the patronage which the 
poet had received from the sovereign, he illus- 
trates its influence on his verses by the incident 
of his having been handed in the bath a piece of 
scented clay, which he thus apostrophised : " Art 
thou ambergris or musk, for I am charmed with 
thy grateful odour ? " and it replied, " I was a 
worthless piece of clay, bid for a while associated 
with the rose ; thence 1 partook of the sweetness of 
my companion, but otherwise I am the vile earth 
I seem." 

There is a somewhat similar sentence in the 
47 th Apologue of the 11th chapter, where the 
grass, with which a bouquet of roses had been 
tied, is made to say — 41 Though I have not the 
loveliness of the rose, am I not grass from the 
garden where it grew ! " But neither of these 
passages is quite parallel with the verse so often 
alluded to. J. E. T. 

Hendrik. en Alida. — The newspapers have 
been discussing the case of the Hendrik en Alida, 
a Dutch merchant-vessel, bound from Amster- 
dam to St. Eustatia, which was captured by one 
of our cruisers in 1777. 

In Sewell's Dutch Dictionary, the Dutch for 



30 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. t Jan. 11, '62. 



Alice is said to be Adelaide, Alida. Is this a cor- 
rect interpretation of the proper name Alida ? L. 

Heraldic Query. — Whose are the following 
arms, which I saw some years ago emblazoned on 
the panel of a carriage ? 

Parted per pale, dexter, gules, three horses' 
heads argent ; sinister, gules, an eagle displayed 
or ; on a chief or, three mullets (?) argent. Crest. 
A crown (not a coronet). Motto. Virtutis gloria 
merces. Hermentrude. 

" Husbandman." — In what sense was this word 
used in the beginning of the seventeenth century? 
Was it then synonymous with yeoman ? Or in 
what way did the two terms differ ? In a Lan- 
cashire will, dated 1621, I find the testator styled 
Husbandman, bequeathing property consisting of 
a " messuage, tenement, and freehold." Now-a- 
days, the word husbandman, if used at all, is em- 
ployed in the sense of labourer, — one not possessed 
of real property, who works for a landowner. 
The Rev. Mr. Piccope, so well versed in all that 
relates to Lancashire and Cheshire wills, could no 
doubt resolve my Query. J. 

Samuel Johnson, LL.D. — In the copy of the 
Gentleman' s Magazine (vol. vi. p. 360), in the 
library of Trinity College, Dublin, some one (? the 
late Dr. Barrett, S.F.T.C.D.) has written the fol- 
lowing words : — 

" The degree of LL.D. was conferred on Samuel John- 
son by the University of Dublin, which the ill-mannered 
savage never condescended to acknowledge." 

In what year was this degree conferred ? 

Abhba. 

The Laugh of a Child. — 

" I love it, I love it ; the laugh of a child, 
Now rippling and gentle, now merry and wild ; 
Ringing out in the air with its innocent gush, 
Like the thrill of a bird at the twilight's soft hush, 
Floating up in the breeze like the tones of a bell, 
Or the music that dwells in the heart of a shell ; 
Oh ! the laugh of a child, so wild and so free, 
Is the merriest sound in the world for me." 
Some years ago I copied the above from a 
lady's album; but whether or not there were 
more stanzas, I cannot say. Who is the author ? 
and where can I put my hands on the poem in 
extenso ? George Lloyd. 

Legend of the Beech Tree. — In a little 
Danish poem of P. M. Moller, " De Gamle Els- 
ker," the speaker likens his early love, now a 
widow, to a beech tree after rains in autumn, 
hiding in its bosom a corpse : — 

" Dit Hoved ligner en Bog i Host 
Efter Eegn og Blsest, 
Du dolger et Liig af dit yndige Bryst 
Med en sort Modest." 
Is there any northern legend of the beech-tree 
to which this refers ; or is it merely a fanciful 
view of the smooth, white round trunk, enveloped 
by the dark thick foliage ? Meta. 



William Lithgow's Poems. — At present en- 
gaged in collecting the various poems (published 
and unpublished) by the celebrated traveller 
William Lithgow, I am anxious to discover if 
there be any others than those which I have al- 
ready procured, viz. : — 

1. " The Pilgrime's Farewell to his Native Country of 
Scotland, 1618." 

2. " Scotland's Teares in his Countreve's behalf, 1625.'" 

3. " Scotland's Welcome to King Charles, 1633." 

4. " The Gushing Tears of Godly Sorrow, 1640." 

5. " Scotland's Parsenesis to King Charles the Second, 
1660." 

I shall be obliged by any of your numerous 
correspondents informing me if there be in any of 
the public libraries copies of his Poems in manu- 
script or print ? Also, if there be any publica- 
tions of his time which contain Introductory or 
Laudatory Poems by him — a practice which was 
very common in those days ? Such may exist, 
although I have not been able to lay my hands 
upon them. J. A. S. 

Edinburgh. 

Men Kissing each other in the Streets. — 
In turning over the leaves of the 3rd volume of 
my Diary, I find the following extract from Eve- 
lyn's Diary and Correspondence, vol. iv. p. "43. 
In his letter to Mrs. Owen he informs her — 

"Sir J. Shaw did us the honor of a visit on Thursday 
last, when it was not my hap to be at home, for which I 
was very sorry. I met him since casually in London, 
and kissed him there unfeignedly." 

Was the practice of men kissing each other in 
the streets prevalent in England in 1680 ?* 

Fr. Mewburn. 

Larchfield, Darlington. 

Old Engraving of a Sea Fight. — I possess 
a large line engraving of a sea fight, with the sig- 
nature in Roman letters, — 

"I. L. MANTVANVS 
SCVLPTOR. 1538." 

In the right-hand corner appears to have been 
another inscription now cut away with the ex- 
ception of the upper part of two letters in script, 
A, or possibly a script M. It is a very crowded 
scene. Low down, towards the left, are two 
figures struggling, one having fallen on his back, 
and each having two or more fingers in his an- 
tagonist's mouth. A third figure higher up re- 
peats the same savage incident. Some of the 
combatants wear Phrygian helmets, so that it pro- 
bably represents some incident in one of the 
Punic wars, but I should be glad to know some- 
thing of its subject and history. In the fore- 
ground is a river or sea-god, and sea-horses are 
sprawling around. J. San. 

Pius IX., Acts or Pontificate of. — I find 
by an entry in Battersby's Catholic Register for 

[* See " N. & Q." 1 st S. x. 126, 208.] 



3 Td S. I. Jan. 11, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



31 



1856, that on the 1st of March, 1855, the Pon- 
tifical Government commenced the publication of 
fhe Acts of the Pontificate of Pius IX. under the 
title of Ponti/icis Maximi Acta. I will feel grate- 
ful to any reader of " N« & Q." who will give me 
some information respecting this publication, — 
its price, size, number of vols, or parts already 
issued, and the precise period from which it dates, 
and whether the first division, which contains the 
Letters Apostolical, allocutions, &c. has any docu- 
ments connected with the Irish branch of the 
Church of Rome, and more especially any con- 
nected with the Synod of Thurles (1850), or 
subsequent Irish Roman Catholic Synods ? 

Aiken Irvine. 

Fiverailetown. 

Sham Heraldry. — Will any one tell me what 
called forth a caricature which has lately come 
under my notice, entitled, "A New Coate of 

Arms granted to the H . . ds of the U y 

of C e since their late Edict against 

Dinners " ? The sheet displays an engraving de- 
scribed as follows : — 

" Arms, quarterly : first, azure, a mitre and fool's cap 
transverse ways ; second, sable, an Inn shut up; third, 
gules, Caput Universale, or an ass's head proper; 
fourth, argent, a book entitled Excerpta e Statuis; sup- 
porters, two cooks weeping ; crest, a hand holding a roll 
of paper; motto, Impransi Juvenes Disquirite." 

The roll in the hand (which together form the 
crest) is inscribed " Capitale Judicium," and the 
two pages of the open volume on the fourth 
quarter contain the following attempt at a calen- 
dar : — 

" Moveable Feasts. Immoveable Feasts. 

Anniversary of Eton College. Trinity Sunday. 

„ of True Blue, Johnny Port Latin. 

St. David's Day. Founder's Day. 

Scholars' Club. Masters' Club." 

The date of publication is February 14th, 
1786. St. Swithin. 

Tarnished Silver Coins. — I have some silver 
coins of the last century, which are discoloured 
or stained from having been shut up in a drawer, 
excluded from the light and air. How can I clean 
them without damaging the impressions, and yet 
avoid polishing them or making them bright ? 

Obscurus Fio. 

Tenants in Socage. — Has it ever struck any 
of our antiquaries that " tenants in socage," "'soke- 
men," &c, derive their name and title from being 
holders of enclosed lands, surrounded by a hedge 
of thorns? "Soch" is the Hebrew for a hedge, 
and it comes from the same root as thorns. (See 
Gesenius, p. 789 a). I put forth this Query in 
the hope that accomplished Hebrew scholars 
amongst us will be led to help in a track, the ob- 
ject of which is " the identification of some of the 
lost tribes of Israel in the British people." 



Again : can any say who <he god Shemir, or 
Husi the protector, is? He will be found entered 
on the slab brought by Mr. Layard from Nineveh, 
in the British Museum. The tribes who wor- 
shipped him as Husi the protector, lived in the 
neighbourhood of the Upper Euphrates. (See the 
same slab !) 

Can we not identify Husi with Hosea or Saviour; 
and were not the Hosa, Hoesse, Huse, or Hussey 
race, a noble Norman tribe, descended from the 
worshippers of the god Husi, the protector ? 

Hebrew scholars will be able to identify the 
god Shemir, Shamir, or Shomer with another 
northern idol, called in Allen's Father Land, 5th 
edition (Copenhagen), the " Beskytter," protector 
or deliverer = the beloved Thor, the Saviour of 
the people, and destroyer of the Midgard Ser- 
pent! Senex. 

Mr. Turbulent. — To what member of George 
III.'s court or household does Madame D'Arblay 
refer, when she speaks of "Mr. Turbulent" ? 

Cuthbert Bede. 

Sir William Webbe, Knight, at the funeral of 
Prince Henry, on Monday, December 7, 1612, led 
a horse covered with black cloth, and carrying 
the Prince's " cheiffron and plumes," immediately 
in rear of Viscount Lisle, who bore the banner of 
the Principality of Wales. Who was Sir William 
Webbe, and was he related, and in what degree, 
to William Webb, M. A., one of the authors of the 
Vale Royal of England? T. Hughes. 

Chester. 

Thomas White, Esq. — The following is tran- 
scribed from the original warrant : — 

" Wells, \ Memd. In p'rsuance of an Act of Parliam 1 . 

Burg. j intituled An Act for the Well governinge and 
regulatinge of Corporacons — Wee have displaced Tho- 
mas White, Esq 1 from beinge Recorder of the City of 
Wells; and in his roome and steed have placed and sett 
John Lord Poulett, Baron of Hinton St. George, Recorder 
of ye City, Av'ch Ellecon and choyce wee the said Com- 
iss'rs Doe ratifie and continue and allow by these pr'sents. 
In wittness whereof wee have hereunto sett o'r hands 
and seales. Geaven the xv th day of October in the xiiij th 
yere of the Raigne of o'r Soveraigne Lord Kinge diaries 
the Second of England, &c. 1662. 

Hugh Smyth. E. Phelipps. 

Will. Wyndham. George Stawell. 

George Norton. E. Phelipps, ju r ." 

John Warre. 

Memd. The day and yere above-named Lord Poulett 
toke the oathes meilconed in the said Act, and subscribed 
the declaracon in the presence of 

E. Phelipps. 
George Norton 
George Stawell. 

The seven Commissioners who subscribed the 
warrant were all gentlemen of the county: — Sir 
Hugh Smyth, of Long Ashton ; Sir William 
Wyndham ; Sir George Norton, of Abbot's Leigh ; 
Sir John Warre, of Hestercombe ; Sir Edward 



32 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. I. Jan. 11, '62. 



Phelipps, of Montacute ; Sir George Stowell, of 
Ham ; and Edw d Phelipps, jun., Esq., of Mont- 
acute. 

I am anxious to obtain some further informa- 
tion of Thomas White, the Recorder, who no 
doubt obtained the office during the Common- 
wealth. According to Browne Willis's Notitia 
Parliamentarian he was made M.P. for Wells on 
the death of Sir Lislebone Long, Speaker of 
Cromwell's Parliament. Ina. 

Willet's Synopsis Papismi. — I possess an 
edition of this work, " Imprinted by Felix Kyng- 
ston for Thomas Man, dwelling in Paternoster 
Row, at the signe of the Talbot, 1600 ; " and 
stated in the title-page to be " now this third 
time pervsed and published by the former author, 
&c." What are the dates of the two former 
editions ? * 

If not out of place, I would also ask your 
worthy correspondent Sexagenakius (see 2 nd S. 
xii. 258) in what respect Dr. Cumming's edition 
of this book is an " atrocious modem reprint " ? I 
trust it is a faithful one, at all events. 

A crabbed hand (writing) has inscribed on the 
title-page of my copy : — 

" Hie liber auro contra, et si quid "auro pretiosius, 
haud carus." 

George Lloyd. 



The Trial, of the Princess of Wales : " A 
Delicate Investigation." — The late Mr. Whit- 
bread stated in his place in the House of Com- 
mons in 1812, that this book was suppressed 
immediately on publication, and bought up at 
an immense expense, some holders receiving 500Z., 
and some as high as 2000*. for their copies. A 
correspondent of " 1ST. & Q." (H. B.) states in No. 
128, 1852, that he was present when the sum of 
500Z. was paid for a copy, by an officer high in 
the service of the then government. 

There is another book, a copy of which lies 
before me, entitled — 

" The Genuine Book, an Inquiry into the conduct of 
H. E. H. The Princess of Wales, before Lords Erskine, 
Spencer, Grenville, and Ellenborough, Commissioners of 
Inquiry, appointed by his Majesty in the year 1806. 
Preprinted from an authentic Copy, superintended through 
the Press by the Et. Hon. Spencer Perceval. London : 
Printed by E. Edwards, Craven Court, Fleet Street, and 
published by W. Lindsell, Wigmore Street, 1813." 

Does this latter work contain the ivhole matter 
of the Delicate Investigation ? Delta. 

[We have before us another copy of the same work, 
with a slight variation in the title-page: " The Genuine 



f * Lowndes notices two previous editions as follows : 
* Lond. 15—, 4to. Lond. 1594, 4to."] 



Book. An Inquiry, or Delicate Investigation into the 
Conduct .... the Four Special Commissioners," &c. 
After "Wigmore Street," follows " Reprinted and Sold bj± 
M. Jones, 5, Newgate Street, 1813." In the same year 
also appeared " Edwards's Genuine Edition. ' The Book ! ' 
or the Proceedings and Correspondence upon the subject 
of the Inquiry into the Conduct of Her Eoyal Highness 
the Princess of Wales, under a Commission appointed by 
the King in the year 1806 : faithfully copied from au- 
thentic documents. To which is prefixed : A Narrative 
of the Eecent Events that have led to the publication of 
the original Documents, with a Statement of Facts rela- 
tive to the Child, now under the protection of Her Eoyal 
Highness. Second Edition. London: Printed by and 
for Richard Edwards, Crane Court, Fleet Street, and sold 
by all booksellers in the United Kingdom, 1813," 8vo. 
i In the " Advertisement " prefixed, it is stated " This 
being the only means by which a fair and impartial 
judgment can be formed upon the 'Delicate Investiga- 
tion ' — the publisher conceives that he is merely per- 
forming an act of justice in delivering to the world a 
genuine and unmutilated copy of the suppressed book, as 
it was printed by him in the year 1807, under the direc- 
tion of the late Mr. Perceval." This " Advertisement " 
is dated "Crane Court, Fleet Street, March 19, 1813." 
For a notice of the original work by Spencer Perceval sea 
his Life and Administration, by Charles Verulam Wil- 
liams, pp. 316—328.] 

Isabella Whitney. — Are any particulars 
known of this lady, who appears to have lived in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and to have written 
several poems ? I do not find her name in Ritson's 
Bibliotheca Poetica. G. A. B. 

[Isabella Whitney's principal work is entitled " A 
Sweet Nosgay, or Pleasant Posye ; containing a hun- 
dred and ten Phylosophicall Flowers," &c. [1573?]. The 
only copy, we believe, known of this work, is the one 
sold in Mr, Bright's Collection ; see his Catalogue, ~No. 
6026, where it is stated, that " this volume is probably 
unique, as it has escaped the notice of all our poetical 
antiquaries, nor is the name of the authoress mentioned 
by bibliographers, although it appears that she had 
written a previous work, of which an account is given 
in The Restituta, i. 234. She was probably of the family 
of Whitney of Cheshire ; as, at the end of the Dedica- 
tion to George Manwairing, she subscribes 'Your wel- 
willyng Countrywoman, Is. W.' After the Xosgay fol- 
low Famityar and friendly Epistles by the Auctor, with 
Eeplyes, all inverse. The volume extends to e viii. : 
the last poem is ' The Auctors (feyned) Testament be- 
fore her departyng,' in which is described the several 
professions and trades of London (to whom they are be- 
queathed), mentioning the localities in which they are 
stationed."] 

MS. Dramas. — Can you oblige me by an- 
swering the following inquiries ? 

L I have a Sale Catalogue of Messrs. Puttick 
and Simpson, 47, Leicester Square. This sale of 
books and MSS. contained a collection of upward 
of 200 MS. dramas, which were forwarded to 
Drury Lane in Sheridan's time. 

Mr. Patmore, in his My Friends and Acquaint- 
ances, devotes upwards of 70 pages to a notice of 
these MSS., and an interesting article relating to 
them appeared in Frasers Magazine about two 
years ago. 



3 rd S. I. Jan. 11, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



33 



Messrs. Puttick and Simpson's sale took place 
on July 22, 1861, and four following days. 
• Can you inform me who was the purchaser of 
these MSS. ? B. Inglis. 

[We learn from a gentleman present at the sale, that 
the MS. Dramas were put up at 100/. and apparently 
bought in for want of an advance upon that sum. A 
note to the auctioneers will doubtless procure the exact 
information required.] 

Khevenhuller Volunteers. — These are men- 
tioned in an Epilogue spoken by Mrs. Woffing- 
ton in the character of a Volunteer, quoted by 
Chetwood in his History of the Stage, p. 255, pub- 
lished in 1749: — 

" Thus, in my country's cause, I now appear 
A bold smart Kbevenhuller volunteer." 

What is the allusion ? Khevenhuller hats are, I 
believe, spoken of by some writers of this period. 

K. 

[The Khevenhuller Volunteers probably derived their 
name from Field Marshal Ludwig Andreas Khevenhuller, 
a distinguished leader and tactician, who served under 
Prince Eugene of Savoy, as commander of a regiment of 
cavalry, and who in the course of his military career ren- 
dered such important services to Austria that Maria The- 
resa, on hearing of his death, exclaimed, ° I lose in him a 
faithful subject, and a defender whom God alone can ade- 
quately recompense." (Born 1683, died 1744.) He wrote 
Instructions for Cavalry, and also for Infantry.] 

The Rev. John Peter Droz.-— Will you kindly 
refer me to any biographical particulars of the 
Rev. John Peter Droz, who was " Minister of the 
French Church at St. Patrick's [Dublin], Impor- 
ter of Foreign Books, and Author of the Monthly 
Literally Journal" (5 vols. 8vo., Dublin, 1744 — 
1748), and died (as recorded in Exshaivs Maga- 
zine, 1751, p. 671) 23rd November, 1751 ? Mr. 
Gilbert makes mention of him in his History of 
Dublin, vol. ii. pp. 270—273, but is slightly in 
error as to the date of his death. Abhba. 

[Droz's Literary Journal was continued at least as far 
as June, 1749, which is now before us. In Warbur ton's 
History of Dublin, ii. 841, it is stated, that it was con- 
tinued after the death of Mr. Droz by the Rev. Mr. Des- 
veaux, and contained a view of the state of learning in 
Europe. Mr. Droz kept a book shop on College Green, 
and exercised his clerical functions on the Lord's Day.] 



LORD NUGENT ON CAPITAL PUNISHMENTS : 
JEMMY THE GYPSY. 

(2 nd S. xii. 397.) 
I have examined the prison books kept in 
Aylesbury Jail, and I find in them the following 
entries referring to the convict, erroneously called 
Ayres by Lord Nugent, and known by tradition 
in this place as Jemmy the Gypsy. These ex- 
tracts, with a quotation from the Calendar of the 



Lent Assize of 1795, satisfactorily explain the 
most remarkable features of the case : — 

"James Eyres, a gypsy, age 73, 5 feet 4 inches high, 
complexion swarthy. Committed December, 1794, by the 
Rev. Ed. Wodley, for Bheepstealing, Respited during 
pleasure. A free pardon \ltli Dec. 1803." 

The Calendar of the Lent Assizes held at Ayles- 
bury, 7th March, 1795, proves that James Eyres 
was condemned " to be hanged by the neck " foe 
sheepstealing. I have frequently heard Lord 
Nugent tell the story as it is quoted by your 
correspondent T. B., and he, no doubt, went to 
press without verifying his anecdote by reference 
to existing official documents ; the attesting wit- 
nesses, since deceased, must also have given their 
testimony without refreshing their memories at 
the same authentic sources. The under-sheriff 
alluded to by Lord Nugent was my maternal 
grandfather, Acton Chaplin, then Clerk of the 
Peace for Bucks, who died in 1814. I have been 
told that he employed the respited convict in his 
farm and garden. As Jemmy was a very clever 
fellow and a good fiddler he became a favourite, 
and was allowed to appear as musician at Mr. 
Chaplin's harvest homes, and sometimes in his 
kitchen. If T. B. will inquire into the treatment 
of respited convicts at the end of the last century 
and beginning of this, he will find that the liberty- 
enjoyed by James Eyres was, at that date, by no 
means extraordinary. 

Acton Tindal, 
Clerk of the Peace for Bucks. 
Manor House, Aylesburj'. 



The story told by Lord Nugent respecting a 
convict named James Ayres, sentenced to death at 
the Spring Assizes, 1802, for Buckinghamshire, 
implies an extraordinary laxity of practice ; but 
as all the particulars are given, the anecdote 
admits of verification. The Hertfordshire case 
mentioned by W. B. is stated to have occurred 
" several years ago and, therefore, probably ad- 
mits of easier verification than the Bucks case. 
The name of the convict, and the date of his con- 
viction, are not however stated. It may be re- 
marked that the story turns upon the supposition 
that a convict is not hanged until the warrant for 
his execution is received : his execution is stated 
to have been delayed because the warrant did not 
arrive at the expected time ; but took place as 
soon as the warrant " came down" ; i. c. apparently 
from the Secretary of State's Office. Now the 
existence of such a document as a # warrant from 
the crown, or the Secretary of State, for the exe- 
cution of a criminal, is a popular error. No such 
authority is required by law, or is ever given. 
After the verdict of guilty by the jury, the judge 
passes sentence of death, but without fixing the 
time or place of the execution. A record of the 
sentence is made by the officer of the court, and 



34 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 r <i S. I. Jan. 11, '62. 



it becomes thereupon the duty of the sheriff to 
carry it into execution. The sheriff fixes a day, 
within the term allowed by law, and makes the 
necessary arrangements for the capital execution, 
which he is bound to carry into effect ; unless the 
crown respites the prisoner, or mitigates the 
punishment. L. 



A case similar to that quoted by W. B. appeared 
in " N. & Q." some years ago, followed by a very 
interesting discussion on respites, reprieves, and 
" warrants for execution," exposing some popular 
errors. See General Index, " Executions De- 
ferred," v. 422, &c. &c. U. 0. N. 



THE EGG, A SYMBOL. 
(2 nd S. xii. 393.) 

The egg was undoubtedly regarded as a symbol 
by the old Mystics, — sometimes of our mundane 
system, and sometimes of the earth only, properly 
so called. In the first case the yolk was supposed 
to represent our world ; the white its circumam- 
bient firmament, or atmosphere ; and the shell 
the solid "crystalline sphere" in which the stars 
were set. In the latter case the idea had refer- 
ence to the seminal principle residing in the egg, 
which likened it to the chaos of our early cosmo- 
gonists, " containing the seeds of all things." This 
opinion appears to have originated in one of those 
distorted refractions of inspired truth so common 
in our ancient mythologies. In the Mosaic narra- 
tive of creation the Spirit of God is represented 
as " moving " (or, according to our best critics, as 
" brooding ") over the waters of the great deep, 
as a bird over her eggs, to bring forth and deve- 
lop the latent life. Milton, himself no mean au- 
thority, so understands the passage, — 

"Dove-like, sat'st brooding o'er the vast abyss;" 
and the notion appears so thoroughly to have per- 
meated the pantheistic creed of Egypt, that all 
their temples — roof, walks, and portico — teem 
with representations of wings in every expressive 
attitude — outspread, cowering, brooding, fanning, 
or protecting ; so that the prophet might well 
speak of this country as "the land shadowing 
with wings" (Isaiah xviii. 1). 

Under this view there would be a very striking 
analogy between the ark and this crude, un- 
fashioned earth, as both containing " the rudi- 
ments of the future world." It is, therefore, not 
at all unlikely that the egg may have symbolised 
both. But if there be any symbolism in the 
matter referred to by Churchdown, of which I 
have grave doubts, I think he had better adopt 
the theory of Dr. Lamb {Hebrew Characters de- 
rived from Hieroglyphics), that the egg typified 
the promised Messiah, the Seed that, in its full 



development, was to bruise the serpent's head. 
In support of this view, he reproduces the well- 
known representation of the Phoenician egg erf* 
circled in the genial folds of the agathod&mon, 
who, under the form of a serpent, is gradually 
warming it into life ; but the picture has done 
service in so many ways before, that for my own 
part I am no believer in the purblind mysticism 
that dogs the footsteps of Theory, but seldom or 
never goes before it. 

And now, perhaps, you will bear with the 
conjecture of a sexagenarian, who, after much 
"weariness of the flesh " in studying the Old 
Philosophies, is settling down to the belief in 
nothing but his Bible, — that these ostrich-eggs 
in our eastern churches are suspended with no 
higher purpose than to overawe the vulgar, and 
produce a wholesome dread of the priesthood and 
their " lying wonders," for thereby, no doubt, 
hangs many a tale ; just as in our own country it 
was usual to exhibit the huge fossil bones of our 
extinct mammals, and call them relics of S. Chris- 
topher, as well as other objects calculated to as- 
tound the masses, to say nothing of the " latten " 
shoulder-blade of Chaucer, his " pigges' bones," or 
those of the eleven thousand virgins whose "chil- 
dren" (!) were so pathetically invoked by O'Conneli 
to avenge the cruel wrongs of " Ould Ireland !" 

Douglas Allpokt. 



The Arabian geni cried out against Aladdin, 
who, in the demand for a roc's egg, had required 
him to bring his master.. 

The mystery of Islam is far older than Ma- 
hommed, and in the gigantic egg, where the 
ostrich substitutes some extinct dinornis, it re- 
cognises the origination of Eastern science in the 
initiation of architecture and its locality. 

This is all that may be told. Other explana- 
tions are secondary : and oriental Christianity is 
largely Pagan. Gnarus. 



YETLIN, OR YETLING; ME SLING. 
(2 nd S. xii. 28, 398.) 

Although the following may not quite settle the 
question, perhaps it may assist Meta. In every 
house, rich and poor, in Ireland, at least in my 
wanderings about that country some years ago, 
which were to a large extent, I found an iron, 
either cast or wrought, utensil, called a "gris- 
ling," or " grisset," an indispensable article in the 
kitchen. The best description I can give of it 
(without a cut, or illustration) is this. An oblong 
figure of ten or twelve inches, and four or five 
inches girth, if cut in two, lengthwise, and then 
scooped out, with a handle placed in the centre, 
and three feet, such as described by Meta, — if 
anyone can comprehend this crude description, it 



s. i. Jan. 11, »62.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 35 



will represent the " grissct." It is used for 
melting butter, making sauce, and a hundred 
other purposes, for which it is most appropriate. 
I often imagined it derived its Hibernian appel- 
lation from the greasy uses to which it is turned. 
Can there be any likeness between this and the 
article alluded to by Mbta ? S. Redmond. 

Liverpool. 



In connection with the words " geotan," " gyde," 
and " zete," should be mentioned the technical 
word "git," in daily use among iron-founders, 
and signifying the channel through which the 
melted metal runs to the mould. 1 have heard 
its derivation ascribed to the Old English " gate," 
as applied to the "track" of an animal, but think 
it may be far more plausibly connected with the 
present series of words. " J. Eliot Hodgkin. 

West Derby. 



The round iron pot with a bow handle and 
three short feet is in general use in almost every 
farm-house and labourer's cottage in North Der- 
byshire, and is called a meslin, or maslin-pot ; it 
is generally used for mixing and boiling porridge 
in ; the smaller ones for the family, the larger 
ones for pigs or calves. The etymology of the 
word is probably from the French meter, to 
mingle, or: mix. Getlin or Yetlin of your cor- 
respondent Meta is most probably a corruption 
of the more correct meslin. XXX. 

Idridgehay. 



I have seen the following in a Lancashire in- 
ventory of 1636 among other kitchen goods : — 
" 1 posnet and 1 great pann." 

P. P. 



BEATTIE'S POEMS. 
(2 nd S. xii. 383.) 
The question raised by J. O. in regard to the 
date of the first appearance of Original Poems 
and Ti-anslations, by James Beattie, A.M., is a 
somewhat difficult and perplexing one. Alex- 
ander Bower, the earliest and most interesting of 
the biographers of Dr. Beattie, writing in 1804, 
says : — " The first edition of Beattie's Poems is 
one of the scarcest books in the English lan- 
guage." The copy of Original Poems and Trans- 
lations in J. O.'s possession is unmistakeably what 
Bower regarded as the Jirst edition. He gives a 
very minute and particular account of its pub- 
lication, which Chalmers evidently founds on. 
Indeed Bower has had the usual hard fate of 
literary antiquaries. His laboriously amassed facts 
have been borrowed without the least scruple or 
apology, and in most cases without the slightest 



acknowledgment. From his pages I quote the 
following advertisements, which are sufficiently 
curious to merit a place in the columns of " N. 
& Q." They appeared originally in the Aberdeen 
Journal : — 

"18th March, 1700. This day are published, and to 
be had at the booksellers' shops, proposals for printing 
by subscription, in an octavo volume, with an elegant 
type and fine paper, original poems and translations by 
J. Beattie, M.A. Subscriptions will bo taken in by all 
the booksellers in Edinburgh and Aberdeen, and by 
Charles Thomson in Montrose." 

A second advertisement appeared in the same 
newspaper upon the 8th of December following, 
that the poems were to be published about the 
beginning of February, 1761, and a third uoon 
Monday, the 16th of Feb. 1761, as follows : — 

" We are informed that this day is published, on a 
fine demy paper, and with an elegant type, price 3s. and 
Gd. stitched in blue paper, original poems and transla- 
tions by James Beattie, A.M. London, printed and sold 
by A. Millar in the Strand, and sold by the booksellers 
of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Montrose, and Aberdeen. Sub- 
scribers may be furnished with their copies at the shops 
of F. Douglass, B. Farquhar, A. Thomson and A. Angus, 
Aberdeen ; and at the house of Charles Thomson, Mon- 
trose." 

Sir Wm. Forbes, the intimate friend, the ex- 
ecutor and biographer of Beattie, says the Ori- 
ginal Poems and Translations were published in 
1760, but makes no reference to this subscription 
edition. Sir William and Lowndes are right, 
however, in giving 1760 as the date of the first 
edition. I have in my collection a copy of the 
Poems and Translations, which formerly belonged 
to the famous Peter Buchan, the painter, printer, 
boat- builder, and ballad antiquary of Peterhead. 
The following forms its title page : — 

" Original Poems and Translations. B}' James Beattie, 
A.M. London : Printed and sold by A. Millar in the 
Strand, mdcclx." 

It is on a fine demy paper, with an elegant 
type, and stitched in blue paper. In short, it 
has all the external marks of the subscription 
edition except the date. I am inclined to believe 
that the issue of 1761 is simply that of 1760 with 
a new title-page. Would J. O. confer the favour 
of saying whether his edition corresponds with 
mine in the following particulars : Mine has x. 
pages of introductory matter. It has an " N.B." 
regarding " the fourth, fifth, and tenth pastorals " 
on the fly-leaf immediately succeeding, — then 
two pages of Contents. The poems extend from 
sig. a to a a 3, comprising 188 pages. The first 
poem — the "Ode to Peace" — is headed with an 
ornament of three lozenges, each containing nine 
asterisks, the whole flanked on either margin by 
two circular sun-like marks. In page 13, 1. 6 
from top, the last word of the line — u bring" — has 
been printed with a badly formed b. The stem 
is thick, and the bottom angle has been so im- 



36 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. [8* s. i. Jan. 11, '62. 



perfectly preserved that it seems very like the 
figure 6, and appears almost falling away from 
the rest of the word. 

These early editions of Beattie's Poems were 
faulty only in this respect, that the composition 
of several of the pieces failed to satisfy the later 
over-fastidious taste of the author. He bought 
up and destroyed every copy he could find. Hence 
their rarity. J ohn S. Gibb. 

Aldar. 



Grammar Schools (2 nd S. xii. 502.) — I regret 
that I cannot furnish your correspondent with a 
complete list of the schools founded by our sixth 
Edward. Potts's Liber Cantabrigiensis mentions 
the following establishments in the enumeration 
of those to which are attached fellowships, scholar- 
ships, and exhibitions tenable at the University 
of Cambridge. Perhaps the quotation thereof 
may do something towards satisfying the "want" 
of F. J. H. :— 



Crediton 
Sherborne - 
Marlborough 
Birmingham 
Ludlow 
Louth - 



1547 
1551 
1551 
1552 
1552 
1552 



Bedford - - 1552 

Chelmsford - - 1552 

Christ's Hospital - 1553 

Shrewsbury- - 1553 

Stourbridge - - 1553 

Giggleswick - 1553 



Norwich was " originally founded by Bishop 
Salmon and established by Edward VI., by whom 
a charter was granted to the city, and [revenues 
assigned for a schoolmaster." 

Kendal, founded in 1535 by Adam Pennyngton 
of Boston, Lincolnshire, " received endowments 
successively from King Edward VI., Queen Mary, 
Queen Elizabeth, and other benefactors. 

St. S within. 

* " Sic Transit Gloria Mundi " (2 Dd S. xii. 
483.) — 

"In Bom. Pontificum inauguratione interea dum de 
more sacellum D. Gregorii declaratus pnetergreditur, 
Ipsum prseit ceremoniarum magister gestans arundines 
seu carinas duas, quarum alteri sursum apposita est can- 
dela ardens, quam alteri cannse, cui superpositse stuppaj 
sunt, adhibet, incenditque dicens: Pater Sancte, sic 
Transit Gloria Mundi. Quod et ipsum tertio iterat. 
Unde Paradinus sumpsit symbolum quod inter heroica 
sua posuit; Nil Solidum. Hoc olim non ignorarunt 
Bomani. Nam si alicui ex ipsorum ducibus vel Impera- 
toribus ob res feliciter gestas, et hostibus devictis, tri- 
umphus a Senatu decretus esset, et is in curru triumphali 
maxima pompa urbem ingrederetur, eodem curru car- 
nifex minister publicus vehebatur*, qui pone coronam 
auream gem mis distinctam sustinens, eum admonebat, ut 
respiceret, id est, ut reliquum vitse spacium provideret, 
nec eo honore elatus superbiret. Appensa quoque erat 
currui nola et flagellum : quae innuebant eum in tantas 
calamitates inciclere posse ut et flagris csederetur, et ca- 
pite damnaretur. Nam qui ob facinus supremo supplicio 
afficiebantur nolas gestare solebant, ne quis inter eundum 

* Zonaras, lib. ii. 



contactu illorum piaculo se obstringeret." — Philippi Ca- 
merarii Meditationes Historicce, 1644, p. 76. 

BlBLIOTHECAR. ChETHAM. 

Leamer (2 nd S. xii. 365, 444.) — This word has 
been used all my time in the Midland Counties 
to denote a nut so thoroughly ripe as to fall out of 
its husk if the bough be shaken whereon it hangs. 
If, for instance, a person pulled down a bough in 
order to get the nuts on it, and one fell out of its 
husk, he would say " That is a leamer," in contra- 
distinction to those that remained in their husks. 
My impression is that the word is derived from 
the verb " to learn," to separate, or fall out, though 
I am not certain that I have heard that word 
used. 

Mr. Robinson, in his Whitby Glossary, has 
f! Learners or brown learners, large filbert nuts ; " 
and he now informs me that the word is invariably 
used in Yorkshire with " brown " before it. I do 
not, however, remember it to have been so used, 
or limited to large nuts, or applied to filberts ; by 
which I understand such nuts as have a husk 
which entirely surrounds them. As a nut which 
is ripe enough to fall out of its husk is always 
brown, it is easy to see how the term " brown" 
may have become generally used with "leamer." 

Mr. Robinson gives " to learn, to replenish the 
rock of the spinning-wheel with tow," the rock 
being the distaff upon which the tow is wound ; 
and he refers me to Marshall's list of old words at 
the end of his Rural Economy of Yorkshire for 
that explanation of the term. At first sight that 
explanation may seem to be inconsistent with the 
meaning I have given to the term, but perhaps 
the word may have been originally applied to the 
separation of the tow from the bulk during the 
operation of replenishing the rock. 

C. S. Greaves. 

P.S. — Since the above was written I have seen 
a very clever farmer in Derbyshire, who tells me 
that he has heard "leamer" always applied to 
nuts that were so ripe as to fall out of their husks, 
and that he has heard the term " to leam " applied 
to nuts and such like things as fall out of their 
husks. This seems to settle the meaning of both 
the terms "leamer" and "leam." 

Lambeth Degrees (2 nd S. xii. 456, 529.) — 
Will your correspondent W. 1ST. point out the 
section of the Act 25 Hen. VIII. c. 21, which 
meets the question ; that is, which empowers the 
archbishop to grant degrees, and that such degrees 
require confirmation under the Great Seal ? 

J. R. 

Recovery oe Things lost (2 nd S. xii. 334, 445, 
506.) — A gentleman who was in the habit of fre- 
quenting a favourite spot for the sake of a view 
that interested him, used to lounge on a rail ; and 
one day, in a fit of absence, got fumbling about 



3 rd S. I. Jan. 11, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



37 



the post in which one end of the rail was inserted. 
On his road home he missed a valuable ring : he 
went back again and looked very diligently for it 
without success. A considerable time afterwards, 
on visiting his old haunt and indulging in his 
usual fit of absence, he was very agreeably sur- 
prised to find the ring on his finger again ; and 
which appears to have been occasioned by (in 
both instances) his pressing his finger in the aper- 
ture of the post, which just fitted sufficiently with 
a pressure to hold the ring. I afterwards tried 
the experiment at the spot, and found it perfectly 
easy to have been effected with an easily-fitting 
ring. P. 

Errors in Books on the Peerage (2 nd S. xii. 
385.) — These errors arc not likely to be lessened 
by crude correction. The name in dispute is not 
Norbonne but Norborne, as may be seen on the 
monument of Walter Norborne, Esq. in Calne 
Church, and as might be proved in many other 
ways, did the proper spelling of a family name, 
well known to Wiltshire genealogists, admit of a 
moment's doubt. J. 

Gilbert Tyson (2 nd S. xii. 418.) — Gilbert 
Tyson was Lord of Alnwick, Bridlington, Malton, 
and many other great estates in the north at the 
time of the Norman Conquest. His eldest son 
was William, and his other son Richard. Wil- 
liam's only child, Alda, was given in marriage by 
William the Conqueror to Yvo de Vesci, from 
whom the present Lord de Vesci is descended 
(Burke's Peerage). The line of Richard Tyson 
ended in an only daughter, Benedicta, married to 
William Lord Hilton (Hutchinson's Northumber- 
land, vol. ii. p. 208). Both Gilbert Tyson and 
William his son fought at Hastings. Hutchinson, 
in the note at p. 208, says William fell at Hast- 
ings on the side of William the Conqueror in the 
lifetime of his father; but in the note at p. 210, 
he says that Gilbert was slain at Hastings on the 
side of Harold, and left Alnwick to his son Wil- 
liam ; citing Randal's MSS., and 2 Dugd. Monast. 
Camden's Brit. Northuvib., p. 754 (Gibson's ed. 
London, 1G95), says, William fell fighting for 
Harold ; and Dane-Gelt calls Gilbert one of the 
Conqueror's followers. Can any one clear up 
these inconsistencies ? 

A family of Tyson was resident at Kendal in 
Westmoreland about the middle of the last cen- 
tury. Can any one give me information as to 
that family ? A. B. 

Lengo Moundino (2" d S. xii. '309, 458.) — I 
am persuaded that the readers of " N. & Q." in 
general will join with me in thanking M. Ansas 
for the information he has so kindly given re- 
specting the origin of the term moundi. I would 
beg to venture a step further, and inquire whether 
your correspondent can tell us anything of the 



modern poet mentioned in my former communi- 
cation, Louis Vestrepainf 

I observe as one of the peculiarities of the dia- 
lect of Toulouse, that o is a feminine termination; 
•as, for instance, in the word Lengo. And here 
the question naturally arises, whether the "Len- 
go " of Southern France is to be looked on as the 
origin of our English Lingo ? Johnson describes 
" Lingo " as Portuguese : but I should think it 
quite as likely that the word came to us from 
Guienne. The influence produced on the people 
of England by their intercourse with Poitou and 
Acquitaine under the Plantagenets is a subject 
that invites investigation. P. S. Caret. 

Commissariat of Lauder (2 nd S. xii. 417.) — 
There is in my possession an Index of Deeds 
registered in the Commissary Court -books of 
Lauder from 1654 to 1809, when the right of 
registering deeds was transferred to the Sheriff 
Court. 

Mr. Romernes, at Lauder, N. B., has all the 
old records in his possession. M. G. F. 

Orkney Island Discoveries (2 nd S. xii. 478.) 
— Your correspondent's interesting information, 
respecting the probable earliest inhabitants of the 
British Islands, is borne out by several particulars 
as far as Ireland is concerned. It would seem 
that the " Feni," Peine, or " Finni " — the military 
celebrated in Ossianic poetry, and styled the an- 
cient 4i Irish militia" — were of Finnish extrac- 
tion. I have other points, which I would gladly 
communicate to F. C. B. Herbert Hore. 

Conservative Club. 

Laminas (2 nd S. xii. 10.) — I possess (but not 
before me while writing) a circular plate of about 
6 inches diameter, cast in copper or red brass, 
the face being chased and in high relief. It re- 
presents a figure, nude but for a girdle of hanging 
feathers (ostrich, perhaps), and a multiplicity of 
necklaces, armlets, earrings, and so forth. In the 
left-hand, which is advanced, is a long staff with 
one or two globular expansions. At the foot is a 
somewhat flattened vase or censer, and various 
kinds of fruit, and in various parts of the disk a 
rhinoceros, a monkey, a snake, and so forth. I 
describe from memory only. It bears no ap- 
pearance of having been painted or gilt, but is 
of a fine dark green bronze colour. I should be 
glad to know "if any one can offer a plausible 
conjecture as to its origin or date. At first I 
imagined it to represent an American Indian ; 
but the rhinoceros forbids that supposition. I 
am now more inclined to think it of Spanish or 
Portuguese workmanship of two or three hundred 
years old, perhaps, and intended to represent a 
native of some of the eastern islands^ It has 
been many years in our family, but was picked up 
at a sale probably by my father. J. San. 



38 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[3"* S. I. Jan. 11, '62. 



Mary Woffington (2 nd S. xi. 354 ; xii. 440.) 
— Of the children of " Captain " (or " the Hon. 
and Rev. Robert") Cholmondeley by his mar- 
riage with "Miss Mary Woffington," otherwise 
u Mary, daughter of Arthur Woffington, Esq.," 
two only appear to have survived their infancy 
— George James, the eldest son, and Hester 
Frances, the youngest daughter ; the former of 
whom married three wives — 1st, Marcia, daughter 
of John Pitt, Esq. ; 2ndly, Catharine, daughter of 
Sir Philip Francis, K.B. ; and Srdly, Hon. Maria 
Elizabeth Townsend, second daughter of Viscount 
Sydney ; the latter, Hester Frances, married Wil- 
liam, afterwards, Sir Wm. Bellingham, of Castle 
Bellingham, Ireland, Bart. In the Life of Hon. 
Edmund Burke, it is stated that Margaret Wof- 
fington, an Irishwoman and an actress of " great 
reputation, was of very humble origin. While 
she was a child, her mother, a poor widow, kept 
a small grocer's — or, to use the Irish term, a 
huckster's — shop, on Ormond Quay, Dublin."* 
How _ is this account to be reconciled with the 
description given of her sister in the peerages ? 
Do any references to other members of the 
family occur elsewhere ? Henry W. S. Taylor. 

Heraldic (2 nd S. xii. 10.) — Shaw of Sanchie 
and Greenock. The armorial bearings of this 
family is azure, three covered cups or, supported 
by two savages wreathed about the middle ; and 
for crest, a demi-savage, with this motto, " I 
mean well." — Crawford (and Temple's) History 
of the Shire of Renfrew, 1782. 

The arms (but without crest, supporters, or 
motto), are carved on a fountain, with the date 
1629, at Greenock Mansion-house, with a mullet, 
however, between the cups. A stone formerly 
in the abbey wall at Paisley, and now built into 
the front of a house in the neighbourhood, bears 
an inscription to the effect that " abbot georg of 
schawe," " gart make yis wav," and has the cups 
arranged one and two, instead of two and one, 
the usual way. J . San. 

Edward Halsey Bockett (2 nd S. xii. 471.) — 
Julia R. Bockett is in error with regard to the 
position of Mr. Bockett's grave. Mr. Bockett 
was not buried in the nave of the Bath Abbey 
Church, but near the east end of the north aisle 
of the choir, immediately behind Prior Birde's 
Chapel. The stone is close to the skreen of the 
chapel, and bears the following inscription : — 

" Edw d Halsey Bockett, Esq r , 
Died February 5 th , 1813, 
Aged 46." 

I remember the sexton mentioning to me that 
inquiries had been made respecting this stone, 

* The Public and Domestic Life of the Right Hon. 
Edmund Burke. By Peter Burke, Esq., of the Inner 
Temple and the Northern Circuit. 2nd Ed. 1854, p. 18. 



when I pointed it out to him. This may probably 
have been about the date referred to. 

C. P. Russell, 
Clerk of the Abbey Church. 

Charles II. after the Battle of Worcester 
(2 nd S. xii. 522.) — Is it not likely that, after the 
battle, some of Charles's friends might have gone 
in different directions towards the coast, in order 
to mislead and divert the pursuit ? There is no 
doubt that he was at Boscobel after the defeat, 
having made his way thither by the most direct 
road, through Stourbridge and over Cannock 
Chase. Mr. Sparrow's house, at Ipswich, is not 
Nidus Passerum ; that name belongs to a small 
country residence here, belonging to the family. 
The late John Eddowes Sparrow, Esq., who took 
great interest in the question, was firmly im- 
pressed with the belief that his ancestor had given 
refuge to Charles in Ipswich, and in the old house 
in the Butter Market. The same belief was held 
by his father and his grandfather, all men of pro- 
bity and consideration in the town. The cham- 
ber in which it is believed Charles was concealed, 
is the roof of a larger apartment ; but whether a 
chapel or not, cannot now be ascertained. Mr. 
John Gough Nichols has thought that this 
"chapel chamber" was nothing more than the 
top of the entrance hall, which reached from the 
basement to the roof of the house : this must have 
been an error, because, if so, the fine apartment, 
which occupies the entire of the first floor, would 
have been destroyed by such an arrangement ; 
and that this room was always a portion unmuti- 
lated of the house itself there can be no doubt, 
for the reason that the ornamentation of the ceil- 
ing and walls remains uninjured. ; E. S. W. 

Burial in a Sitting Posture (2 nd S. ix. 44, 
513 ; x. 159, 396.) — Mr. H. B. Martini writes in 
the Navorscher, vol. iv. p. 232 : — 

" Near the village of Vegcbel in North Brabant, there 
formerty arose the Castle of Frisselsteyn. Tradition says, 
that a decease in the De Jong family, whose property it 
had become some time ago (towards the beginning of 
the last century), having occasioned the opening of the 
vault, belonging to the manor, in the village church, the 
mourners were not a little surprised to find the bodies 
of the preceding lords and inhabitants of Frisselsteyn, 
not in coffins, but seated together in a ghastly circle on three- 
legged wooden chairs, such as are still now and then seen 
in the rustic cottages of the province. After the lord of 
that time, with the bystanders, had for a moment stared 
at this spectacle of "horrible sociability, the intruding 
outer air had made the decayed remains crumble in, and 
fall into shapelessness. Thus says the legend, communi- 
cated in 1854 by Mrs. de Loecker, of Leenwensteyn at 
Vught, and it is from her, as a scion of the De Jong 
family aforesaid, we now obtain leave to publish what 
she had accepted by oral transmission from her grand- 
father and father." 

The following paragraph from the New York 
Independent of Oct. 20, 1859 (vol. xi. No. 568), 
affords another and a more touching instance : — 



3"» S. I. Jan. 11, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



39 



M When David Bruce, the Moravian missionary amongst 
the Wampanno Indians, was drawing near to death, he 
called his dusky disciples about him in the mission-house, 
and pressed their hands to his bosom, and with many 
counsels bade them farewell. And so fell asleep. There 
was no white man there besides, but the devout Indians 
made great lamentations over him, and buried him as 
well as they knew how in their Indian fashion. The 
funeral procession consisted of two canoes, with which 
they paddled him across the Lake of Grace — Gnaden-See 
— to their Indian burial-ground ; old Father Gideon, one 
of his native converts, making a 1 powerful discourse ' at 
the grave. And last spring, when the Moravians came 
looking for the grave, they found the body in a sitting 
posture, Indian fashion, resting in hope." 

John H. van Lennep. 

Zeyst, near Utrecht. 

G. S., Miniature Painter, 1756 (2 nd S. xii. 
521.) — In reply to Clarry's Query, I beg to 
say that about four years and a half ago I pur- 
chased at a local sale two very well executed 
water-colour drawings of the Grey Friars' tower 
in this town. They were done by Sillett, a painter 
who resided in Norfolk Street in this town, but 
afterwards went to Norwich, from whence he is 
said, traditionally, to have originally come ; and 
when I purchased them they were stated to be old, 
and in fact, that they had been in existence some 
sixty years previously and upwards. 

He is said to have been in Lynn in 1800 or 
1801, but tradition hands this to me. I cannot 
say what his Christian name was, nor whether it 
was " George" or not ; but I think it very likely 
that Sillett's father was of Norwich, and that pos- 
sibly some trace may be found there. 

John Nurse Chadwick. 

King's Lynn. 

St. Napoleon (3 rd S. i. 13.) — The only account 
I have met with of St. Napoleon is on a supple- 
mentary leaf added to the Abrege de la Vie des 
Saints, by Gueffier, jeune, 1807. It is there stated 
that among the martyrs of Alexandria in the per- 
secution of Dioclesian, was one named Neopolis or 
Neopole, who, after suffering many torments with 
great constancy, for the faith of Christ, died of 
his wounds in prison. According to the Italian 
mode of pronouncing names in the middle ages, 
this saint was called Napoleon, or more frequently 
Napoleone. It is, however, pretty evident that 
we should have heard little or nothing of this 
martyr but for the desire to search out whatever 
might be recorded of the patron saint of the first 
Emperor Napoleon. F. C. H. 

Wells City' Seals and their Symbols (3 rd S. 
i. 10.) — I think a probable explanation of these 
seals is, that the tree is an emblem of the pros- 
perity of the city, the tree planted by the running 
waters, suggested by the wells, and in allusion to 
the words of the first Psalm. I do not consider 
the birds or the fish to have any particular signi- 
fication. Where water was represented, it was 



natural to place fishes in it, as we constantly find 
in the pictures of St. Christopher, but where the 
fishes have no connexion with the legend. In like 
manner, where there was a tree, it was obvious to 
represent birds perched upon it. Possibly there 
may be some allusion to the parable of the mus- 
tard seed, and the birds may be sheltered in the 
branches of the tree as emblems of the protecting 
shade of the prosperous city ; but I am inclined to 
think that the birds and the fishes were not intro- 
duced with any symbolical meaning. We find 
them perpetually in old pictures and tapestry 
merely as appropriate adjuncts, and such they are 
apparently on these seals. F. C. II. 

" Theatrical Portraits Epigrammatically 
delineated" (2 nd S. xii. 473.) — I have never 
met with this book, but probably the author was 
"Sun" Taylor, a great theatrical quidnunc. A 
comparison of it with the theatrical remarks in 
his Records of my Life, might, if the opinions ex- 
pressed coincide, establish the probability of the 
authorship. Wm. Douglas. 

Luther's Version of the Apocrypha (2 nd S. 
xii. 472.) — Mr. Borradaile seems to have over- 
looked the Latin Vulgate, from which Luther 
translated the Apocryphal books. With refer- 
ence to these books generally, and to Judith in 
particular, the text is in the most unsatisfactory 
state. The copies of the Greek differ very ma- 
terially from one another. The Vulgate is widely 
different from the older Latin version. The 
Syriac translation differs much from all the rest. 
Of some of the books, we have the Greek original ; 
of others, it is uncertain in what language they 
were first written. The extraordinary discrepan- 
cies suggested that their purity was not guarded 
with the same jealous care as the Canonical books. 
We want a good English work on the subject. 

13. EL C. 

Sun-Dial and Compass (2 nd S. xii. 480.) — 
In reply to the Query of Sigma Tau, I observe 
that I also have a small silver horizontal sun- 
dial by Butterfield, a Paris. Upon its face are 
engraved dials for several latitudes, and at the 
back a table of principal cities. It is set by a 
compass, and the gnomon adjusted by a divided 
arc. The N. point of the compass-box is fixed in 
a position to allow for variation — probably at 
Paris — and, judging from this, it would appear 
to have been made about 1716. Sigma Tau will 
find a description and drawing of an exactly 
similar dial in Stone's translation of Bion on 
Mathematical Instruments, 1758. N. T. Heineken. 

Children Hanged (2 nd S. xi. 327.) — So late 
as 1831 a boy nine years of age was hung at 
Chelmsford for arson committed at Witham in 
the county of Essex. A. Copland. 



40 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[>d S. I. J AS. 11, '62. 



'Mt&ttTUiwawt* 

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The History of Modern Europe, from the Fall of Con- 
stantinople in 1453 to the War in the Crimea in 1857. By 
Thomas Henry Dyer. In Four Volumes. ( Vols. 1. and 
JZ.) (Murray). 

When one considers the vast amount of time and at- 
tention which the literary men of England and of the 
Continent have, during the last half-century, bestowed 
upon the histories of their respective countries, it is 
not surprising that so far-seeing and judicious a pub- 
lisher as Mr. Murray should consider that the moment 
had arrived when these various materials might be ad- 
vantageously employed in the preparation of a fresh 
work on the general History of Modern Europe. The 
four centuries treated of in the present History comprise 
the period during which that political unity which dis- 
tinguishes modern Europe from the Europe of the 
Middle Ages has been in existence ; but though the com- 
mencement of this change dates from the French wars in 
Italy towards the close of the fifteenth century, Mr. 
Dyer has adopted the generally received view which re- 
gards the capture of Constantinople by the Turks as the 
true epoch of modern history. From this capture of 
Constantinople, therefore, to the Pontificate of Leo X. 
and the commencement of the Reformation, forms the 
first of the eight Epochs or Books into which the present 
history is divided ; and embraces the consolidation of the 
great monarchies and the rudiments of the European 
system. The second, which gives down to the Council 
of Trent, shows the origin and progress of the Lutheran 
^Reformation. The third, which concludes with the Peace 
of Vervins, contains one of the phases of the struggle 
between France and the House of Austria, as well as the 
French wars of religion, and the final establishment of 
Protestantism in England and Holland. The fourth, ex- 
tending to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, shows Ger- 
many settling down after a thirty years' war into its 
present condition, the rise of the Scandinavian king- 
doms as European powers, the decline of Spain, and 
France emerging through the policy of Bichelieu as the 
leading state in Europe. Here the work terminates for 
the present. Two more volumes will complete Mr. Dyer's 
labours. As he has consulted, with great industrj', the 
best writers of different countries — and in many in- 
stances, original authorities — shown good judgment in 
the use of his materials, and given ample references to 
his authorities, the work is calculated to supply the 
place of Russell's Modern Europe, both' to the general 
reader and to the historical student. 

Recollections of A. N. Welby Pugin, and his Father 
Augustus Pugin. With Notices of his Works. By Ben- 
jamin Ferrey, Architect ; with an Appendix by E. Sheri- 
dan Purcell, Esq. (Stanford.) 

Welby Pugin has left traces of his influence over the 
entire length and breadth of the country — no where 
more prominently than in the beautiful pile which will 
carry down to posterity the name of Sir Charles Barry, 
the Palace of Westminster. While his brother architects 
and other admirers of Gothic Art are contemplating a 
public memorial to his honour, his old friend and fellow- 
pupil, Mr. Ferrey, has collected into a volume the strange 
materials of his strange and wayward life. This has 
obviously been on Mr. Ferrey's part a labour of love, and 
the book cannot fail to awaken in all who read it an 
increased admiration of Pugin' s genius, mingled with a 
feeling of considerate sympathy for the weaknesses and 
eccentricities by which that genius was accompanied. 



The Student's Greece. A History of Greece. By Wil- 
liam Smith. LL.D. Twenty-fifth Thousand. (Murray.) 

A History of Rome. With Chapters on the History of 
Literature and Art. By Henry G. Liddell, Dean of 
Christ Church. Eighteenth Thousand. (Murray.) 

The Student's Gibbon. The History of the Decline and 
Fall of the Roman Empire, by Edward Gibbon, abridged 
by William Smith, LL.D. Sixth Thousand. (Murray.) 

The Student's Hume. A History of England, based on 
the History of David Hume, and continued doivn to the 
Year 1858. Eighteenth Thousand. (Murray.) 

In these days, when everybody is expected to know 
everything, Mr. Murray has done good service alike to 
those who are beginning to learn, and to those who are 
beginning to forget what they have learned, by the pub" 
lication of such ably compiled compendiums as these 
before us. Compact, concise, neatly printed, well-illus- 
trated, and carefully indexed, they are models of Handy 
Books for the Library,"as well as class books for the study. 
No wonder then that the words " twenty-fifth thousand," 
" eighteenth thousand," &c. — words so sweet to the 
ears of publishers — figure upon their title-pages. 

The Old Folks from Home ; or a Holiday in Ireland in 
1861. By Mrs. Alfred Gatty. (Bell & Daldy.) 

A series of letters, containing a pleasant mixture of 
sketches of social life, and scientific and legendary gos- 
sip ; and like everything which proceeds from the pen of 
Mrs. Gatty, both improving and amusing. 

Village Sketches, Descriptive of Club and School Fes- 
tivals, and other Village Gatherings and Institutions. By 
T. C. Whitehead, M.A., Incumbent of Gawcott. (Bos- 
worth & Harrison.) 

A little volume which ought to be read by every 
country clergyman, and well deserving the attention of 
those who, having charge of populous town parishes, are 
anxious to promote the well-being of their poorer parish- 
ioners. 

The London Diocesan Calendar and Clergy List for the 
Year of Our Lord 1862. (J.' H. & J. Parker.) 

This ecclesiastical almanack is almost indispensable 
to the London clergy, from the extent and variety 
of the information it contains upon matters on which 
they are peculiarly interested. 



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Best, William, D.D., Essay on the Daily Service of the Church of 

England. 12mo. 1746. 
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and Religion. 12mo. 1670. 

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3 rd S. I. Jan. 18, '62.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



41 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 18, 1862. 



CONTENTS. — No. 3. 
NOTES : — Memoir of William Oldys, Esq., Norroy-King-at- 
Arras, 41 — The Registers of the Stationers' Company, 44 

— Liquorice, 46 — Gleanings from "The Statutes at 
Large," 47 — Chief Justices Quondam Highwaymen, lb. 

Minor Notes: — On the Degrees of Comparison— Sebas- 
tian Cabot — Sunday Newspapers — The "ParcauxCerfs" 
Jefferson Davis — Gregory of Paulton, 48 

QUERIES: — Prophecies of St. Malachi respecting the 
Popes, 49 — Coins inserted in Tankards — Crony — Learned 
Dane on Unicorns — Sir H. Davy and James Watt — Euri- 
pides and Menander — " God's Providence is mine In- 
heritance " — Madame Guyon's Autobiography — Families 
who trace from Saxon Times — Harrisons of Berks — 
Irish Peers — Juryman's Oath — Letting the New Year in 

— Materials — Name wanting in Coleridge's '* Table-Talk " 
The Passing Bell — Redmond Crest — St. Aulaire — Tilt 
Pamily — Warner Pedigree, 50. 

Queries with Answers : — Otho Vsenius: John of Milan 

— Proba Falconia — Ancient Games, 53. 

REPLIES :— Dr. John Hewett, 54— Cotgreave Forgeries J3. 
Solicitors' Bills, 55 — Biblical Literature : William Carpen- 
ter — Commissariat of Lauder — Muff — Bishops' Thrones 
Old Libraries — Aristotle on Indian Kings — Rev. W. 
Stephens — Mary Ashford — Pordage Family — The Book- 
Worm — The Mole and the Campbells — Knaves' Acre — 
Unsuccessful Prize Poems — Architectural Proportion — 
Richard Shelley — Arthur Shorter — Stonehenge — 
Archery Proverbs — Isabel and Elizabeth, 55. 

Notes on Books. 

MEMOIR OF WILLIAM OLDYS, ESQ., 

NORROY KINO- AT- ARMS. 

(Continued from p. 23.) 

Humphrey Wanley, the learned librarian of the 
first two Earls of Oxford, had now been dead 
more than ten years, and Oldys was probably 
expecting to be nominated his successor. Such an 
appointment, with a fixed salary, would relieve him 
from all perplexity in domestic matters, and would 
be therefore infinitely more congenial to his re- 
tired habits of life, than the precarious, and in 
some cases, paltry remuneration received from the 
booksellers. He thus expresses his own feelings 
at this time : — 

" In the latter end of the year 1737 I published my 
British Librarian ; and when his Lordship understood 
how unproportionate the advantages it produced were to 
the time and labour bestowed upon it, he said he would 
find me employment better worth my while. Also, when 
he heard that I was making interest with Sir Robert 
Walpole, through the means of Commissioner Hill, to 
present him with an abstract of some ancient deeds I had 
relating to his ancestors, and which I have still, his Lord- 
ship induced me to decline that application, saying, 
though he could not do as grand things as Sir Robert, he 
would do that which might be as agreeable to me, if I 
would disengage myself from all other persons and pur- 
suits." — Autobiography. 

In the following year the Earl of Oxford ap- 
pointed him his literary secretary, which afforded 



him an opportunity of consulting his extensive 
collections, and thus gratifying his predilection 
for bibliographical researches. During his brief 
connection with this u Ark of Literature," he fre- 
quently met at the Earl's table George Vertue, 
Alexander Pope, and other eminent literary cha- 
racters. These three short years may be regarded 
as among the most happy of his chequered exist- 
ence. We have from his own pen the following 
plaintive record of his daily pursuits at this time : 

"I had then also had, for several years, some depend- 
ence upon a nobleman, who might have served me in the 
government, and had, upon certain motived, settled an 
annuity upon me of twenty pounds a year. This I re- 
signed to the said nobleman for an incompetent consider- 
ation, and signed a general release to him, in May, 1738, 
that I might be wholly independent, and absolutely at 
my Lord Oxford's command. I was likewise then under 
an engagement with the undertakers of the Sujrplemtnt 
to Boyle's Dictionary.* I refused to digest the materials 
I then had for this work under an hundred pounds a 
year, till it was finished ; but complied to take forty shil- 
lings a sheet for what I should write, at such intervals as 
my business would permit: for this clause I was obliged 
to insert in the articles then executed between them and 
myself, in March the year aforesaid; whereby I reserved 
myself free for his lordship's service. And though I pro 
posed, their said offer would be more profitable to me 
than my own, yet my lord's employment of me, from that 
time, grew so constant, that I never finished above three 
or four lives for that work, to the time of his death. All 
these advantages did I thus relinquish, and all other de- 
pendence, to serve his lordship. And now was I em- 
ployed at auctions, sales, and in writing at home, in 
transcribing my own collections or others for his lord- 
ship, till the latter part of the year 1739; for which 
services I received of him about 150 pounds. In Novem- 
ber the same year I first entered his library of manuscripts, 
whereunto I came daily, sorted and methodised his vast 
collection of letters, to be bound in many volumes; made 
abstracts of them, and tables to each volume; besides 
working at home, mornings and evenings, for the said 
library. Then, indeed, his lordship, considering what 
beneficial prospects and possessions I had given up, to 
serve him, and what communications I voluntarily made 
to his librar}' almost every day, by purchases which I 
never charged, and presents out of whatever was most 
worthy of publication among my own co, lections, of 
which he also chose what he pleased, whenever he came 
to my chambers, which I have since greatly wanted, I 
did thenceforward receive of him two hundred pounds 
a-year, for the short remainder of his life. Notwith- 
standing this allowance, he would often declare in com- 
pany before me, and in the hearing of those now alive, 
that he wished I had been some years sooner known to 
him than I was; because I should have saved him many 
hundred pounds. [ 

" The sum of this case is, lhat for the profit of about 
500/. I devoted the best part of ten years' service to, and 
in his lordship's library; impoverished my own stores to 
enrich the same; disabled myself in my studies, and the 
advantages they might have produced from the publick; 
deserted the pursuits which might have obtained me a 



* By the Supplement to Bayle's Dictionary is meant A 
General Dictionary, Historical and Critical, Lond. 1734-41, 
fol, 10 vols., and which included that of Bayle. Dr. 
Birch was the principal editor, assisted by the Rev. John 
Peter Bernard, John Lockraan, and George Sale. 



42 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3^ S. L Jan. 18, '62. 



permanent accommodation; and procured the prejudice 
and misconceit of his lordship's surviving relations. But 
the profits I received were certainly too inconsiderable to 
raise any envy or ill will; tho' they might probably be 
conceived much greater then they were. No, it was what 
his lordship made me more happy in, than his money, 
which has been the cause of my greatest unhappiness 
with them ; his favour, his friendly reception and treat- 
ment of me ; his many visits at my chambers ; his many 
invitations by letters, and otherwise, to dine with him 
and pass whole evenings with him ; for no other end, but 
such intelligence and communications, as might answer 
the inquiries wherein he wanted to be satisfied, in relation 
to matters of literature, all for the benefit of his library. 
Had I declined those invitations, I must, with great in- 
gratitude, have created his displeasure; and my accept- 
ance of them has displeased others." 

It is painful to record, that the Earl of Oxford, 
when Oldys entered his service, had involved 
himself in pecuniary difficulties whilst collecting 
one of the choicest and most magnificent private 
libraries in this kingdom. Vertue, in one of his 
Commonplace-books, under the date of June 2, 
1741, thus feelingly laments the embarrassed cir- 
cumstances of the Earl : — 

" My good Lord, lately growing heavy and pensivekra 
his affairs, which for some years has mortified his mind. 
It lately manifestly appeared in his change of complexion ; 
his face fallen ; his colour and eyes turned yellow to a 
great degree ; his stomach wasted and gone ; and a dead 
weight presses continually, without sign of relief, on his 
mind. Yet through all his affliction I am, from many 
reasons and circumstances, sensible of his goodness and 
generosity to those about him that deserved his favour. 
I pray God restore his health and preserve him : it will 
be a great comfort to his good lady, her Grace his daugh- 
ter, and all his relations and obliged friends." 

A fortnight afterwards Vertue thus pathetically 
laments his loss : — 

" The Creator of all has put an end to his life. The 
true, noble, and beneficent Edward Earl of Oxford and 
Earl Mortimer, Baron of Wigmore, born 2nd of June, 
1688, and died the 16th of June, 1741. A friend noble, 
generous, good, and amiable ; to me, above all men, a true 
friend : the loss not to be expressed." * 

We have seen that Oldys's salary as librarian 
was 200?. per annum. At the death of the Earl 
he received what was due to him, amounting to 
about three quarters of a year's exhibition, on 
which he lived so long as it lasted. His prospects 
at this time must have been gloomy indeed, for he 
was again compelled to renew his connection with 
the metropolitan publishers. Eor the next four- 
teen years, until he received an appointment in 
the Heralds' Office, he continued to earn his 
bread by literary drudgery for the booksellers. 
His scattered- fragments of ancient lore that have 
escaped the ravages of time are a proof of his la- 
borious application in literary researches : his pen 
was continually at work either in writing pam- 
phlets, prefaces, essays, or in his favourite pursuit, 
biographical memoirs. " Some men," says Dean 
Swift, " know books as they do lords ; learn their 

* Addit. MS. 23,093, pp. 22, 23. 



titles exactly, and then brag of their acquaint- 
ance:" Not so William Oldys. His abstracts and 
critical notices of works of our early English lite- 
rature in the British Librarian, as well as his 
other numerous productions, afford a remarkable 
proof of his rare industry, intelligence, and wit. 

In 1742, Mr. Thomas Osborne the bookseller 
having purchased for the sum of 13,000Z. the col- 
lection of printed books that had belonged to the 
late Earl of Oxford, and intending to dispose of 
them by sale, projected a Catalogue in which it 
was proposed, "that the books shall be distributed 
into distinct classes, and every class arranged with 
some regard to the age of the writers ; that every 
book shall be accurately described ; that the pecu- 
liarities of editions shall be remarked, and obser- 
vations from the authors of Literary History 
occasionally interspersed, that, by this Catalogue, 
posterity may be informed of the excellence and 
value of this great Collection, and thus promote 
the knowledge of scarce books and elegant edi- 
tions." The learned Michael Maittaire was pre- 
vailed upon to draw out the scheme of arrange- 
ment, and to write a Latin Dedication to Lord 
Carteret, then Secretary of State. The editors 
selected by Osborne were Dr. Johnson and Wil- 
liam Oldys, men eminently qualified to carry out 
the undertaking. 

In this painful drudgery both editors were day- 
labourers for immediate subsistence, not unlike 
Gustavus Vasa, working in the mines of Dale- 
carlia. What Wilcox, a bookseller of eminence 
in the Strand, said to Johnson, on his first arrival 
in town, was now almost confirmed. He lent 
him five guineas, and then asked him, " How do 
you mean to earn your livelihood in this town ? " 
" By my literary labours," was the answer. Wil- 
cox, staring at him, shook his head : " By your 
literary labours ! You had better buy a porter's 
knot." In fact, Johnson, while employed by Os- 
borne in Gray's Inn, may be said to have carried 
a porters knot. He paused occasionally to peruse 
the book that came to his hand. Osborne thought 
that such curiosity tended to nothing but delay, 
and objected to it with all the pride and insolence 
of a man who knew that he paid daily wages.* 
Ralph Bigland, Blueinantle, related to John 
Charles Brooke, Somerset Herald, that " Osborne 
had informed him, that he would have given 
Oldys 105. 6d. per diem if he would have written 
for him ; but his indolence (!) would not let him 
accept it." f If this offer was made during the 



* Drake's Essays on Periodical Papers, i. 157, ed. 1809 ; 
and Hawkins's Life of Dr. Johnson, p. 150, ed. 1787. 

f Notes by John Charles Brooke in his Be vitisFecia- 
Hum, a MS. now in the College of Arms. Brooke was ap- 
pointed Rouge Croix in 1773 ; and Somerset in 1778; he 
was net, therefore, a contemporary officer in the college 
with Oldys, so that his statement" must have been from 
hearsay. 



3 r<l S. I. Jan. 18, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



43 



compilation of the catalogue, it is evident that 
the publisher exacted from his editors more work 
than could possibly be accomplished in a specified 
time, for the number of book9 to be read and 
digested amounted to no less than 20,748 volumes. 
Hence the failure of the original scheme as ju- 
diciously propounded by Maittaire. Our two 
unfortunate editors, in their joint and seemingly 
interminable labour, whilst grappling with this 
solid battalion of printed books, gained little more 
for their pains than the dust with^ which (so 
long as their drudgery lasted) they were daily 
covered. 

As literary curiosities, it is now difficult to 
discriminate between the notes of Dr. Johnson 
and those of Oldys. The " Proposals " for print- 
ing the Bibliotheca Harleiana are clearly from the 
pen of the Doctor, as we are informed by 
Boswell, who adds, that " his account of that 
celebrated collection of books, in which he dis- 
plays the importance to literature of what the 
French call a catalogue raisonne, when the sub- 
jects of it are extensive and various, and it is 
executed with ability, cannot fail to impress all 
his readers with admiration of his philological at- 
tainments. It was afterwards prefixed to the first 
volume of the Catalogue, in which the Latin ac- 
counts of books were written by him."* We incline 
to the conjecture that the bibliographical and bio- 
graphical remarks in Vols. I. and II. are by Dr. 
Johnson : and those in Vols. III. and IV. by Oldys. 
The fifth volume, 1745, is nothing more than a 
Catalogue of Osborne's unsold stock. 

Osborne's original project of an annotated Cata- 
logue, as we have said, proved a failure. In the 
Preface to Vol. III. he informs the public of its 
cause : — 

" My original design was, as I have already explained, 
to publish a methodical and exact Catalogue of this 
library, upon the plan which has been laid down, as I 
am informed, by several men of the first rank among the 
learned. It was intended by those who undertook the 
work, to make a very exact disposition of all the subjects, 
and to give an account of the remarkable differences of 
the editions, and other peculiarities, which make any 
book eminently valuable; and it was imagined, that 
some improvements might, by pursuing this scheme, be 
made in Literary History. With this view was the Cata- 
logue begun, when the price [5s. per volume] was fixed 
upon it in public advertisements ; and it cannot be denied, 
that such a Catalogue would have been willingly purchased 
by those who understood its use. But, when a few sheet3 
had been printed, it was discovered that the scheme was 
impracticable without more hands than could; be pro- 
cured, or more time than the necessity of a speedy sale 
would allow. The Catalogue was therefore continued 
without Notes, at least in the greatest part ; and, though 
it was still performed better than those which are daily 
offered to the public, fell much below the original de- 
sign."! 

~ _ 

* It is also printed in the Gentleman's Magazine for 

Dec. 1742, vol. xii. p. 636. 
t The most copiously annotated Catalogue of modern 



Whilst the Catalogue was progressing, Osborne 
issued Proposals for printing by subscription 
The Harleian Miscellany : or, a Collection of 
scarce, curious, and entertaining Tracts and Pam- 
phlets found in the late Earl of Oxford's library, 
interspersed with Historical, Political, and Criti- 
cal Notes. It was proposed to publish six sheets 
of this work every Saturday morning, at the 
price of one shilling, to commence on the 24th of 
March, 1743-4. The "Proposals," or " An Ac- 
count of this Undertaking," as well as the Pre- 
face to this voluminous work, were from the pen 
of Dr. Johnson : the selection of the Pamphlets 
and its editorial superintendence devolved upon 
Oldys. This valuable political, historical, and 
antiquarian record, and indispensable auxiliary in 
the illustration of British history, included a cata- 
logue of 539 pamphlets, describing the contents of 
each, and this alone occupied 164 quarto pages. 
It was published in eight volumes, 4to, 1744-46, 
and republished by Thomas Park, with two sup- 
plemental volumes, in 1808-13. Park, in a letter 
to Sir Samuel Egerton Brydges, dated June 15, 
1807, bears the following honourable testimony to 
the labours of his predecessor : — " My additions 
to the notes of Oldys in the Harleian Miscellany 
will not be very numerous ; for no editor could 
ever have been more competent to the undertak- 
ing than he was; but a successive editor must 
seem at least to have done something more than 
his predecessor." * 

It was the original intention of the publishers 
to print three additional volumes to this edition, 
though motives afterwards occurred which induced 
them to depart from it. Park, writing to Sir S. E. 
Brydges on Jan. 28, 1813, says, " I presume you 
have heard from our friend Haslewood that my 
projected course in the Harleian Supplement has 
been suddenly arrested, and that the work is to 
stop with vol. X., half of which will be occupied 
with Indices. This has painfully disconcerted my 
views, and rendered a considerable portion of my 
preparations useless." f 

" Next in point of merit to the contributions 
of Oldys to British biography," writes our valued 
correspondent, Mr. Bolton Cornet, " must be 
placed his publications in bibliography. Those 
which are best known aremuch esteemed, but there 
is one which has never received its due share of 
commendation. It is entitled A copious and exact 
catalogue of pamphlets in the Harleian Library, etc. 
4°, pp. 168. This catalogue was issued in frag- 
ments with the Harleian Miscellany, in order to 
gratify the subscribers with an opportunity of 
being their own choosers with regard to the con- 
tents of that important collection ; but as the 

times is that of M. Guglielmo Libri, whose surprising 
collection was sold by Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson in 
April, May, and Jul}', 1861. 

* Addit. MS. 18,916, p. 21". f Ibid, p. 84. 



44 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [3 rd s. i. Jan. is, '62. 



signatures and numerals are consecutive, it forms 
a separate volume. The pamphlets described 
amount to 548. The dates extend from 1511 
to 1712, but about two-thirds of the number were 
printed before 1661. The titles are given with 
unusual fulness, and the imprints with sufficient 
minuteness. The number of sheets or leaves of 
each pamphlet is also stated. The subjects em- 
braced are divinity, voyages and travels, history, 
biojiraphy, polite literature, etc. etc. — A catalogue 
of books or pamphlets, if it requires a sharp eye, 
is mere transcription, but in this instance we 
have about 440 notes, of which many are sum- 
maries of the contents of the articles in question, 
drawn up with remarkable intelligence and clear- 
ness, and interspersed with curious anecdotes. It 
is a choice specimen of recreative bibliography. 
Chalmers has omitted to notice this volume, and 
so has Lowndes. The copy which I possess was 
formerly in the library of Mr. Isaac Reed, and at 
the sale of his books in 1807 it was purchased by 
Mr. Heber for 11. 3s. It cost me no more than 
8s. 6d." 

A copy of this valuable Catalogue in the li- 
brary of the Corporation of London formerly be- 
longed to Dr. Michael Lort, who has written 
the following note in it : " This account was 
drawn up by the very intelligent Mr. Oldys. It 
is very seldom to be found compleat in this man- 
ner. Many curious particulars of literary and 
biographical history are to be found in it. I paid 
5s. for it. Feb. 18, 1772." This Catalogue has 
been reprinted by Mr. Park in the last edition of 
the Harleian Miscellany, vol. x. pp. 357-471. 
(To be continued.) 



THE REGISTERS OF THE STATIONERS' 
COMPANY. 

(Continued from 2 nd S. xii. p. 515.) 

Pri mo February [1590-1]. — Richarde Jones. 
Entred for his copie, &c. The Triumphes of the 
Churche, conteyninge the spiritual/, songes and holie 
himnes of godlie men, Patriarkes and Prophettes. 

vj d . 

[This is doubtless Michael Drayton's earliest produc- 
tion, although it came out with a somewhat different 
title, viz, " The Harmonie of the Church, containing the 
spirituall Songes and Holy Hy nines of godly men, Pa- 
triarkes and Prophetes, by M. D. London, printed by 
Richard Ihones, &c. 1591," 8vo. It is needless to say 
more regarding it, as it was reprinted by the Percy 
Society in 1843, and again by the Roxburghe Club in 
1856 with a number of other rare early poems by 
Drayton.] 

vi?° die Feb. — Rob. Dexter. Entred for his 
copie, &c. Gulielmi Salustij Bartassij hebdornadas. 
Dedicated to her Ma tIe '. vj d . 

[A translation of Du Bartas into Latin: the Dedi- 



cation to the QueenTmay show that it was printed when 
it was brought for entry.] 

Edward White. Entred for his copie, &c. A 
mournfull ditty e, shewing e the cruelty of Arnalt 
Cosby in murderinge the lord Burgh, the 14 of 
January, 1590 vj d . 

[At page 514 of the last volume we gave the title of an 
earlier publication b}' White upon this subject. We know 
of no extant copy of this " mournful ditty."] 

9 Febr. — W m Ponsonbye. Entred for his 
copie, &c. A booke intituled the Countesse of 
Pembroohe 's Ivye Churche and Emanuel . vj d . 

[Two works by Abraham Fraunce are here entered to- 
gether, but they ought to have been separately paid for. 
They came out in 1591, 4fo., and are tedious specimens of 
English hexameters. The author was patronised by the 
Sidneys, and through their influence became solicitor in 
the Court of the Marches of Wales : we shall hear of him 
again. ] 

16 Febr. — Tho. Nelson. Entred for his copie, 
&c. A ballad entituled All the merrie pranhes of 
him that whippes men in the high waxes . . vi d . 

25 Febr. — W m Wright. Entred for his copie, 
&c. A booke entituled Frauncis Fayre weather. 

[We can offer no explanation of this entry, which may 
have been some prognostication, may have related to 
public affairs in France, or may possibly have been an- 
other work by Abraham Fraunce. At all events it has 
not survived.*] 

xxvj February. —Richard Feilde. Entred unto 
him for his copie, &c. A booke entituled John 
Harringtons Orlando furioso, &fC. . . . vj d . 

[The earliest appearance of Ariosto's work in English, 
and printed by Field in folio 1591. Great difference of 
opinion prevails regarding the merit of this translation, 
which was so popular that it was reprinted in 1607 and 
1634, in the last instance with the addition of Sir John 
Harington's four books of Epigrams. The truth is, that 
the version is very unequal — sometimes admirable and 
I exact, sometimes careless and coarse, and sometimes with 
the lawless insertion of original, not only lines, but en- 
tire stanzas. Nevertheless, it is throughout an excel- 
lent example of idiomatic English. Many of the epigrams 
were written long subsequently to the first impression of 
the translation, and one of them is upon the portrait of 
the author and his dog, as engraved in 1591.] 

1 Marcij. — Tho. Gosson. Entred for his copie. 
A ballad of A yonge man that went a woynge, SfC 
Abell Jeffes to be his printer hereof, provyded 
alwayes that before the publishing thereof the 
undecentnes be reformed vj d . 

[The above is crossed out in the book, and in the margin 
the clerk wrote — " Cancelled out of the book for the un- 
decentnes of it in diverse verses." Various ballads of the 
kind have been preserved, but none of them, that we are 
aware of, are very faulty on the score of indecency: one 
now before us begins ; — 

" Come, all young lads and fair maids, 
Now listen unto me : 
I'll not tell you a tale of maremaids, 
Or any such thing of the sea ; 



3 rd S. I. Jan. 18, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



45 



But I'll tell you how a young man 
Paid court to a girl with wit, 

Who oft with her speech had stung man, 
But at last in her turn was bit." 
The whole is sprightly and pleasant, and seems to refer | 
to some previous popular production relating to " mer- j 
maids, syrens, and fair-ones of the deep." It certainly 
cannot be the production to which the entry relates, 
which was most likely never printed, because the " un- 
decentness " was not "reformed."] 

Mr. Robert Walley. Allowed unto him these 
copies folowinge, which were his father's, viz. : 
The Shepherdes Calender. 
Cato in English and Latyn. 
The Prooerbes of Salomon, Inglish. 
Salust and helium Jugurthinum. 
Mr. Grafton. s computation. 
Mr. Rastelles computation. 
JEsopes fables \ English. 
Josephus de hello Judaico, English. 
Robyn Conscience iiij*. 

[ The Shepherd's Calendar was not a reprint of Spenser's 
Pastorals, but of the old Shepherd's Calendar which had 
long preceded them, and the title of which, as E. K. in- 
forms us, Spenser had adopted in 1579. " Cato in Eng- 
lish " was of course a school-book. The third and fourth 
works explain themselves; and nearly the same may be 
said of Grafton's and Rastell's Chronicles. "^Esop's 
Fables in English " had originally been printed by Cax- 
ton in 1484; but John Walley or Waley, the father of 
Robert, had published an edition of them without date — 
" London, printed by Henry Wykes for John Waley " in 
8vo. Thos. Lodge made a translation of Josephus, but it 
did not come out until 1602, folio. Robin Conscience 
must mean the old interlude, of which only a fragment 
remains to us, and which we find entered to Charlwood 
on 15 Jan. 1581-2. For an account of it see Hist. Engl. 
Dram. Poetry, ii, 402. On 3 August, 1579, John Walley 
had entered " the second booke of Robyn Conscyence, 
with ij songes in iij partes." See Reg. Stat. Soc. (printed 
by the Shakspeare Society), vol. ii. pp. 97, 155. Martin 
Parker at a much later date, 1635, wrote a chap-book 
which he entitled Robin Conscience, or Conscionable Robin 
his Progresse through Court, City, and Country : it was in 
ballad measure.] 

Ultimo Marcij [1591].— Henrie Haslop. En- 
tred unto him for his copie, a ballad wherein is 
discovered the great covetousness of a miserable 
Usurer, and the wonderfull liberalitie of his Ape, 
&c vj d . 

[In the margin opposite the above is written : "As- j 
Bigned to W m Wright, 9 Aprill, 1591;" and accordingly j 
we meet with it again under that date, and with some j 
variation of title.] 

Secundo Aprilis. — Rich. Christian. Entred 
unto him for his copie, &c. A ballad entituled A i 
Colliers Cavet to his friend to perswade to shewe 
the like follie his fancy e hath made. . . . vj d . j 

[Evidently alluding to some previous publication. S«e , 
also the entry under date of the 17th April. Rich. Chris- j 
tian is, we believe, a new name in the trade.] 

9 April. — Willm. Wright. Entred for his | 
copie by warrant from M r Cawood, and Henry ; 
Hasselops consent, A ballad intitled A waminge , 



to worldlinges, discoveringe the covetousnes of a 
usurer and the liberality of his ape . . . iiij a . 

[See 31 March. We can easily imagine the subject of 
this ballad, in which an ape must have wantonly scat- 
tered abroad the gold which a miser had scraped to- 
gether.] 

17 April. — Richard Jones. Entred to him for 
his copie, &c. the Colliers, misdowtinge of f order 
strife, made his excuse to Annet his wife, Src. iiij d . 

[Clearly a sequel to the ballad which had been re- 
gistered by Christian on 2 April: there the husband 
complains to a friend, and here he apologises to his wife.] 

Abell Jeffes. Entred for his copie, &c. The 
honorable accions of that most worthie gent. Ed- 
ward Glemham, of Benhall in Suff., Esquier, vnth 
his most valiant conquestes againste the Spaniardes. 

ij*. 

[This tract has been reprinted in modern times, but 
the original is so scarce that Mr. Grenville was obliged 
to content himself with a copy of the reprint. (See Gren. 
Cat. i. 276.) Glenham appears to have continued his 
triumphs, and we have before us what we believe to be a 
unique account of his farther victories, his subsequent 
imprisonment in Barbarv, and his final romantic chal- 
lenge of his enemies. We copy the full title of it: — 
" Newes from the Levane Seas. Discribing the many 
perrilous events of the most woorthy desirving Gentle- 
man, Edward Glenham, Esquire. His hardy attempts in 
honorable fights in great perril. With a relation of his 
troubles, and indirect dealings of the King of Argere in 
Barbarie. Also the cause of his imprisonment, and hya 
challenge of combat against a Stranger, mayntaining his 
Countries honour. Written by H. R. At London, Printed 
for William Wright. 1594," 4to. It occupies 24 B. L. 
pages, and relates to a voyage of adventure undertaken 
in 1593 by Glenham, in his ship the Gallion Constance.] 

W m Jones. Entred for his copie, &c. The 
Shepherdes Starre, Src, dedicated by Tho. Brad- 
shaw to Therle of Essex vj d . 

[Ritson (Bibl. Poet. 138) informs us that this piece 
was licensed to Richard Jones in 1590, but it is a mistake 
both as to the name and 3'ear. The full title of this most 
rare poem runs thus : " The Shepherd's Starre, now of late 
seene, and at this hower to be observed merveilous orient 
in the East, which brings glad tydings to all that may 
behold her brightness. London, Printed by R. Robinson. 
1591." 4to.] 

xxx° Aprilis, 1591. — John Wolfe. Entred unto 
him for his copies, iij little bokes of fishing, to bee 
translated out of dutche, vj d . Item, A controversie 
betweene the fleas and women, Src vj d . 

[This curious memorandum is preceded by a wholly 
uninteresting enumeration of eleven books on cookery, 
brewing, alchemy, &c. The Controversy would have been 
very amusing if it had come down to our time. Ho such 
early "little books of fishing" are mentioned.] 

ij d0 die Maij. — John Wolfe. Entred for his 
copie, &c. Articles of agrement upon the yeildivge 
of Grenoble, and advertisements out of province to 
the French Kinge. Together with twoo ballettes, 
thone of the besieginge t and thother of the yeildinge 
of Charlres. 

[Historical tract3 and ballads of great interest, if they 



46 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3"» S. L Jan. 18, '62. 



could be recovered. Such publications were the fore- 
runners of newspapers, and, under the date of 1504, we 
shall have to notice one by Wolfe on the capture of Gro- 
ningen.] 

3 Maij. — Rie. Jones. Entred for his copie in 
full court, Brytons Bowers of delightes . . vj d . 

[In our last article we were in error in not recognising 
as Nicholas Breton's work The Pilgrimage to Paradise : we 
were misled by the date of the entry, for the only known 
copies of the production are of 1592, and were printed at 
Oxford, though, as we see, entered in London in 1590-1. 
Breton's (here spelt Batons) Boure of Delights was pub- 
lished by Richard Jones in 1591, but he seems surrep- 
titiously to have obtained the manuscript from which he 
printed it. It again came from the press in 1597, and was 
extremely popular.] 

H. Carre. Entred for his copies twoo ballades. 
Thone entitled A godly neive ballad discribinge the 
uncertainty of this present Lyfe, the vanities of this 
aluring world, and the Joyes of Heaven, Sfc, and 
thother A godly newe ballad, wherein is shewed 
thinconveniency that commeth by the losse of tyme, 
and howe tyme past cannot be called againe . xij d . 

xij° Maij. — John Kydd. Entred unto him, &c. 
A ballad entitled, Declaringe the noble late done 
actes and deedes of Mr. Edward Glemham, a Suf- 
folk gent., uppon the seas, and at St. Georges Hons, 
§fc vj d . 

[This was merely a ballad, and it was probably founded 
upon the tract a little above noticed. We shall have 
more to say of John Kydd, the publisher, hereafter, as 
the brother of Thomas Kydd, the celebrated author of 
" The Spanish Tragedy."] 

J. Payne Colltee. 



LIQUORICE. 
This word and the corresponding Fr. reglisse 
have undoubtedly the same origin. It is agreed 
on all hands that they are derived from yXvKvppfa, 
the Gr. name for this root ; or at any rate from its 
component parts yXvttis and pl£a. How then has 
this apparently very great dissimilarity of form 
arisen ? No explanation has, that I know of, 
been attempted. Nobody has troubled himself 
about the matter. The Engl, lexicographers do 
not mention reglisse ; the Fr. lexicographers do 
not mention liquorice. Still a sort of explanation 
may be gathered from their works. Our country- 
men give yXvKvppfa, and also yXvKvs and pl£a. 
The French do not mention the first, no doubt on 
account of its apparently great want of resem- 
blance, but content themselves with giving p'fa 
SLiidyXvKvs. By comparing the two we arrive at 
the conclusion that liquorice and reglisse are in- 
deed composed of exactly the same materials, 
but that what h first in the one is last in the other, 
and vice versa ; and certainly the fact that liquorice 
begins with an I (the second letter of yhvavs), and 
reglisse with an r (the first letter of p/fa), lends 
some colour to this opinion. But is there any 
foundation for it ? I think not. 



With regard to liquorice, the Engl, lexicogra- 
phers are undoubtedly right. yXvKvppfa became in 
Mod. Gr. y\vic6ppi£a. From this the y was thrown 
away as in the Lat. lac, lactis, from the Gr. ydxa, 
yaXaKTos, and the Engl, like from the Germ, oleich; 
and the remainder XvKoppfa (lyeorrhiza) has be- 
come liquorice. The older spelling licorice is 
therefore more correct. 

With regard to reglisse, let us compare its equi- 
valents in the cognate and other languages. In 
Ital. it is regolizia, but also liquirizia ; in Span. 
regalicia, regaliza, regaliz ; in Port, regaliz ; in 
Prov. commonly regalissi, but also rescalici, re- 
galisia, regalussia, recalissa, recalissi ; in Germ. 
Lakritze (Siissholz). 

But, if we compare all these forms, esp. the 
Ital. liquimziA, the Sp. regahcix, regalizA, and 
the Germ. LakmTZE with the Engl. HcomcE, we 
are, I think, forced to the conclusion that the ter- 
mination, i. e. that part of the word which follows 
the medial I or r, is in all cases of the same origin 
as the ice in our licorice, and that therefore it is 
part of plfa*, and does not correspond, as the 
French would have us believe, to the vkos (ykys or 
ikis) of yXvKvs. But, if this be so, if the second 
half of the word in all cases contains the fa of pi'fa, 
how does it come that the word in many instances 
begins with an r f Is this too a part of faga ? 
and if so, how did it become separated from the 
rest of the word ? Yes, it is the p of pi£a, and it 
has merely undergone a dislocation or transposi- 
tion. If, in the Ital. regolizia we change the place 
of the r and the I, we obtain legorizia, and if we 
do the same to the Prov. recalissi, we obtain 
lecarissi — words very similar to licorice, though, 
with the exception of the termination, less like the 
original. 

I do not think that transpositions of this sort 
are common. I cannot, at the present time, recall 
one of exactly the same nature. I can only quote 
the Arabic (zowj), husband, wife, for which 
in common conversation j^- (jowz)f, strictly 
speaking, a nut, walnut, is used. Thus a wife will 
say to her husband c-Sj^T ( jowzee), my walnut, in- 
stead of <?-*) X zow j ee )> m y husband, although 
she no doubt makes use of the transposition mm- 

* Compare Gr. Zpvfr; Talmud, HIK (orez), 
(Sruza) ; Arab. ^ ^ mz Qr uruZj aruzz Qr uruzz ) ? or 

(ruzz) ; Mod. Gr. pv£i, Fr. riz, with our equivalent, rice- 
Curiously enough, in Span., besides the forms given above 
in the text, we also find orozuz, meaning — not rice 
(which is arroz) — but liquoriCE. Can there then be any 
connection between opvfc and p#a? 

* This will not be found in the lexicons. I had it from 
Mr. Catafago, the author of the Arabic Diet, bearing his 
name. 



3'* S. t. Jan. 18, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



47 



consciously, through force of habit, and the idea of 
a ivalnut never crosses her mind. But walnut is 

never called — . jj (zovvj). — Letters are, however, 

frequently transposed in the body of a word. 

But why in reglisse (if originally legrisse) have 
the r and the I been transposed, and not the I 
and the g, when we should have had gclrisse or 
gelarisse f I think because, as a rule, the initial, 
or other letters of different syllables are more 
likely to be transposed than two letters in the 
same syllable. * I therefore divide reglisse, reg- 
lisse (for regalissc=Prov. regalissi) and not re- 
glisse. 

It is possible, however, that no transposition has 
taken place at all. R and I so frequently inter- 
change that reglisse may have been 'derived from 
legrisse (comp. Germ. Laliritze) by the mere sub- 
stitution of an r for the I, and an I for the r. 

F. Chance. 



GLEANINGS FROM " THE STATUTES AT 
LARGE." 

19 Henry VII. cap. 11. (Private). — " An Act for the 
Attainder "of James Touchett, Knight, Lord Audley, 
Edmond Earl of Suffolk, and divers others confederate 
With Piers VVarbeck." 

1 Hen. VIII. cap. 12. — "Concerning untrue Inquisi- 
tions procured by Empson and Dudley." 

1 Hen. VIII. cap. 15. —"An Act adnulling of all 
Feoffments made to Empson and Dudley." 

4 Hen. VIII. cap. 7. — "An Act of Restitution for 
Thomas Empson, son of Sir Rich. Empson." 

32 Hen. VIII. cap. 17. — " An Act for Paving of Algate, 
High Holborn, Chancery Lane, Gray's Inn Lane, Shoe 
Lane, and Fetter Lane." 

1 Edw. VI. cap. 1. — " An Act against such Persons as 
shall unreverently speak against the Sacrament of the 
Altar, and of the Receiving thereof under both Kinds." 

1 Mary, cap. G. — " An Act for the Repairing of a Causey 
betwixt Bristol and Gloucester." 

1 & 2 Philip & Mary, cap. 4. — " An Act for the 
Punishment of certain Persons calling themselves Egyp- 
tians." 

23 Eliz. cap. 13. — " An Act for the Inning of Earith and 
Plumstead Marsh." 

3 James I. cap. 25. (Private). — " An Act for the Na- 
turalizing of Sir David Murray, Knt., Gentleman of the 
Prince his Bedchamber, and Thomas Murray, Esq., 
Schoolmaster to the Duke of York." 

4 James I. cap. 4. (Private). — "An Act whereby 
Richard Sackville, Esq., is enabled to make a Surrender 
unto the King's Majesty of the Offices of Chief Butler of 
England and Wales, notwithstanding his Minoritv of 
Years." 

18 James I. cap. 1. (Private). — "An Act containing 
the Censure given in Parliament against Sir Giles Mom- 
pesson. Sir Francis Mitchell. Francis Viscount Saint Al- 
bane, Lord Chancellor of England, and Edward Flood." 

15 Chas. II. cap. 12. (Private). — " An Act to enable 



* At one school I was at it was a very favourite amuse- 
ment with some of the boys to make transpositions of this 
sort, and we always instinctively followed this law. Thus 
turbot would inevitably become burtot, and not ruibot; 
wedlock, ledwock, and not dewlock. 



Edward, Marquess of Worcester, to receive tho Benefit 
and Profit of a Water-commanding Engine l>y him in- 
vented, one-tenth Part whereof is appropriated for the 
Benefit of the King's Majesty, his Heirs and Successors." 

27 Chas. II. cap. 4. (Private). — ** An Act granting a 
Licence to His Highness Prince Rupert, Duke of Cum- 
berland, for Thirty-one Years." 

The earlier statutes from Magna Charta are all 
of archaeological interest ; and I have omitted 
many subsequent acts for fear of encroaching too 
far on your space. W. H. Lammik. 

Fulham. 



CHIEF JUSTICES QUONDAM HIGHWAYMEN. 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for January, 1861, 
appeared an article founded upon the Criminal 
Records of the County of Middlesex, and affording 
from that original source some curious illustra- 
tions of the morality, manners, and costume of 
the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. The writer, 
however, in dressing them up for what is now 
deemed the approved fashion of periodical litera- 
ture, has launched forth into some statements so 
startling and so apparently " o'erstepping the 
modesty of nature," that it seems necessary to 
pursue him with the cry, Whither so fast? Among 
other assertions that are, perhaps, to be taken cum 
grano, he has confidently put forth the follow- 
ing : — 

11 Men of birth and education were not ashamed to 
seek in the meanest artifices of the gamester, and in the 
wild excitement of the road, plunder with which to de- 
fray their tavern bills, or squander upon the newest trap- 
pings of fashion Eminent courtiers 

had been recognised, in spite of their masked faces, on 
the road; even the dignity of justice was marred by the 
fact that some of her administrators had in their youth 
followed such vicious ways. Sir Roger Cholmeley and 
Sir Edward Popham were both said to have occasionally 
practised as gentlemen highwaymen." 

Now, " the romance of history " is all very 
well, and in these days we are pretty much 
accustomed to its vagaries ; but stiil, when there 
is an affectation to support extravagant gene- 
ralities by real examples, and historical names 
are brought forward to bear them out, it is time 
to endeavour to arrest the progress of such daring 
adventurers. Nor can it be done too soon : for 
these bold and confident assertions deceive the 
unwary, by whom they are in good faith copied 
and repeated. Such has already been the case in 
the present instance : for my attention has been 
directed to the passage in the Gentleman s Maga- 
zine by its having been adopted among the argu- 
ments employed by Mr. Sainthill in his recent 
essay discussing the History of the Old Countess 
of Desmond. ^ 

It is, therefore, worth while to inquire what are 
the facts with regard to Sir lloger Cholmeley and 
Sir Edward Popham. Did they occasionally 



48 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'* S. I. JAM. 18, '62. 



practise as gentlemen highwaymen ? or was it 
even ever said that they had done so ? 

The aspersion on Sir Roger Cholmeley is 
avowedly founded on an anecdote related of him 
by Roger Ascham in his Schoolmaster, of which 
the whole is as follows : — - 

" It is a notable tale, that old Sir Roger Chamloe, 
sometime chief justice, would tell of himself. When he 
was ancient in inn of court certain young gentlemen 
were brought before him to be corrected for certain mis- 
orders, and one of the lustiest said, Sir, we be young gen- 
tlemen ; and wise men before us have proved all fashions, 
and yet those have done full well. This they said be- 
cause it was well known that Sir Roger had been a good- 
fellow in his youth. But he answered them very wisely : 
Indeed (saith he) in youth I was as you are now ; and I 
had twelve fellows like unto myself, but not one of them 
came to a good end. And therefore follow not my ex- 
ample in youth, but follow my counsel in age, if ever ye 
think to come to this place, or to these years that I am 
come unto, lest you meet either with poverty or Tyburn 
in the way." 

(Mr. Foss, Lives of the Judges, v. 294, has 
quoted this anecdote from Seward's Anecdotes, iv. 
275, and followed a misreading, proved of all faC' 
Hons, instead of " proved all fashions.") 

This story, it will be perceived, relates to " cer- 
tain misorders" committed by "certain young 
gentlemen " whilst members of Lincoln's Inn, for 
which disorders Cholmeley, acting as one of the 
ancients, or senior benchers, reproved them, like 
the head or tutor of a college at Cambridge or 
Oxford might now reprove his undergraduates. He 
warned them that they were on the road to ruin, 
and might ultimately arrive at the gallows ; but 
he did not even hint that they had " taken to the 
road," in the sense of the last century. In the 
version of the writer in the Gentleman's Magazine 
the story is misrepresented as describing " a party 
of wild young fellows being taken before chief jus- 
tice Cholmeley, one of whom had the effrontery to 
remind the judge of his early irregularities : " — 
misleading the reader to imagine the scene of the 
altercation to have been a court of law, where the 
young men were arraigned as criminals. But 
there is no intimation whatever in Ascham's anec- 
dote of their misdemeanours having as yet reached 
that liability. Cholmeley confesses to his young 
friends that he too " had been a good-fellow in his 
youth ; " but it is the first time (and let us hope 
it will be the last) that a good-fellow has been 
held to be all one with a highwayman ! 

I was about to proceed to examine the second 
example, — that of Chief Justice Popham, whose 
true name was Sir John, not Sir Edward ; but on 
referring to the late Lord Campbell's Lives of the 
Chief Justices, I find that he is actually answer- 
able, to the full extent, for all that is alleged 
against Popham by the writer in the Gentleman's 
Magazine. Before saying more, therefore, I beg 
to inquire whether Lord Campbell's astounding 
assertions relative to Popham (Lives of the Chief 



Justices, edit. 1849, vol. i. pp. 209-211), have 
already been subjected to critical investigation ? 
If not, it is certainly fit that they should be ; and 
I will undertake, in that case, to do my part to- 
wards it. John Gough Nichols. 



Mintsv mtt$. 

On the Degrees of Comparison.— -Gramma- 
rians have explained to us how adjectives in the 
comparative and superlative forms express, in a 
greater and the greatest degree, the quality of the 
positive ; as from long we have longer and longest ; 
meaning more long and tnost long. But they have 
omitted to point out that smaller number of ad- 
jectives whose comparative and superlative forms 
express the quality in a less and the least degree. 
These, as usual with words unexplained, they call 
irregular. 

As examples we have in English, bad, better, 
best ; or, less bad, least bad. 

In Latin we have malus, melior; or bad, less 
bad; pius, pejor, pessimus, or good, less good, least 
good. 

In some cases the adjective forms its compara- 
tive and superlative in both ways with the two 
meanings. 

Thus in Latin we have magnus, major, maxi- 
mus ; and also magnus, minor, minimus. 

In Greek we have (xzyas, ixsifav, fj.eyi<TTos ; and 
also neyas, fieiav, (leLffTos. Of these two forms the 
latter is at least as regular as the former, though 
less usual. 

Possibly we might add to these parvus, plus, 
plurimus, and worthy, worse, worst. 

A little industry would no doubt produce other 
instances out of other languages. 

It would be difficult to trace the change in the 
human mind which has led us now not to form 
comparatives and superlatives in this the less usual 
way. But in the formation of our prepositions 
we may trace a process of reasoning nearly akin 
to this now pointed out. Thus in English we 
have off, over ; on, under. In Latin sub, super. 
In Greek viro, vrrep. But whether there is any- 
thing analogous between the formation of these 
prepositions from one another and the compara- 
tives above spoken of, may be doubtful. 

Samuel Sha.rpe. 

Sebastian Cabot. — The birth-place of this 
individual has already been questioned in your 
columns (2 nd S. v. 1, &c), Mr. Markland con- 
tending that Bristol must be deprived of its name, 
which had "hitherto (been) numbered amongst 
the natives and ' worthies ' of that city." With 
this opinion I entirely agreed at the time, and 
subsequent research has confirmed me in it. In 
preparing A Popular History of Bristol for the 
press a few months since, I had frequent occa- 



3'd S. L Jan. 18, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



49 



sion to correct the errors of Barrett, Seyer, and 
other writers, particularly those of an antiquarian 
and biographical character ; the result of some of 
these corrections will probably appear in future 
pages of " N. & Q." In this " labour of love" I 
happened to stumble against the following pas- 
sages, which are, I think, clear evidence of the 
fact, that Sebastian Cabot was a native of Venice 
and not of Bristol. At p. 7 of Hakluytt's Third 
and last volume of the Voyages, Navigations, Traf- 
fiqucs, &c, Sebastian Cabot is spoken of as " a 
valiant man, a Venetian born ; " and subsequently, 
on the same page, he says of himself (in A Dis- 
course, fyc), that " When my father departed 
from Venice many years since to dwell in Eng- 
land, to follow the trade of merchandises, hee 
tooke mee with him to the citie of London, while 
I was very yong ; " some say four years old. In 
several other places in the same work, Sebastian 
Cabot is spoken of by different writers, such as 
Baptista Ramusius, Peter Martyr, and Francis 
Lopez de Gomara, as being " a Venetian borne ; " 
this to me is conclusive on the subject. But 
further; in November, 1858, the municipality of 
Venice erected a marble bust, of him in their 
Council Room, in the old palace of the Doges ; 
and why, if he was not a native ? George Pryce. 
Bristol City Library. 

Sunday Newspapers. — What would our Scot- 
tish friends say to the following specimen of 
American manners ? — 

ft The town [of New Orleans] is liberally supplied with 
churches of all denominations. I went one Sunday to a 
Presbyterian church, and was much struck on my entry 
at seeing all the congregation reading newspapers. Seat- 
ing myself in a pew, I found a paper lying alongside of 
me, and, taking it up, I discovered it was a religious 
paper, full of anecdotes and experiences, &c, and was 
supplied gratis to the congregation." — Land of the Slave 
and the Free, by Hon. Henry A, Murrav. 1855. Vol. i. 
p. 261. 

K. P. D. E. 

The " Paec aux Cehfs." — I have lately been 
reading a work by Dr. Challice : — 

" The Secret History of the Court of France under 
Louis XV., edited from rare and unpublished Docu- 
ments." 2 Vols. (Hurst & Blackett.) 

In the second volume (Appendix, p. 117), the 
following passage occurs : — 

" Madame de Pompadour has been repaid by England 
for this national insult by the foul stigma branded on her 
memory by English writers. In England during, and 
after the French Revolution, was propagated such abomi- 
nations as * Le Pare aux Cerfs, ou VOrigine de Vaffreux 
> deficit, 1790.' We have seen by the narrative (p. 147) 
^> how M. Capefigue's royalist researches have failed to dis- 
I cover any pare aux cerfs at all." 

» The p. 147 referred to by Dr. Challice, con- 
^ tains an attempt to prove the extraordinary asser- 
U> tion, that the pare aux cerfs was not an avowed, 
acknowledged, licensed (so to say) house of ill- 



fame. This, of course, no one wishes to maintain ; 
but at the same time it is a well-known fact, that 
young girls, decoyed by the Paris police, were 
systematically carried oft' to the pare aux cerfs for 
the gratification of the unprincipled Louis XV. 
For full details on this disgusting business, the 
reader may consult the edition of the Journal de 
Barhier, published by M.Charpenticr: Paris, 1857, 
vol. v. pp. 360, .372, 373. 

It is a matter of regret that Dr. ChnHice's chief 
authority, in his otherwise interesting work, should 
be M. Capefigue, of whom a competent writer has 
lately said : — 

"Son histoire de Philippe Auguste est le senl de ses 
ouvrages oil il y ait l'apparence d'e'tudes serieuses." 

On M. Capefigue see further an article by the 
late Ch. Labitte in the Revue des Deux Mond.es, 
Oct. 1, 1839. Gustave Masson. 

Harrow-on-the-Hill. 

Jefferson Davis. — This name has now be- 
come celebrated, as being that of the first Presi- 
dent of the Southern Confederation. At an 
election for the borough of Great Yarmouth in 
1795, John Jefferson Davis, voted as a freeman 
for George Anson, Esq., great-nephew of Lord 
Anson, the circumnavigator. The combination 
of the two names, Jefferson- Davis, is remarkable. 
Can any of your readers say, whether any con- 
nexion existed between the family of President 
Davis, and the Yarmouth voter ? C. J. P. 

Gregory of Paulton. — A biblical note con- 
taining a quotation from this celebrated father, 
may possess some local interest, if you would 
kindly re-produce it for the benefit of my Paulton 
friends. The commentator (Dr. A. Clarke), in 
illustration of the simile of a " tinkling cymbal," 
used by the Apostle, 1 Cor. xiii. 1., proceeds : — 

"I have quoted several passages from heathens of the 
most cultivated minds in Greece and Rome to illustrate 
passages of the sacred writers. I shall now quote one 
from an illiterate collier of Paulton, in Somerset; and as 
I have named Homer, Horace, Virgil, and others, I will 
quote Josiah Gregory, whose mind might be compared to 
a diamond of the first water, whose native splendour 
broke in various places through its incrustations, but 
whose brilliancy was not brought out for want of the 
hand of the lapidary. Among various energetic sayings 
of this great unlettered man, I remember to have heard 
the following : ' People of little religion are always noisy ; 
he who has not the love of God and man filling his 
heart is like an empty waggon coming violently down a 
hill: it makes a great noise because there is nothing in 
it.' " 

F. Phiixott. 



PROPHECIES OF ST. MALACHI RESPECTING 
THE POPES. 

What is the date of the earliest extant MS. 
copy of the prophecies of St. Malachi concerning 



50 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [3^ s. i. Jan. is, '62. 



the Popes, from Celestine II. (a.d. 1143) to the 
Peter who, it is prognosticated, will be the last 
occupant of the See of Rome ? 

Jean Aymon, Domestic Prelate to Pope Inno- 
cent XI., in his Tableau de la Cour de Rome (see 
the Hague edition of 1707, p. 476—503), men- 
tions that Bale and Baronius, although unanimous 
in attributing a prophetic spirit to St. Malachi, do 
not include these prophecies in their catalogues of 
his works. Aymon hints at his own possession of 
some clue to their real author, but refrains from 
divulging it on the plea that it would be useless 
unless it could at the same time be proved that 
such author was divinely inspired, failing which 
there would be reason to doubt the truth of his 
predictions. 

The meaning of this reticence on Aymon's part 
may be construed into an indication that it would 
be inconvenient to attribute these remarkable pro- 
phecies to any uncanonised person. He leaves the 
question, therefore, to the exercise of his reader's 
private judgment, and confines himself to pointing 
out in what works the prophecies attributed to 
the Irish saint were first printed. He gives the 
first place to the posthumous work of Ciaconius, 
titular patriarch of Alexandria, who died in 1599, 
and whose Vitm et gesta Romanorum Pontificum et 
Cardinalium was published by Francis de Mo- 
rales Cabrera, in 1601-2. Aymon refers, for 
confirmation on this point, to N. A. Schot, author 
of the Historic Bible ; to Guilin, in his Theatre of 
Italian Letters; to De Thou's History, book 122; 
and to Moreri's Dictionary ; in all of which, as 
well as in other works, these prophecies are in- 
serted. 

Writers preceding Aymon had published ex- 
planations of the fulfilment of the prophecies 
down to the ?opes reigning at the time they 
wrote. For instance, details of the kind are to be 
found even in such educational compilations as 
Gideon Pontier's Survey of the Present State of 
Europe (English translation of 1684). The latest 
notice which I have seen bringing down the ful- 
filled prophecies to our own times, was in the 
French Almanac Prophetique, which has appeared 
annually since 1840. The article was in one of 
the earlier years of its publication, but I did not 
preserve it. Perhaps some reader of " N. & Q." 
may have it in his possession, if so it would oblige 
if he wrll furnish the fulfilments, as there ex- 
plained, from the period when Aymon leaves off. 
These would include the prophecies : — 

De bond religione - Innocent XIII. 

Miles in bello - - - Benedict XIIT. 

Columna excelsa » Clement XII. 

Animal rurale - Benedict XIV. 

Rosa Umbria - Clement XIII. 

Ursus (?) velox - - - Clement XIV. 

Peregrinus apostolicus - - Pius VI. 

Aquila rapax - - - Pius VII. 

Cants «t coluber r - Leo XII. 



Vir religiosus - Pius VIII. 

De bahieis Hetruria: - - Gregory XVI. 

The prophecy for the present Pope, Crux de 
Cruce, speaks for itself. 

I have affixed a note of interrogation against 
the prophecy referring to Clement XIV., because 
in a MS. copy of these prophecies now before me 
it is rendered Visus velox instead of Ursus velox. 
The date of the MS. is between 1689 and 1691, 
i. e. during the papacy of Alexander VIII., and 
the colophon of the volume — which, besides the 
prophecies and their explanation, contains brief 
notices of the lives of the popes from the time of 
St. Peter — is as follows : " Le tout tres exacte- 
ment transcrit de tous les originaux qui sont a 
Rome." Query, in the Vatican, or in what other 
depositary ? The transcriber has not affixed his 
name to the MS., nor to the preface in which he 
dedicates the work to our Saviour in a prayerful 
and reverent spirit. The handwriting is one of 
the finest specimens of its kind that can be seen ; 
and from the style of binding of the volume, tooled 
and pannelled with fleur-de-lis, it has probably 
formerly been in the possession of some member 
of the Bourbon family. Feed. Hendriks. 



Coins inserted in Tankards. — About a cen- 
tury and a half ago, as I imagine, it was the 
fashion to insert silver coins in English glass tan- 
kards. Is anything known of the makers of them, 
and whether the coins enclosed are a sign of the 
date ? I have two : one containing a twopenny 
piece of George II., ^and' another with a half- 
crown of Charles II. The design of the two is 
very similar, except that the one with the earlier 
coin is not finished quite as well as the other. 
The half-crown, however, is rubbed ; and so must 
have been some considerable time in circulation, 
which somewhat militates against the tankard 
being contemporary with the coin. Would any 
of your correspondents be kind enough to inform 
us whether they possess any such specimens of 
glass, and the coins enclosed in them ? It would 
be of some interest to those who care about Eng- 
lish glass to have this point settled. J. C. J. 

Crony. — I have never seen a derivation of 
this word ; but find, in Pepys's Diary (30th May, 
1665,) he speaks of the death of Jack Cole, "who 
was a great chrony of mine." From the spelling, 
I should fancy the word to be an abbreviation of 
chronological — such as Co. for Company ; demi- 
rep., for demi-reputation ; mob, for mobile, &c. ; 
and means one of the same time or period. Pepys 
says he was his school-fellow. A. A, 

Learned Dane on Unicorns. — 

" The ancient sculptors carved, and the poets described 
the female deer and sheep as horned : indeed, they added 
homes to many creatures which never bore them. 
Horned snakes were as pure fictions as the phoenix. 



51 



Maupertuis says that fables of horned things were col- 
lected by a learned Dane at the end of the last century, 
and published with suitable plate9 a9 A Treatise on Uni- 
corns." — A Compendium of Natural History, Introduction, 
p. xi. London, 1763, 8vo. 

The name of the Danish writer, and any pas- 
sages from "the ancients" confirmatory or ex- 
planatory, will oblige F. II. 

Sir H. Davy and James Watt. — I have heard 
that Sir Humphrey Davy pooh-poohed gas -light- 
ing, and James Watt steam navigation. Can any- 
one verify or refute these statements, or either of 
them ? Anti-Pooh-Pooh. 

Euripides and Menander. — In A Brief Out- 
line of the History of Greece, by Robert Williams, 
A.M., London, 1775, the author, noticing the 
Peloponnesian war, says : — 

" Euripides omitted no opportunit}' of placing a Spar- 
tan in a bad position, either as ridiculous or wicked ; and 
in this, if we may credit Athenajus, he was wantonly 
followed by Menander." — P. 74. 

No reference is given : Could one be ? 

M. R. G. 

" God's Providence is mine Inheritance." 
— Everybody that has visited Chester must have 
seen " God's Providence House " in Water-gate 
Street, — one of those curious gable-fronted, 
timber houses, for which Chester is so remarkable. 

"Tradition avers that this House was the only one in 
the City that escaped the Plague which ravaged the City 
during the seventeenth century. In gratitude for that 
deliverance, the owner of the House is^said to have carved 
upon the front these words : 

" 4 1652. God's Providknck is Mink Inheritance. 
1652."'* 

I remember being much struck with this quaint 
and interesting, but decayed old mansion, when I 
first visited Chester in 1851. As I read the beau- 
tiful motto carved on the cross-beam, it occurred 
to me that it was possibly derived from some old 
version of the 16th Psalm, verse 6 — " The Lord 
Himself is the portion of mine inheritance . . . 
Thou shalt maintain my lot." But the poor old 
House no longer affords a bright picture of the 
Providence of God, as doubtless it once did in its 
palmy days ; it can no longer take up the next 
verse and say — " The lot is fallen unto me in a 
fair ground ; yea, I have a goodly heritage ; " it 
now looks sordid and degraded, uncared for, and 
gloomy, — in a word, Disinherited ; and affords us 
a striking emblem of God's ancient people Israel, 
in their present forlorn and outcast state. And 
yet it was once a stately mansion, and the armo- 
rial bearings of its original owner are still to be 
seen carved on one of its beams. Sic transit 
Gloria Mundi ! Ichabod ! The Glory is departed ! 
This might be its motto and inscription now. 

I was reminded of this old house and its in- 



* From Mr. Hughes's valuable Handbook to Chester. 



scription the other day, by meeting with the fol- 
lowing passage in Bp. Burnet's Sermon, preached 
Jan. 7, 1691, at the funeral of the Hon. Robert 
Boyle : — 

" I will say nothing of the Stem from which he sprang ; 
that watered garden, watered with the blessings and dew 
of Heaven, as well a3 fed with the best portions of this 
life; that has produced so many noble plants, and has 
stocked the most families in these kingdoms, of any in 
our age ; which has so signally felt the effects of their 
humble and Christian Motto, God's Providence is my 
Inheritance." 

When did the Boyle family assume this motto? 
Any information as to its origin and history will 
be very acceptable to Eirionnach. 

Madame Guyon's Autobiography. — Who 
translated the Life of Lady Guion, 2 vols. 8vo, 
Bristol, 1772 ? Does it adhere more closely to 
the original than the mutilated version by T. D. 
Brooke, printed in 1806? Whas has become of 
the translation made by Covvper, and hitherto un- 
published? Where may a complete list of the 
writings of this gifted woman be found? Delta. 

Families who trace from Saxon Times. — 
I have occasionally heard of men, of the yeoman 
or farmer class, whose families have held the same 
lands since the times before the Conquest, and I 
was told lately of an instance in Berkshire. 

It would be interesting to ascertain the number 
of them in every county ; their names ; the tenure 
by which they have continued to hold their lands, 
and the nature of their proofs of genuine descent. 

The descendants of the Norman followers of 
William, upstarts as they were according to 
Thierry in his History of the Conquest, must yield 
precedence in antiquity to the old Saxon, and 
drop the " De," which many are so proud to 
prefix to their names with very little claim to the 
distinction. 

A Saxon landholder of those days, being 
stripped of his property, fell into obscurity, and 
was thus saved from the fate of their conquerors, 
who suffered from the effects of many revolutions 
among themselves, as, I believe, that few, if any, 
of the Norman chiefs left more than their names 
to their successors after the lapse of two centu- 
ries ; but on this point I am not qualified to give 
an opinion, not having access to reliable authori- 
ties. 

Charles II. is reported to have said of an old 
Saxon family, that they must have been fools or 
very wise not to have added to their property 
nor lost it. Sassenach. 

Harrisons of Berks. — A little information as 
to the lineage of the Harrisons of Berks, would 
be gladly received ? I find, in Berry, John Har- 
rison, Fincharapstead, Berks: — Arms. Or, on a 
chief sa. three eagles displayed of the field. Crest, 
Out of a ducal coronet or, a talbot's head of the 



52 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [W ft* m 



last; date 1623. Another coat of Harrison of 
Finchampstead gives : Or, on a cross sa., an eagle 
displayed with two heads of the field. There was 
also, Sir Richard Harrison of Hurst, Berks, who 
married a Dorothy Deane ; and about the mid- 
dle of last century, a John Harrison, at Henley- 
on-Thames. Burke mentions a Sir Edmund Har- 
rison of Lawrence Poultney Hill, who married 
Mary Fiennes. She died 1731 ; but I know not 
whether he was related to the above. W. W. 

Irish Peers. — Can you inform me whether, 
before the Union, when a peer of Ireland was 
called on to give evidence in an English Court of 
Justice, he was required to take an oath ? 

Lumen. 

Juryman's Oath. — From the trial of the regi- 
cides, as given in the State Trials, it appears that 
at the time of the Restoration, the form of the 
juryman's oath differed from that now used, in not 
containing the words " according to the evidence." 
The jurymen were sworn true verdicts to give ; 
but not true verdicts to give according to the 
evidence. 

Does the difference in form refer to any differ- 
ence that may once have existed in the functions 
of the jury ? Is there any more ancient form re- 
corded than the one usea\ at the trial of the re- 
gicides ? Lumen. 

Letting the New Year in. — Can any reader 
of " N. & Q." explain the origin of the supersti- 
tion in reference to what is called " letting the 
new year in" — which believes, that if the kindly 
office is performed by some one with dark hair, 
Dame Fortune will smile on the household ; while 
it augurs ill if a light-haired person is the first to 
enter the house in the new year? It sounds like 
a trick of the witches ; but however it arose, it 
stands its ground well, as I found to my cost no 
longer ago than on the morning of New Year's 
Day. Locked-out. 

Huddersfield. 

Materials.— - When different materials are to 
be used or compounded to make something — as a 
pudding or an argument, what is the old English 
word by which such materials are signified ? In 
our time we have materials, principles, compon- 
ents, elements, constituents, ingredients : but not 
one of these is English. Stuff is an ingredient, 
but it seems to apply chiefly to cases in which 
there is but one ingredient ; as stuff for a coat or 
gown. How would a housewife of the time of 
Elizabeth have signified that she had been out to 
buy materials for the pudding ? " Stuff for the pud- 
ding, 1 ' might have been understood : and no doubt, 
under the word garden-stuff, many different vege- 
tables are signified. But where is the word which 
has the distinctive force of ingredients in the 
plum-pudding? This very word is applied by 
Shakspeare; but the witches, who use it, were 



engaged, not upon common cookery, but upon 
what was in those days a scientific process. Per- 
haps the word was meant to work some terror, as 
one used by great alchemists and conjurors : if it 
can be proved to have been a common word, it 
is an answer to my query. But proof will be 
wanted. 

In recent times the word makings has gained a 
semi-slang currency. This seems to indicate the 
want of a real English word. A. De Morgan. 

Name wanting in Colertdge's " Table- 
Talk."— Coleridge says {Table-Talk, p. 165, 3rd 
edit., under the date March 31, 1832) : — 

" I remember a letter from ■ to a friend of his, a 

bishop in the East, in which he most evidently speaks of 
the Christian Scriptures as of works of which the Bishop 
knew little or nothing." 

The editor states, in a note, that he has lost the 
name which Mr. Coleridge mentioned. 

Can any reader of " N. & Q." supply it ? S. C. 

The Passing Bell. — In Nichols's Collection of 
Poems, London, 1780 (vol. iii. p. 201), is a poem 
on " The Passing Bell." Who is the author of it, 
and when was it first published ? D. 

Redmond Crest. — "A flaming cresset," or a 
fire-basket raised on a pole, being a sort of signal 
along the coast," to serve for lighthouses. 

This was the crest of the Duke of Exeter, who 
was the heir presumptive to the throne of Eng- 
land, being of the House of Lancaster, by the 
legitimate female line from William the Con- 
queror. The Duke's name was Henry Holland, 
Lord High Admiral of England in the reign of 
Henry "VI. Query, Is this the crest of the present 
Redmond family who came from Normandy with 
William the Conqueror, and subsequently went to 
Ireland with Strongbow in the reign of Henry II., 
where they had immense possessions in Wexford 
and other places ? The original name is Raymond, 
but Anglicised Redmond. J. H. 

St. Aulaire. — Can you direct me to a copy of 
the quatrain, written at ninety by St. Aulaire, to 
the Duchess du Maine ; concerning which Vol- 
taire said — " Anacreon, moins vieux, fit de moins 
jolies choses " ? It is mentioned in Temple Bar, 
for December. Mortimer Collins. 

Tilt Family. — The name of Tilt is a very 
rare one in England : one branch from Brighton 
is represented by Dr. Tilt ; another, and between 
which and the former no connexion is yet traced, 
came from Worcestershire, and is now extinct in 
the male line by the death of Charles Tilt — the 
millionaire. I am anxious, for genealogical pur- 
poses, to know from which locality, in Worcester- 
shire, the latter branch is derived, and whether 
anything is known of its early history ? Also the 
arms borne by it, which (if I recollect aright) 
were figured on the family carriage — as " A chev- 



3 rd s. i. Jan. 18, '62.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



la 



ron between three roundels; crest, a dolphin," — 
although the tinctures are unknown to me. It 
may not be generally known that this family co- 
represents a junior branch of the Protector's 
house. One of the descendants of the latter kept 
a shop in Skinner Street, Holborn ; he died leav- 
ing one or more daughters, from the issue of 
which the connexion is traced. I should be glad 
to know the links, and whether the Tilt family 
directly married a Cromwell ; or whether it was 
the heiress of her descendant who brought the 
representation to it. Several relics of Oliver 
Cromwell are in the possession of the descendant 
of a daughter of the Tilts : the most notable of 
which is a massive gold ring, with his arms, ini- 
tials, and date, engraved on it. 

Malcolm Macleod. 

Warner Pedigree. — Harman Warner, aged 
70 in 1586, is said to have been the father of 
John Warner, Bishop of Rochester, and of Anne 
Warner who married Thomas Lee, — whose son 
was Archdeacon of Rochester. Wanted the name 
of Harman Warner's wife and those of his parents, 
with any information as to his ancestors. G. H. D. 



Otho V.33nius : John of Milan. — I have now 
before me two small books, about which and 
their authors I should be glad if any of your cor- 
respondents could give me information : 1st, a 
12mo. vol. printed at Amsterdam in 1684, and 
entitled Othonis Vceni EmUemata Horatiana. It 
has pp. 207, and consists of engravings with de- 
scriptive letter-press, consisting of a few lines of 
Horace illustrating the plates, and the same me- 
trically rendered in German, French, and Dutch. 
2. A small edition of Johannes de Mediolanus' 
metrical precepts of the medical school of Salerno, 
edited, with curious comments, by Zacharias Syl- 
vius, a doctor of medicine in Rotterdam ; printed 
at Rotterdam in 1667. Exon. 

[Otho Vaenius, or Van Veen, a celebrated painter, was 
born at Leyden in 1556 ; studied at Rome under Fede- 
rigo Zucchero; settled at Brussels in the service of 
Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma, after whose death 
he removed to Antwerp, where he had Rubens for his 
pupil. He died at Brussels in 1634. Vaenius distin- 
guished himself in literature as well as in the arts, for 
besides Horace's Emblems, with Observations, he pub- 
lished A History of the War of the Batavians against 
Claudius Civilis and Cerialis, from Tacitus; The Life of 
Thomas Aquinas : The Emblems of Love Divine and Pro- 
fane; and The Seven Twin Sons of Lara, with forty il- 
lustrations. The quarto edition of 1607 of Horatii ~Em- 
blemata is the most prized, because it contains the first 
impression of the plates. — The Schola Salerni, or Regi- 
men Sanitatis Salernitanum, the most celebrated of all 
Leonine Poems, was written by the learned doctors of 
Salerno, and contains rules for the preservation of health, 
and the prevention of disease, composed for the use of 
Robert of Normandy, son of William the Conqueror, to 



whom it is dedicated. No poem was more popular in 

the middle ages, and many of its precepts are frequently 
quoted even to this day. According to Sir Alex. Croke 
there is some uncertainty respecting John de Milano; 
who he was, where he lived, or what share he had in the 
poem Schola Salernituna. There was indeed a John, a 
monk of Mount Casino, said by Peter Diaconus to have 
been a learned and eloquent physician, a disciple of Con- 
stantine, and to have flourished in 1075, who may be the 
person {De viris Must. Casinens, cap. xxxv.) He quitted 
his monastery, and died at Naples, where he deposited the 
worksofConstantine. Thetimeand theothercireumstances 
do not disagree, but Peter Diaconus does not mention his 
surname, and though he speaks of a medical book of 
Aphorisms written by him, he says nothing there, or 
any where else, of the Schola Salerni. His commentator, 
Zacharias Sylvius, was a physician of Rotterdam, whose 
dedication is dated in 1648.] 

Phoba Falconia. — The Cento Virgilianus of 
Proba Falconia contains the history of our first 
parents, Adam and Eve, and the life of our Saviour 
Christ in Latin verse, selected from the works of 
Virgil. My copy of this singular work is printed 
at Lugdunum (Lyons), by Stephen Gorgon, in 
1615. The authoress was of the Anician family, 
the first of senatorian rank who embraced Chris- 
tianity at the time of Constantino ; and she is de- 
scribed in the 31st chapter of Gibbon's History 
after the fall of her fortunes in Rome. St. 
Jerome, in his epistle to Demetriades, " De Ser- 
vanda Virginitate," declares she ought, " Om- 
nium Christianorum laude celebrari," and extols 
her conduct in the most trying period of her his- 
tory. Is there any other account of this early 
Christian poetess extant, and why are her verses 
called " Centones ? " Thomas E. Winnington. 

[Some account of this ingenious lady will be found in 
Migne, Patrologia\ Cursus Completus, torn. xix. p. 802, ed. 
Paris, 1846. Migne cites Isidorus Hispanensis and 
Gelasius, and adduces the authority of Justus Fontaniui 
in proof that the true name of the lady was Faltonia, 
not Falconia. See, however, Zedler's Lexicon, under 
Falconia. — Cento is properly a piece of patchwork. Hence 
poems composed of selected verses strung together were 
often called Centones. " Cento, carmen seu scriptum ex 
variis fragments contextum ; cujusmodi plurima exstant 
notissima." — Du Cange.] 

Ancient Games. — In looking over the Statutes 
at Large in search of an illustration of an old 
custom which I had occasion to investigate, I 
noticed this enactment, 14 Edw. IV. cap. 3 : — 

"No person shall use any of the Games called Klosse, 
Half-bowle, Kayles, Hand in Hand, or Queckbord, upon 
pain of two years' imprisonment, and forfeiture of x li." 

There are also in the statutes a long series of 
enactments against unlawful games, especially 
" as causing injury to the makers of bows and 
arrows." Amongst these occur the games " Lo- 
getting in the Fields," "Slide Thrift, otherwise 
called Shove Groat." Can any correspondent say 
what these games were, or give any account of 
them ? The court leets of this ancient borough 
abound with presentations of persons mulcted in 



54 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



0« S. I. Jan. 18, '62. 



the penalty incurred by the practice of these un- 
lawful games. The Vicar of Leominster. 

[Most of these games are noticed in Strutt's Sports 
and Pastimes. Klosse, or Closh, is a game at nine- pins. 
Half-bowl, called in Hertfordshire Roily-potty, is a game 
consisting of fifteen small pins of a conical form. Kayles 
•was also played with pins. Hand-in-hand with Queck- 
bord, is not explained. Logetting in the fields, refers to 
the game of Loggats, resembling kittle-pins. Slide- 
thrift or Shove-groat, was probably analogous to the 
modern pastime called Justice Jervis, common in tap- 
rooms.] 



DR. JOHN HEWETT. 

(2 nd S. xii. 409.) 

Mr. Clarence Hopper, and such of the readers 
of " N. & Q." as have shared the pleasure with 
which I have read that gentleman's valuable Un- 
published Biography of this distinguished Loyalist, 
will probably be interested in the perusal of the 
warrant for his execution; which has, I believe, 
never been published, and of which the original is 
now before me. 

" England to Wit. 

" At the Court h olden at Westminster, the five and 
twentieth day of May, in the yeare of our Lord one 
thousand six hundred fiftie and eight, before The Com- 
missioners appointed by virtue of a Commission under 
the great seale of England, in pursuance of an Act of Par- 
liament intituled an Act for security of His Highness the 
Lord Protector his person, and continuance of the nation 
in peace and safety ; and continued by Adiournment to 
the Second day of June, one thousand six hundred and 
fiftie and eight". 

" Whereas, upon a charge exhibited before this Court 
against John Hewet, D r of Divinity, the said John Hewet 
is, and standeth convicted, sentenced, adjudged, and con- 
demned ; and the said sentence the present second day 
of June, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand six hun- 
dred fiftie and eight, pronounced against him by the 
Court to bee as a Traytor to His Highness the Lord 
Protector and this Comonwealth conveyed back again 
.... unto the Tower of London, and from thence through 
the midle of the City of London directly to be drawne 
unto the Gallows of Tyburne ; and upon the said gallows 
there to bee hanged ; and, being alive, to be cutt downe 
to the ground, and his Intralls to be taken out of his 
belly and (hee living) to bee burnt before him ; and his 
head to be cut off, and his body to be divided into four 
quarters ; and that his said head and quarters should be 
placed where His Highness The Lord Protector shall be 
pleased to assigne. Of which sentence and Judgment 
Execution yet remaineth to bee done. These are, there- 
fore, in the name of His Highness The Lord Protector, 
to will and require you, the Sheriffs of London and Mid- 
dlesex, to see the said sentence and Judgment executed 
accordingly on Saturday, being the fifth day of this 
Instant month of June, betweene the Hours of nine in 
the morning and two in the afternoone of the same day, 
with full effect. 

" Signed in the name and by Order of the said Court, 
" Jo. Phelpes, 
" Clerk of the said Court. 
" To the Sheriff of London 

and Middlesex." W. J. T. 



COTGREAVE FORGERIES. 
(3 rd S. i. 8.) 

Some years since a lady "sent me a pedigree of the 
Shuldhams, of Shouldbam in Norfolk, the adjoin- 
ing parish to Shouldbam-Thorpe or Garbesthorp, 
the residence of the Butts family. It was in the 
main a very correct pedigree ; but with it, on 
a separate sheet, was another containing several 
descents from a Sir Edmond de Shouldham, 
" slain whilst fighting in front of the English army 
at the battle of Falkirk." It would seem the lady 
I refer to did not know what to do with Sir Ed- 
mond, neither did I myself. The papers were 
laid aside, and it was not till some time after the 
expose by Lord Monson and others that they came 
under my observation again, when the accompany- 
ing sheet, on re-perusal, clearly proclaimed Mr. 
Spence's hand-work. 

I think S. T.'s suggestion of a list of Spence's 
fabrications being recorded in " N. & Q." very 
good ; and, in addition to Shouldham, I would 
call attention to the pedigree of " Roundell of 
Gledstone and Screven " in Burke's Landed Gen- 
try. A note to this pedigree states that " The early 
descents of the family of Roundell are inserted on 
the authority of a very ancient pedigree of the 
Cotgreaves, stated to be the work of the celebrated 
Randle Holme, derived from documents compiled 
by Camden." 

The Spencean origin of the early part of the 
pedigree will, I think, be clear to any reader at 
all acquainted with Spence's forgeries. G. H. D. 



Various letters on this subject have been ad- 
dressed to myself, by gentlemen to whom applica- 
tions of a similar nature to those mentioned in the 
article cited above were sent from Netherlegh. 
Other letters from the same quarter have been 
shown to me by members of the Heralds' Col- 
lege, to whom the recipients had consigned them. 

One of these letters, dated June 10, 1844, was 
from a most respectable clergyman of Norfolk, 
and mentions what seems to have been a further 
attempt at imposition. The words are : — 

"Mr. Spence has offered me a book, which he describes 
as having been purchased of the late Mr. Lloyd, of Bank 
Place, Chester, for 5/. The title of the book is Sir Peter 
Legh's Cheshire Gentry. It was printed in 1602, and was 
a private publication. My surprise is, that the book is 
unknown at the Heralds' College and the British Mu- 
seum, and not in any Catalogue that I can refer to." 

This Sir P. L. would be the owner of Lyme 
noticed in Wilson's Journal and in the notes to 
the Lady 7 of the Lake, in connection with the 
Deer-chase, and whose lady has a monument at 
Fulham. As to the book, however, I do not 
think that, if it ever existed in a genuine form, 
it could have escaped me, and in such form, I 
never heard of its existence. Lancastriensis. 



3"» S. I. Jan. 18, '62. j 



NOTES AND QUEIUKs. 



55 



1"J 



d. 

xvj 
viij 



SOLICITORS' BILLS. 
(2 nd S. xii. 245.) 
The following is transcribed from the original 
bill, and affords a still older example of legal 
charges than that given by Mr. Peacock. As 
will be seen, Mr. Bartholemew Cox is the soli- 
citor, and the Dean and Chapter of Wells are the 
clients. The preservation of the bill is desirable, 
as the contents may assist future writers on the 
local history of Wells, in referring to original 
documents relating to an important period. The 
incidental references to " Polidor Virgill " are 
also interesting. Solicitors in modern times are 
not often found leaving the sum they are willing 
to receive to be fixed by their clients as Mr. Cox 
has done. 

" The right Wor 11 the Deane and Chapter — their Charges 
laid out by me Bartli'ew Cox, 

Dr. 

" Mich. 7 Car. R.'s I. 
For Search of the Patent made to Edward 

Dyer, Esq'r, 27 th Maij . . . 27 th Eliz'h - 
For the Coppie, vj sheets •• 
For Searching the first fruits Office for the 

Archdeaconry of Welles, and the p'ticu- 

lars of the Corps - 
For the Coppie and signing therof 
For the search for power sev'all Archdea- 
cons - - - - - 
For two Constats of Composic'ons for the 

said Archdeaconry, — one for M r Rugg, 

the second for M r D'cor Wood - 
For the search of the two Surrenders of 

Polidor Virgill, w'ch was 2G t0 Decemb'r, 

An 0 38 H. 8 
For the Coppie, 10 fol. - 
For the searching how the same came out 

of the Crowne to the Duke of Som'st by 

E. vj th , by viewing of two sev'all patents, 

and an Indenture of Exchange - 
For searching for the Indenture of Exchang 

wherby the Duke conveyeth the same to 

the King - 
For taking a Coppie of the p'ticulars 
For searching for the Lres Patents made 

vnto Polidor Virgill for life, of the Arch- 
deaconry - 
For a Coppie therof, 7 sheets 
For view of a patent made vnto Polidor 

Virgill to absent himselfe from the Arch- 
deaconry, and to travell beyond the Seas 
For search wether the jEx rent reserved by 

the patent made to Dyer were any p't of 

the £cxx vjs. paiable yearly by the Dean 

and Chapter to his Ma'tie, and I finde it 

is not p't therof - 
For search wether the £x rent (pension) 

were not p't of the £lxij and odd money 

paid by the Deane and Chapter to the 

King, and I finde it is not p't thereof - 
For a Coppie of the two Records - 
For a Constat from the Auditor that the 

now Archdeacon doth pay Subsid's 

(tenths and Subsidy) for Barrow as 

p'cell of his Archdeaconry 
For composing and writing two Breviats 

for the Cause, the one for M r Maidwell, 

the other for M r D'cor Wood - 



XUJ 111J 



1]1 J 
viij 



Viij 



J »"J 



J »»J 



VJ VIIJ 



j vj 



J 1"J 



For the Search to see the p'ticulars of the 

£xlvj and odd money, payable by the 

Deane and Chapter vnto his Ma'tie 
For the Coppie thereof ... 
For the searching at the Rolles for the Act 

of Parliament for the RestitucOn of the 

Chauntries - 

Sum totall is . - £v 0s. xd. 

For my travell and charg herein I doe 
humbly referre myselfe to the Chapter, 
Certifieinge hereby that I continewcd my 
paines herein by the space of a Moneth 

^ or vpwards in London." 

Mr. Bartholomew Cox was an attorney in good 
repute in Wells. He was Town Clerk of Wells 
for many years ; and so much was his character 
as an intelligent and honorable man respected, 
and so high was his legal talent estimated, that 
the Corporation chose him as Mayor in 1624, 
1632, 1636, and 1648, and on those occasions the 
corporate body appointed a Deputy Town Clerk 
during Mr. Cox's year of office. Ina. 



vj Vllj 



Biblical Literature : William Cabpenteb 
(2 nd S. xii. 521.) — Mr. Cabpenteb's attention has 
just been called to a remark of yours affecting 
him, in " N. & Q." His almost total loss of sight 
for some months past, has kept him ignorant of 
much of the current literature, including " N. 
& Q." In a note which you append to a question 
asked by Mb. E. W. Babtlett, you say, " In a 
review of Home and Carpenter's Introduction to 
the Study of the Holy Scriptures, in the Christian 
Remembrancer for Jan. 1827, some accusations of 
piracy and plagiarism from Mr. Home's valuable 
work are exhibited against Mr. Carpenter." 

Mb. Cabpenteb does not complain of this re- 
mark, though it seems to have been uncalled for, 
in a reply to Me. Bartlett, but he asks you in 
justice to state, in the next number of " N. & Q.," 
that the accusations of the Christian Remembrancer 
were very fully examined and, as was said, refuted 
in the Eclectic Revieiv, the Congregational, Evan- 
gelical, and Baptist Magazines, and in other peri- 
odicals of that day, as also in a pamphlet by 
himself, A Reply to the Charges of Piracy and 
Plagiarism against William Carpenter, in a Letter 
to the Rev. Hartwell Home. 

Habeiet Cabpenteb. 

Tudor House, Cheyne Walk. 

Commissabiat of Laudeb (3 rd S. i. 37.) — My 
attention has been drawn to a Note in your num- 
ber of the 11th January, with reference to the 
"Commissariat of Lauder," and I will be glad if 
you will enable me to correspond with the writer 
of it, M. G. F. 

I have no such Index as is referred to in the 
Note; and am, of course, the most likely person 
to be applied to in any case in which the Index 
may be of use. So it may be advantageous to 



56 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 rd S. I. Jan. 18, '62. 



M. G. F. and myself, as well as of service to the 
public, that I should know where such an Index 
can be found. Robert Romanes. 

Commissary Clerk's Office, Lauder, 
13th Jan. 1862. 

Mufjf (2 nd S. xii. 391.) — There is perhaps no 
nation upon the earth more prone to giving nick- 
names than the Dutch, and (though I may seem 
to utter a paradox) I can confidently affirm that 
the chief characteristic of our nation is irony. 
Wonderful, indeed, is the appreciation of cha- 
racter thereby displayed by our lower classes : 
wonderful their deplorable dexterity to hit the 
hurt (sore). I need not tell, that there is hardly 
a place in the Netherlands, be it ever so small, but 
has its popular appellative : " Amsterdam cake- 
eaters" " Haarlem midges" fyc. 

Thus it is with the word muff, Belgice mof to 
which often the designation " groene" (green) is 
added; because of the supposed uncultured, fresh, 
and verdant state of the person alluded to. Now 
mof is the nickname applied by the natives of the 
Low Countries to all foreigners, Germans espe- 
cially : for, be it further known, the uncivilised 
part of our population (and sometimes those of 
higher station !) cannot bear foreigners, from not 
being able to understand them. The Dutchman, 
suspicious as he is, and always in fear of being 
sold, wants to know what is spoken about : and 
then he is too proud to confess that, when ad- 
dressed, he will not be able to reply, from neither 
catching the sense nor possessing the language. 
So, he revenges himself by a nickname. 

After this long digression, I must come to the 
point. The German, in Holland, is saluted with 
the interjection of " mof" or " groene mof I" be- 
cause our cultivating classes judge all Germans 
by the Westphalian specimens, who, as regular 
as storks, annually migrate to mow our meadows. 
These are pronounced to be " as green as grass " 
(zoo groen als gras), or "grass-muffs" (gras- 
moffen), and to deserve the epithet, which, in 
its original spelling, muf denotes a musty, close 
(here univashy) exhalation. This, at least, is the 
alleged derivation. And, as for the German of 
higher pretensions — who, by dint of incredible 
frugality and proverbial exertion, succeeds in 
realising a handsome fortune in Holland — he is 
said by us, his jealous and less fortunate neigh- 
bours, to have arrived in our midst " floating 
down the Rhine on a wisp of straw," — Hij is op 
een stroowisch aan komen drijven. 

It cannot be thought beyond the purpose to 
add, that the term muff will have passed the 
Channel with the motley troops of William III. 
The Dutch, not being a military nation, many 
have been thj muffs, real and supposed, who have 
served in our army — German, English, Scotch, 
and Swiss. 



If, however, my verbosity might propose an- 
other origin for the term, I would suggest that at 
first it was only designed for the Russians, whose 
national dress, in furs and muffs (Dutch mof), 
may as well have elicited the designation, as the 
fusty smell of Russian morocco may have deemed 
muf 'by Dutch noses. John H. van Lennep. 

Zeyst, near Utrecht. 

Bishops' Thrones (2 nd S. xii. 249, 350.) — 
Mr. Buckton's communication on this subject 
suggests one or two further questions. Mr. 
Buckton says truly, "Perhaps no church has ad- 
hered more pertinaciously to its ancient practices 
than the Greek or Oriental." Are we to under- 
stand by this that the well-known arrangement 
of an ancient Basilica, the bishop sitting in the 
midst of his Presbyters at the eastern extremity 
of the apse, is still found in Greek churches ? 

I think few scholars understand by "cancelli," 
the " steps before the holy gates;" they were the 
rails or screen between nave and choir. 

What is the authority for the statement that 
the south-east corner is the " seat of dignities ? " 

The " coenobiarcha " is of course the head of the 
coenobium, whatever its technical designation 
might be, attached to the church ; and probably 
" antistes " has, in this connexion, the same mean- 
ing. 

Does Mr. Buckton mean to imply that a me- 
tropolitan would be less "^'purely ecclesiastical " if 
he were called " princeps sacerdotum " or " sum- 
mus sacerdos," than when called "primse sedis 
episcopus ? " 

The question whether the bishop is among the 
Presbyters, " primus inter pares," is hardly one 
for the pages of " N. & Q. ; " but I should like to 
know the authority for the statement that, "in 
reference to the people who elect him, he is ser- 
vus servorum Dei" P. C. 

Old Libraries (2 nd S. xii. 469.)— I beg leave 
to apprise your correspondent Mr. Blades that 
there is a church library at Monk's Sleigh, in the 
county of Suffolk, in which it may be worth his 
while to inquire for " Caxtons." My remini- 
scences of this library are only those of a lad, but 
I think it worth while to mention it. If my me- 
mory serves me right, there are also a few books 
appertaining to the church of Milden in the same 
neighbourhood, as well as to Hadleigh. 

There is also a collection of a few hundred vols, 
in the vestry of St. James's, Bury St. Edmunds, 
and a few MSS. 

J. M. RoDWELL. 

33, Highbury New Park. 

Aristotle on Indian Kings (2 nd S. xii. 6,531.) 
— The passage of Aristotle on Indian kings, cited 
by Fordun from his Treatise de Regimine Princi- 
pum, is (as has been remarked by your corre- 
spondent Mr. Henry Bradshaw, and as had been 



3 rd S. I. Jan. 18, '62.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



57 



previously pointed out in a book-eatalogue of Mr. 
Kerslake of Bristol) to be found in the spurious 
Secretum Secretorum. Jourdain, JRecherches sur les 
Traductions Latines d'Aristole (Paris, 1843, 8vo), 
States that the Secretum Secretorum was in high re- 
pute during thethirteenth, and particularly the four- 
teenth century ; that it was translated into most 
of the languages of Europe ; and that the original 
of these translations was a Latin version of an 
Arab text (p. 185). It may be observed that 
Fordun w;is a writer of the fourteenth century. 
Further information respecting the origin of the 
Secretum is given in Wenrich, De Auctorum Grce- 
corum Versionihus Syriacis, Arabicis, 8fC. hips. 
1842, pp. 102, 141-2. In p. 141 he ascribes the 
translation in Syriac to Jahja ben Batrick, on 
the authority of Rich. Neander, Sanctcs Lingua} 
Hebrcece Erotemata, p. 558. Neander himself, 
however, appears to found his statement on the 
fact of the translation being attributed to Johannes 
fH. Patricii in the printed edition of the Secretum 
(Bologna, 1516). The Latin MSS. of the Secre- 
tum, with the real or pretended prologue of ben 
Patrick or Joannes filius Patricii, ascend to the 
thirteenth century. 

The following is the passage in question, from 
sect. 7 of the Secretum, headed, in ed. Paris, 1520, 
"De Taciturnitate Regis." Alexander is cautioned 
to be reserved in his intercourse with his sub- 
jects : — 

"Decet etiam regem abstinere nec multum frequen- 
tare consortium subditorum ; et maxime vilium persona- 
rum, quia nimia familiaritas hominum parit contemptum 
honoris. Et propter hoc pulchra consuetudo Indorum 
in dispositione regni et ordinatione regis, qui statue- 
runt quod rex tantum semel in anno coram hominibus 
appareat, cum regali apparatu et armato exercitu; Se- 
dens nobilissime in dextrario suo, ornatu armorum pul- 
cherrime decoratus. Et stare faciunt vulgus aliquantu- 
lum a remotis, nobiles vero et barones circa ipsum. Et 
tunc solet ardua negotia expedire ; varios et praecinctos 
rerum eventus declinare; curam et operam quam circa 
rem publicam fideliter gesserat ostendere. Consuescit 
Biquidem in ilia die dona elargiri et minus reos de carce- 
ribus emancipare," &c. 

G. C. Lewis. 

Rev. W. Stephens (2 nd S. xii. 310.)— In reply 
to G. P. P.'s Query, I beg to state that the edi- 
tion of Watkins's Biographical Dictionary from 
which the extract was made is 1821. As there 
may be some difficulty in Win. S.'s procuring the 
edition, I send a copy, literally taken from that 
work : — 

"Stephens (William), a learned Divine, was born in 
Devonshire, and educated at Exeter College, Oxford, 
where he obtained a Fellowship, and took his degree of 
Master of Arts in 1715. lie afterwards stood candidate 
for the Rectorship of his College, and would have suc- 
ceeded but for the superior claims of Dr. Coneybeare. Mr. 
Stephens was presented to the Vicarage of Bampton, in 
Oxfordshire, and lastly chosen by the Corporation of 
Plymouth to fill the Rectory of St. Andrew in that town, 
where he died in 1736. He published four Sermons against 

i . 



the Arians, and after his death two Volumes of his Dis- 
courses were printed by subscription." 

X. X 

Maet Ashford (2 n<1 S. xi. passim.) — In my 
enumeration (xi. 432) of the pieces to which the 
supposed murder of this unfortunate girl gave 
rise, I omitted the following : — 

" The Murdered Maid; or, The Clock struck four ! ! 1 
A Drama in three Acts. Warwick, 1818, 12mo, pp. 44." 

The preface to this piece is signed with the 
initials S. N. E. Further than this I am not 
able to indicate the author; but think it not 
unlikely that it may, at the time of its publica- 
tion, have been attributed to Dr. Booker, and 
that thus, by mistake, the other melodrama, The 
Mysterious Murder, may also have got ascribed 
to the reverend Doctor. William Bates. 

Edgbaston. 

Pordage Family (2 nd S. xii. 370, 419, 475.) — 
The occurrence of the name of 11 Pordage " in 
your excellent work induces me to send you the 
following, transcribed from a marble slab dis- 
covered under the floor of the church during 
the recent restorations at Waltham Abbey : — 

" Here lyeth the Bodv of Richard Naylor, 
M.D., who departed" this life the 23 d of 
June, 1683, Aged 63 years. 
Here lyeth the body of Ann Pordage, Daughter 
of Benjamin Pordage and Elizabeth his Wife, 
who departed this life the 20 th of Octo b . 1682. 
Here lyeth the body of Lionel Goodrick Pordage, 
Sonne of Benjamin Pordage and Elizabeth his wife, 
who Departed this life August y* 30 th , 1684. 
Here lyeth the body of Elizabeth Pordage, 
the beloved wife of Benjamin Pordage, who was 
the Best Friend, the Best Companion, the Best of Wiues, 

Curtious and humble in her carriage, holy in 
her life, Pious at her Death, who Blessedly Departed this 
life Novem b y e 9 th , 1687, in the 43 year of her Age, left 
behind her Rachell, Elizabeth, and Edward 
Pordage, of which she Died. 
" But what is it where in Dame Nature wrought 
the Best of work's the only Forme of Heaven; 
And haueing Long'd to finde A present sought 

where in the world's whole Beauty might be given, 
She did Resolve in it all Arts to summon, 
to Joyne with Nature's Framing 

GOD Tis woman. 
"Elizabkth Pordage. 
" Memento Mort." 

Waltham Abbey. 

L — B. 

The Book- Worm (1* S. passim.) — The many 
articles under this heading in the earlier volumes 
of " N. & Q." evince the interest felt by its 
readers in the extirpation and prevention of the 
ravages of this, the common enemy of all book- 
lovers. The following receipt, transcribed from 
the fly-leaf of an old book, has at least the ad- 
vantage of simplicity, cheapness, and applica- 
bility 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3**'S. I. Jan. 18, '62. 



** To hill and prevent Book and Wood Worms. 
Mr. Grant, August 13, 1792. 

" Take one oz. of Camphire, pounded like common 
great salt, and one oz. of Bitter apple tore in halve3 and 
quarters; and spread at the bottom of your Chests or 
drawers among Books, Papers, or Cloaths^and when 
the Camphire is wasted and the bitter apple lost its smell, 
sweep out the bitter apple, and renew the same again. 
The quantities specified will last eight or ten months. 

" If bitter apple cannot be had, take cut Tobacco in its 
stead. 

" The same Mr. Grant says, will destroy in drawers, or 
wood house-furniture. That he received it from late 
Dr. Egerton, Bp. of Durham." 

Tt is perhaps just necessary to remind the 
reader that " bitter apple " is an old appellation 
of Colocynth. 

The little books of which I transcribe the titles 
are not generally known in this country, and will 
be found useful companions to the collectors of 
books and prints : — 

" Essai sur l'art de restaurer les Estampes et les Livres, 
ou Traite' sur les meilleurs proce'de's pour blanchir, de- 
tacher, de'colorier, re'parer et conserver les Estampes, Livres 
et Dessins ; par A. Bonnardot. Seconde edition, refondue 
et augmentee, suivie d'un Expose' des divers Systemes de 
Reproduction des anciennes Estampes et des Livres rares. 
Paris : chez pastel, 8vo, 1858, pp. 352. 

" De la Reparation de vieilles Reliures, complement de 
l'Essai sur l'art de restaurer les Estampes, et les Livres, 
suivi d'une Dissertation sur les moyens d'obtenir des 
duplicata de Manuscrits. Par A. Bonnardot. Paris: 
Castel, 8vo, 1858, pp. 72." 

What is the best method of washing vellum or 
parchment bindings, [and restoring the enamel of 
the surface ? William Bates. 

Edgbaston. 

The Mole and the Campbells (2 nd S. xii. 
498.) — This superstition is mentioned in my Olen- 
creggan (ii. 29, 30.) A somewhat earlier date 
than 1847, as given by your correspondent, is 
assigned to the introduction of the mole in Can- 
tire. The author of the Statistical Survey of the 
parish eighteen miles south of Tarbert, writing in 
1843, records the arrival in his parish of the 
Campbell-destroying mole, and says, "It is a 
very singular circumstance in the natural history 
of the mole, that it travels by the hills and colo- 
nises sterile districts before it attacks cultivated 
land." Moles are now found throughout Cantire. 

Cuthbert Bede. 



Knave's Acre (2 nd S. xii. 191, 273,445.) — 
, No place near St. Paul's having been assigned for 
3< Knave's Acre, it is probable that Stukeley may 
; ; have referred to a site with this name north-west 
of the Haymarket, especially as he refers to it in 
* connexion with Long Acre. Stowe says (vol. ii. 
- bk. vi. p. 84) : — 
* * " Knave's Acre, or Poultney street, falls into Brewer's 
N street by Windmill street, and so runs westward as far 
as Marybone street, and Warwick street end, and cross- 
ing the same and Swallow street, falls into Glass-house 
. v street, which leadeth into the fields on the backside of 



Burlington fgarden, and thence to Albemarle buildings. 
This Knave's acre is but narrow, and chiefly inhabited by 
those that deal in old goods, and glass bottles." 

If this be the site of Stukeley's Knave's Acre, 
the hypothesis of a hoax being practised on him is 
withdrawn ; the objection to his etymology of the 
name, however, remaining. T. J. Buckton. 

Lichfield. 

Can "Knave's End" and "Good Knave's End " 
have any affinity to Dr. Stukeley's "Knave's 
Acre " ? I think these names are not very uncom- 
mon. The latter occurs in the parish of Edg- 
baston, about two miles from Birmingham. 

N. J. A. 

Unsuccessful Prize Poems (2 nd S. xii. 518.) — 
Such fragments as that quoted by F. J. M. (which 
I suppose may be called maccaronic) are usually 
given as if parts of unsuccessful prize poems. The 
following are three that I have heard thus quoted ; 
perhaps some reader of "N. & Q." may remember 
others : — 

1. Part of a poem on Nebuchadnezzar — 
" And murmured, as he cropped the unwonted food, 

' Tt may be wholesome, but it isn't good.' " 
2 On " Belshazzar's Feast " — 
" When all the nobles stood appalled, 
Some one suggested Daniel should be called ; 
Daniel appears, and just remarks in passing, 
The words are Mene, Mene, Tekel, and Upharsin." 
3. On the discovery of the Sandwich Isles. The 
discoverer is wrecked on an island — then 
" They brought him slices thin of ham and tongue, 
With bread that from the trees spontaneous hung : 
Pleased with the, thought the gallant captain smiles, 
And aptly names the place the Sandwich Isles." 

G. 

Architectural Proportion (2 nd S. xii. 458.) 
— I am afraid that in my former communication 
I did not express myself with so much precision 
as I ought to have done. The question I intended 
to ask was, — given, a piece of marble in the form 
of the shaft of a Grecian column, required, the 
centre of gravity. This question does not neces- 
sarily involve any consideration of the thickness 
of the shaft. One shaft may be four diameters 
in height, and another six, and yet the proportion 
which the length below the centre of gravity 
bears to the length above it may be the same in 
both. But as has been intimated by A. A., the 
consideration of the entasis is intimately involved 
in the inquiry. And I may add that my reason 
for raising the question was, that I imagined that 
the solution of it would throw light upon the 
sesthetical principle of the entasis. In any inquiry 
upon this point, I quite agree with the view that 
appears to be taken by A. A., — that the Doric 
order ought to be carefully studied in the first 
instance ; and if in that case any satisfactory re- 
sult can be arrived at, it would be desirable to 
institute a comparison with the Ionic. But I 



3'd S. t Jan. 18, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



59 



think it would be hardly worth while going 
further. If A. A. knows of any works that would 
assist me in such an inquiry, I should be much 
obliged if he would have the kindness to refer 
me to them. Lumen. 

Richard Shelley (2 nd S. xii. 470.)— The 
Gentleman s Magazine for September, 1785, con- 
tains an account of Sir Richard Shelley, the last 
English Grand Prior of St. John of Jerusalem, 
with engravings of two medals struck in honor of 
him. It states he was son of Judge Shelley who 
entertained King Henry VIII. at his family seat 
at Michelgrove, Sussex. John Calvee. 

Harleston. 

Arthur Shorter (2 nd S. xii. 521.) — In the 
pedigree of Shorter, given in Mr. Gordon Gyll's 
History of the Parish of Wraysbury, the name of 
Arthur Shorter does not occur. The children of 
John Shorter and Elizabeth Phillips are there 
stated to have been Catherine, married to Sir 
Robert Walpole, and Charlotte married to Lord 
Conway. J. Doran. 

Stonehenge (3 rd S. i. 13.) —With the most 
profound respect for the geological attainments of 
Sir R. Murchison, allow me to ay that the nature 
of the stones of which Stonehenge is built, has 
been long since satisfactorily determined. The 
late Dr. Mantell, in his Geology of the South-east 
Coast of England, p. 48, gives them the name of 
Grey Wethers, and refers them to a stratum lying 
originally just above the Chalk, part of which, 
consisting of loose sand, has been washed away, 
leaving these concreted masses, or boulders, 
scattered over the surface of our Downs — such 
as the so-called "plain" of Salisbury, which is 
really a series of undulating hills. 

The builders of Stonehenge would therefore 
find them ready to their hands, and would be 
under no necessity of transporting them from 
Ireland, or as some say, from Africa. 

The theory that they are artificial originated 
with Camden, and, like all errors of the kind, has 
had its cycles, — has grown small by degrees, and 
beautifully less, and will, I hope, be altogether 
extinguished by the writers in " N. & Q." 

If Mor Merrion desire to learn more par- 
ticularly the geological position of these Grey 
Wether?, I would recommend him to consult, 
Description Geol. des Environs de Paris, par MM. 
Cuvier and A. Brogniart, 4to, Paris, 1822. 

The "porphyry" of London-stone, I believe 
to be Kentish Rag, scientifically known as Lower 
Green, or Shanklin, sand. Douglass Allport. 

Mr. J. Britton, in the Beauties of Wiltshire^ 
1801, vol. ii. p. 145, gives the following remarks : 

"Many persons have supposed these stones to be com- 
position, and there are those who still persist in this er- 
roneous opinion. The skilful mineralogist knows the 



contrar}' ; and a gentleman * well versed in this science, 
gives the following account of the characters of these 
stones: 'All the great pillars, as those forming the out- 
ward circle, the five pair innermost, and the great stone, 
with the two lateral ones near the ditch, are of a pure, 
fine-grained, compuct sand-stone, which makes no effer- 
vescence with acids. As far as the lichens which cover 
the pillars, will permit one to judge, some are of a yel- 
lowish colour, others white. The second row of pillars, 
and the six which are innermost of all, are of a kind of 
fine grained griinstein, where the black hornblende is the 
only constituent which has a crystalline form, or spathous 
appearance. This, in some pillars, is but sparingly scat- 
tered in the principal mass ; in others, it forms a principal 
part. The mass, or ground, has a finely speckled green 
and white appearance, an uneven fracture, makes a slight 
effervescence with acids, and may be scratched with a 
knife. This stone strikes lire difficultly with steel. But in 
this second row there are two pillars of a quite different 
nature. That on the right hand, is a true and well 
characterised blackish siliceous schistus, the kiezel scliiefer of 
Werner; that on the left, is argillaceous schistus. The 
great slab, or altar, is a kind of grey cos, a very fine- 
grained, calcareous sand-stone. It makes a brisk effer- 
vescence in nitrous acids, but dissolves not in it; strikes 
fire with steel, and contains some minute spangles of 
silver mica.' " 

F. P. 

Archery Proverbs (2 nd S. xi. 513.) — 
"The bolt was the arrow peculiarly fitted to the cross- 
bow, as that of the long-bow was called a shaft. Hence 
the English proverb, ' I will either make a shaft or bolt 
• of it,' signifying a determination to make one use or 
other of the thing spoken of." — Ivanhoe. 

Armiger. 

Isabel and Elizabeth (2 nd S. xii. 364, 444, 
522.) — The statement of Gesenius, in his Hebrew 

Lexicon (Gibbs, p. 27), on the word ^?V& {Hee- 
zev'-el) — "hence the name Isabella'" — is too im- 
portant to be overlooked, as it is one of his 
mistakes. The word " Isabel " is Portuguese, and 
is the equivalent for " Elizabeth," as their version 
of the New Testament shows (Luke i. 5, 13, 24, 
40, 41, 57.) 

The abridgment of foreign names in spoken lan- 
guage, and their adaptation to the vocal organisa- 
tion of the people who borrow them, are universal ; 
and Ave 'may take as specimens — Bessy and Bess, 
from Elizabeth ; Bell, from Isabella ; Tom, from 
Thomas ; Bill, from William; Dich, from Richard; 
John and Jack, from Jochan or Johan. The Por- 
tuguese rejected the initial syllable el, and added 
the letter / to the termination, as the Greeks had 
added t to the original Syriac and Hebrew word 
"Elisabe." 

Were there any doubt as to the etymology of 
" Isabella," the improbability that Christian pa- 
rents, sponsors, and priests, would impose a name 
of so wicked a person as Jezebel, might Bliffice to 
show that Isabella was not the equivalent of Jeze- 
bel. Thus we do not find as Christian names 



* Tracts and Observations, on Natural History and 
Physiology, by Robert Townson, LL.D. 



60 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. [#» & l a* 14** 



those of Cain, Nebuchadnezzar, Judas, and others, 
eminent only in evil. T. J. Buckton. 

Lichfield. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Shakespeare. A Reprint of the Collected Works as first 
Published in 1623. Part 1. containing the Comedies. 
(Booth.) 

Often have zealous students and judicious admirers of 
Shakspeare, when vexed with the controversies of angry 
commentators, exclaimed, " Oh for a copy of the First 
Folio!" What they have so longed for is now before 
them. We have here the writings of our great Bard 
just as his loving friends Heminge and Condell (that 
"payre so carefull to show their gratitude both to the 
living and the dead") presented them to their noble 
patrons, the Earl of Pembroke, and the Earl of Montgo- 
mery : and truly, what with the form of the letter used, 
the tint of tha paper, the limp vel'um wrapper, and the 
manner in which the general character of the editio prin- 
ceps has beer, imitated, one feels almost disposed to be- 
lieve, as we turn over page after page, and read passage 
after passage in the orthography of James's time, that one 
is the fortunate possessor of a First Folio. Rightly and 
wisely has Mr. Booth acted in retaining the very errors 
of the original; and it, is no vain boast when he declares, 
that " henceforth for less than two pounds may be se- 
cured, in a perfect state, the coveted of all English book- 
collectors — a volume, which in the original, and in con- 
dition more or less of defacement or repair, would be 
considered cheap at a hundred." This "cheerful sem- 
blance " of the First Folio, ought to be in the library of 
ever}' lover of Shakspeare, upon whose shelves a copy of 
the goodly volume issued by Isaac Jaggars and Edward 
Blount in 1623 is not to be found. 

Gloucester Fragments. I. Facsimile of some Leaves in 
Saxon Handwriting on S. Swithun. II. Leaves jrom an 
Anglo-Saxon Translation of the Life of S. Maria JEgi/p - 
iiaca. Copied by Photozincography, and published with 
Elucidations and an Essay by John Earle, M.A., &c. 
(Longman.) 

If we wanted a justification for having devoted some por- 
tion of this Journal to the promotion of Photography when 
Photography had no special Journal of its own, we could 
point with full confidence to this handsome volume, for 
which we are indebted to the Oxford Professor of Anglo- 
Saxon, The manner in which these fragments have been 
reproduced is a marvellous proof of the perfection to 
which the new branch of Photography — Photozincogra- 
phy-, as it is termed — has already been brought. It is the 
old MS. not copied but multiplied; and when it is re- 
membered that such old MS. has never in any shape been 
published before, the value of the present book to Anglo- 
Saxon scholars is at once evident. " Half a dozen old 
leaves may seem a poor basis to found a book upon," says 
Mr. Earle, but as he afterwards tells us they contain a 
"genuine product of the mind of the tenth century," we 
at once recognise their historical and literary value. We 
have of course not the space to enter into a consideration 
of the various topics which these fragments suggest, and 
we think, therefore, we shall best convey to our readers a 
just notion of the importance of the work before us, by 
enumerating its principal contents. These consist, then, 
of the Swithun Facsimiles; the Swithun text printed 
line for line and page for page with a literal translation ; 
an Essay on the Life and Times of Swithun ; and eleven 
Illustrative pieces, consisting of Latin Biographies, Eng- 



lish Metrical Lives, Lists of Churches dedicated to him, &c. 
These are followed by the facsimile of the fragment on S. 
Maria ^Egyptiaca, INoticeof S. Maria ^Egyptiaca, and the 
text with translation and illustrative Notes. Such are the 
curious contents of this interesting volume, which the 
Editor has endeavoured to make serviceable as an Intro- 
duction to Anglo-Saxon Literature, for which, both in 
point of language and history, the fragment on Swithun 
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Turner's Liber Studiorum. Photographed from the 
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This is another and admirable application of Photo- 
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the highest which man ever possessed, can compete with 
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reproduced. The original drawings of Turner, which 
art-students at the South Kensington Museum pore over 
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dents in the quiet of their own homes, and in those genial 
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artists this is a great boon ; but it is one of far more 
importance to country students, and the volume will 
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in connexion with the South Kensington School of Art. 
The execution of the photographs does great credit to 
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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



6! 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 25, 1862. 



CONTENTS.— N°. 4. 

NOTES : — Memoir of William Oldys, Esq., Norroy-King-at- 
Arms, 01 — Mathematical Bibliography, 6-i — Princely 
Funerals, 65 — llampshiro Mummors, 66 — Books and 
their Authors, lb. 

Minor Notes : — The Polyphemus of Turner — Surnames 

— The first Bank in Australia — The Jackdaw a Weather- 
Prophet — Metric Prose, 67. 

QUERIES : — Authorised Translation of Catullus — Colonel 
William Cromwell — The Duchess d'AhgOuldme and the 
Count de Chambord — Emblems : Tinelli — " Gilded Cham- 
ber " — Heraldic — Jakins — Mrs. Maxwell, an Amazon — 
The National Colour of Ireland — Paulo Dolscio, " Psal- 
terium " — Quotations Wanted— Whitehall— Col. Thomas 
Winsloo, 67. 

Queries witti A NsWEttS : — Lady Sophia Buckley— '" A 
Discourse against Transubstantiation " — Tho "Press- 
gang " in 1706 —Trap Spider—" Preces Private "—Bishops' 
( 'I urges — Abbey Counters or Tokens, 69. 

REPLIES : — Pelayo's Visits to the North of Spain, 71 ~ 
Tho Sacks of Joseph's Brethren, lb.— The American 
Standard and New England Flag, 72 — Archbishop Leigh- 
ton's Library at Dunblane — Vossius " De Historicis Gric- 
cis" — Cowcll's Interpreter condemned — Army Lists — 
Lord Nugent and Capital Punishment — America before 
Columbus — Tiffany — Taylor Family — Book of Common 
Prayer — Trial of the Princess of Wales — Special Licences 

— Manor Law — The "Remember" of Charles I. on tho 
Scaffold — Pitt * and Orbell of Kensington, Middlesex — 
" Retribul Lvc Justice" — Husbandman — Heraldic Query 

— Christopher Monk — " The Wandering Jew " — Jetsam, 
Flotsam, and Lagan — Scotch Weather Proverbs — Rats 
leaving a Sinking Ship, &c„ 74. 

Notes on Books. 



MEMOIR OF WILLIAM OLDYS, ESQ., 

NORROY KING- AT- ARMS. 

{Continued from p. 44.) 
After the completion of The Harleian Miscel- 
lany, it does not appear that Oldys continued 
much longer in the employ of Thomas Osborne ; 
at that time the most celebrated publisher in the 
metropolis. If we may judge from the series of 
catalogues issued by this bookseller from the 
year 1738 to 1766, he must have carried on a 
successful and lucrative trade. These catalogues 
may now be reckoned among the curiosities of 
literature ; for nowhere do we meet with similar 
information respecting the prices of books at that 

i time, or more amusement than in his quaint 
notes, and still more quaint prefaces. For how 
many of these curious bibliographical memoranda 
he was indebted to his neighbour, William Oldys, 

i; cannot now be ascertained. Osborne's exploits 
are thus celebrated in the Dunciad : — 
" Osborne and Curll accept the glorious strife, 
Though this his Son dissuades, and that his Wife." 

Again, at the conclusion of the contest : — 
" Osborne, through perfect modesty o'ercome, 
Crown'd with the jordan, walks contented home." 

Osborne was so impassively dull and ignorant in 
what form or language Milton's Paradise Lost was 
written, that he employed one of his garretteers to 
render it from a French translation into English 



prose. He is now best, known as the bookseller 
whom Johnson knocked down with a folio. " Sir," 
said the Doctor to Bosweli, "he was impertinent 
to me, and I beat him ; but it was not in his shop, 
it was in my own chamber." On August 27, 1767, 
this bibliopole was buried in the churchyard of 
St. Mary, Islington, leaving behind him the com- 
fortable assets of 40,000/. So true is it what 
Walcot said rather strongly, " That publishers 
drink their claret out of authors' skulls." But, 
as Thomas Park shrewdly observed, " Some might 
say, that authors must have paper skulls to suffer 
it." 

In 1746 was published anew edition of Health's 
Improvement, by Dr. Moflet, corrected and en- 
larged by Christopher Bonnet, M.D. Prefixed is 
a view of the author's life and writings from the 
pen of William Oldys. No copy of this work is to 
be found in our national library, and it is omitted 
in both editions of Lowndes. With its publication 
terminated Oldys's connexion with Osborne. 

The editorship of Michael Drayton's Works, 
fol. 1748, has been attributed to Oldys by a wri- 
ter in the Gentleman' s Magazine, vol. lvii. pt. ii. 
p. 1081, as well as by Mr. Octavius Gilchrist in 
Aikin's Athenatum, ii. 347, who adds, " It is not 
generally known that these collections [of Dray- 
ton's Works'] were made by Oldys, with less 
than his usual accuracy." But from the article 
Drayton, in the Biographia Britannica, ed. 1750, 
written by Oldys himself, it appears that he 
only furnished the " Historical Essay " pre- 
fixed to the edition of Drnyton's Works, 1748, as 
well as to that of 1753. Speaking of the Barons' 
Wars, Oldys remarks, "In this edition [1748] 
these Barons' Wars in the reign of Edward II. 
are illustrated with marginal notes by the author, 
which have been all since omitted by his late 
editor, though the author of the Preliminary Dis- 
course was desirous of a more ample commen- 
tary." (JBiog. Brit. iii. 1745, ed. 1750, andKippis's 
edition, v. 360.) 

Oldys now resolved to devote his exclusive at- 
tention to his own peculiar department of litera- 
ture, that of Biography. Hence we find him, for 
the next ten years, employed in the desperate and 
weary process of excavation, among the over- 
whelming piles of documents preserved in the 
public and private libraries of the metropolis. 
The facilities afforded to biographers and annalists 
of modern times, by the catalogues of the British 
Museum and the Calendars of the State Paper 
Office, were unknown to the literary adventurer 
a century ago. To collect materials for any bio- 
grnphical or historical work required then some 
sinew and hardihood to encounter the enormous 
and almost unmanageable mass of documents from 
which truth was to be dug out. Between the 
years 1747 and 1760, it appears that Oldys fur- 
nished twenty-two articles to the first edition of 



62 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. l ja* 25, '62. 



the Biographia Britannica, which may rank with 
some of the most perfect specimens of biography 
in the English language. For the following tabu- 
lar view of his labours on this important work, 
we are indebted to Bolton Corney's Curiosities of 
Literature Illustrated, Second Edition, 1838, p. 
177: — 



" Contributions of W. Oldys to f/^Biographia Britannica, 
London, 1747-66. Folio, 7 Vols. 



Volume 
and Date. 


Name. 


oiaim to -A-umission* 


No. of 
Pages. 




1747 


George Abbot - 




Archbishop of Canterbury 


14 J 






Robert Abbot - 




Bishop of Salisbury - 


2i 






Sir Thomas Adams 




Lord Mayor of London - 


n 






W. Alexander Earl 


Statesman and Dramatic 








ofStirline 




Writer - 


5 






Charles Aleyn - 




Historical Poet - 


n 






Edward Alleyn 




Founder of Dulwich College 


71 
If 






"William Ames - 




Divine- - 






John Atherton - 




Bishop of Waterford - 


8 






Peter Bales 




Writing Master - 




ii. 


1718 


John Bradford - 
William Bulleyn 




Protestant Martyr 
Physician and Botanist 


'8 






William Caxton 




Printer - 


26* 


iii. 


1750 


Michael Drayton 
Sir Geo. Etherege 
George Farquhar 




Historical & Pastoral Poet 
Dramatic Writer 
Dramatic Writer 


5 
8 
11 






Sir John Fastolff 




Statesman and Warrior - 


10i 






Thomas Fuller 




Historian, &c. - 


20 






Sir Will. Gascoigne 






13} 


iv. 


1757 


Fulke Grevile, Lord 






Brook 




Biographer and Poet - 


12J 






Rich. Hakluyt - 




Naval Historian 


14 






Wenceslaus Hollar 
Thomas May - 




Engraver - - - - 


81 


V. 


1760 




Historian and Poet - 


6 



" On the execution of the articles," remarks Mr. 
Corney, " I submit some short remarks. The life 
of Archbishop Abbot is especially commended by 
the author of the preface to the work ; and was 
reprinted in 1777, 8vo. The life of Edward 
Alleyn is also justly characterised by the same 
writer as very curious. The article on Peter 
Bales, if rather discursive, is rich in information ; 
and contains, in the notes, a history of writing- 
masters. Bulleyn, whose works were formerly 
popular, receives due attention. As Gough re- 
marks, Oldys has " rescued him almost from obli- 
vion."* Master William Caxton occupies more 
than twenty-six pages. Oldys had carefully ex- 
amined the chief portion of his rare volumes ; and 
Dr. Dibdin admits that his " performance is in 
every respect superior to that of Lewis." f The 
account of Drayton and his works is an interest- 
ing specimen. Oldys points out the numerous 
deficiencies of the splendid edition of 1748 ; and 
his information seems to have led to the comple- 
tion of it. The life of Sir John Fastolff, of which 
the first sketch was contributed to the General 
Dictionary in 1737, is the result of extraordinary 
research. The Fastolff of history and the Falstaff 
of fiction are ingeniously contrasted. The ac- 
count of Fuller is compiled with peculiar care ; 
and affords a remarkable proof of the extent to 
which the writings of an author may be made 
contributive to his biography. The History of the 

* British Topography, 1780, 4to, i. 133. 

t Typographical Antiquities, 1810, 4to, p. lxxiv. 



Worthies of England, which Oldys frequently con- 
sulted, is characterised with much candour ; and 
he has very appropriately introduced the sub- 
stance of a MS. essay on the toleration of wit on 
grave subjects. Sir William Gascoigne is copiously 
historised. Oldys, with his usual ardour in search 
of truth, obtained the use of some Memoirs of the 
Family of Gascoigne from one of the descendants 
of Sir William, and a communication from the 
Rev. R. Knight, Vicar of Harwood, where he was 
buried. The life of the patriotic Hakluyt claims 
especial notice. Oldys had pointed out his merit 
more than twenty years before ; * and seems never 
to have lost sight of him. He has left an admir- 
able memorial of the "surpassing knowledge and 
learning, diligence and fidelity, of this naval his- 
torian " — and it well deserves to be separately 
re»published. The account of Hollar and his works 
is written with the animation and tact of a connois- 
seur. Oldys justly describes him as ever making 
art a rival to nature, and as a prodigy of industry. 
He also reviews the graphic collections of his ad- 
mirers, from Evelyn to the Duchess of Portland. 
The article on May was his last contribution. 
He vindicates the History of the Parliament from 
the aspersions cast on it — in which he" is sup- 
ported by Bishop Warburton, Lord Chatham, &c. 

" It may be safely asserted that no one of the 
contributors to the Biographia Britannica has 
produced a richer proportion of inedited facts than 
William Oldys ; and he seems to have consulted 
every species of the more accessible authorities, 
from the Foedera of Rymer to the inscription on 
a print. His united articles, set up as the text of 
Chalmers, would occupy about a thousand octavo 
pages." 

Oldys's coadjutors on the Biographia Britan- 
nica were the Rev. Philip Morant, of Colchester ; 
Rev. Thomas Broughton, of the Temple Church ; 
Dr. John Campbell, of Exeter Change ; Henry 
Brougham, of Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Hol- 
born ; Rev. Mr. Hinton, of Red Lion Square; 
Dr. Philip Nicols, Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge ; and Mr. Harris of Dublin. 

In 1778, when Dr. Kippis undertook the edi- 
torship of the second edition of the Biographia 
Britannica, he became the fortunate possessor of 
a portion of Oldys's manuscript biographical col- 
lections, purchased for this work by Mr. Thomas 
Cadell, one of the publishers. In his Preface 
(vol. i. p. xx.) he states, that " To Dr. Percy, 
besides his own valuable assistances, we are in- 
debted for directing us to the purchase of a large 
and useful body of biographical materials, left by 
Mr. Oldys." These biographical materials were 
quoted in the articles Arabella Stuart, John Bar- ! 
clay, Mary Beale, W. Browne, Sam. Butler, &c. l 
Dr. Kippis found also among Oldys's papers, 1 
some notes principally tending to illustrate several 

* Life of Sir W. R; p. cix. t British Librarian, p. 137, 



S. I. Jan. 25, '61] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



63 



of Butler's allusions in bis Hwlibras to both an- 
cient and modern authors. (Vide vol. iii. p. 91.) 

From the years 1751 to 1753, it would seem 
that Oldys was involved in pecuniary difficulties'; 
and being unable to discharge the rent due for his 
chambers in Gray's Inn, was compelled to reside 
for a lengthened period in the quiet obscurity of 
the Fleet prison. It was probably during his 
confinement that the following letters were written 
to his friend Dr. Thomas Birch : — 

"July 22, 1751. 
" Siu, — I received last night two guineas by the hand 
of my worthy and honourable friend Mr. Southwell ; for 
which favour, and much more for the polite and en- 
gaging manner of conferring it, besides this incompetent 
return of my sincere thanks, I have beg'd him to make 
my acknowledgments more acceptable than in my pre- 
sent confused and disabled state I am capable myself of 
doing. I have also desired him to intimate how much 
more I might be obliged to you, if, at your leisure, and 
where you shall perceive it convenient, you would so re- 
present me to such Honorable friends among your nu- 
merous acquaintance, that they may help me towards a 
removal into some condition, wherein I may no longer 
remain altogether unuseful to mankind; which would lay 
an obligation inexpressible upon, Sir, i 

"Your most obedient humble servant, 

" William Oldys." 

"August 23 d , 1751. 
" Sik, — That favour I before received of you, was be- 
yond whatever the sense of my own deficiencies could 
suffer me to expect; but much more this, by which, 
through your favourable representation of me, or my 
misfortunes, to the Hon. Mr. Yorke, I received five 
guineas of him, through the hands of the candid and 
cordial Mr. Southwell. You may justly believe, that 
my hearty thanks for this benefit are hereby unfeigned ly 
returned to you, and I have endeavoured to return the 
like to that noble benefactor. But as I cannot make my 
gratitude so satisfactorylto him,"as his goodness has been 
to me, I still want the assistance of a friend, to convey 
my acknowledgments, more expressively than I can my- 
self : and I think, by what I have already tasted, I may 
depend upon that friendship from you. 

The happiness I have lately received in perusing 3'our 
life of Spenser * has greatly restored my desire, in this 
loitering, lingering useless condition, to such studies. 
There are very observable passages in it, both ancient 
and modern, which 1 had not before met with ; for which, 
and many other memorable incidents, in our most illus- 
trious ancestors, recovered and rectified by your reviving 
hand, if present readers shall be silent in your praise, 
those who are unborn will stigmatise their ingratitude, 
in the celebration of your industry. 

" 1 remain, Sir, 
; " Your most obliged and obedient servant, 
"William Oldys."! 
In 1753, Oldys in conjunction with Mr. John 
Taylor, the oculist in Hat ton Garden, published 
Observations on the Cure of William Taylor, the 
Blind Boy of Ightham, in Kent, containing also an 
address to the Publick for a foundation of an Hos- 

* Dr. Birch had recently published The Faerie Queene, 
with an exact collation of the two original editions ; to 
which are added a Life of the Author, and a Glossarv, 
with plates, 3 vols. 1751, 4to. 

t Addit. MS. 4316, p. 4. 



pital for the Blind. Prefixed are two letters from 
Oldys to Dr. Monsey of Chelsea Hospital, and one 
in reply from the Doctor. 

Oldys remained in confinement till Mr. South- 
well of Cockermouth (brother of the second Lord 
Southwell) and his other friends obtained his li- 
berty.* John Taylor, however, has given the 
following account of his release : " Oldys, as my 
father informed me, lived many years in quiet ob- 
scurity in the Fleet prison, but at last was spirited 
up to make his situation known to the Duke of 
Norfolkf of that time, who received Oldys's letter 
while he was at dinner with some friends. The 
Duke immediately communicated the contents to 
the company, observing that he had long been 
anxious to know what had become of an old, 
though an humble friend, and was happy, by that 
letter, to find that he was still alive. He then 
called for his gentleman (a kind of humble friend 
whom noblemen used to retain under that name 
in former days), and desired him to go immedi- 
ately to the Fleet prison with money for the im- 
mediate need of Oldys, to procure an account of 
his debts, and to discharge them."| 

Soon after the Duke of Norfolk had released 
Oldys from his pecuniary difficulties, he procured 
for him the situation of Norroy King-at-Arms — 
a post peculiarly suited to his love of genealogy. 
He was created Norfolk Herald Extraordinary at 
the College of Arms by the Earl of Effingham, 
Deputy Earl Marshal, on 15th April, 1755, to 
qualify him for the office of Norroy, to which 
he was appointed by patent the 5th May follow- 
ing. His noble patron generously defrayed the 
fees for passing his patent. The Duke had fre- 
quently met Oldys in the library of the late Earl 
of Oxford, and had perused with much pleasure 
his Life of Sir Walter Ralegh and his other 
works, and considered him sufficiently qualified, 
from his literary acquirements, to restore the 
drooping reputation of the office of Norroy. Oldys 
appointed as his deputy Edward Orme of Ches- 
ter, better known as the compiler of pedigrees for 
families of that county. " The heralds," says 
Noble, " had reason to be displeased with Oldys's 
promotion to a provincial kingship. The College, 
however, will always be pleased with ranking so 
good a writer amongst their body." § 

John Taylor, author of Monsieur Ton son, re- 
lates the following anecdote of our Norroy whilst 
performing one of his official duties. " On some 
occasion, when the King-at-Arms was obliged to 
ride on horseback in a public procession, the pre- 
decessor of Mr. Oldys in the cavalcade had a pro- 
clamation to read, but, confused by the noise of 
the surrounding multitude, he made many mis- 



* Gent. Mag. vol. liv. pt. i. p. 260. 
f Edward Howard: ob. 17,7. 

% Records of my Life, i. 26. § College of Anns, p. 421. 



64 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'* S. I. Jan. 25, '62. 



takes, and, anxious to be accurate, he turned 
back to every passage to correct himself, and 
therefore appeared to the people to be an ignorant 
blunderer. When Mr. Oldys had to recite the 
same proclamation, though he made, he said, more 
mistakes than his predecessor, he read on through 
thick and thin, never stopping a moment to cor- 
rect his errors, and thereby excited the applause 
of the people ; though he declared that the other 
gentleman had been much better qualified for the 
duty than himself." * 

We ought to apologise for noticing what" Mr. 
Bolton Corney justly styles " the most contemp- 
tible of books," The Olio, published from the 
refuse papers of the redoubtable Captain Grose 
by his eager executor, who happened to be his 
bookseller. Even Mr. Isaac D'Jsraeli acknow- 
ledges, that in it "the delineation of Oldys is 
sufficiently overcharged for the nonce." Grose, as 
every one knows, exceedingly enjoyed a joke ; but 
probably he never conceived that some officious 
hand would gather up and publish the debris of 
his library for his own mercenary advantage. 
This despicable production has been quoted as an 
authority by nearly every one who has under- 
• taken to give an account of the life of Oldys. 

Grose was appointed Richmond Herald by 
patent 12th June, 1755, which he resigned in 
1763. He was therefore contemporary with Oldys 
during the whole period of his connexion with 
the Heralds' College, excepting that Oldys was 
appointed Norroy in the May preceding. f Oldys, 
however, with all his alleged " deep potations in 
ale," was a well-informed literary antiquary — or, 
as Grose himself confesses, "in the knowledge 
of scarce English books and editions he had 
no equal ; " but unhappily our facetious Rich- 
mond Herald, " who cared more for rusty armour 
than for rusty volumes," as D'Jsraeli remarks, 
" would turn over these flams and quips to some 
confidential friend, to enjoy together a secret 
laugh at their literary intimates." Even the story 
told by Grose of the intoxication of Oldys at the 
funeral of the Princess Caroline, and the jeopardy 
of the crown, is not accurate; for Mr. Noble 
assures us, that the crown, when borne at the 
funeral of the king or queen, or the coronet at the 
burial of a prince or princess, is always carried by 
Clarenceux, not Norroy.J It is also stated in the 
ceremonial of the Princess Caroline's funeral as 
printed in The London Chronicle of Jan. 5, 1758, 
and Reed's Weekly Journal of Jan. 7, 1758, that 
"Clarenceux, bearing the coronet upon a black 
velvet cushion, preceded the body of the prin- 
cess." § 

{To be continued.)- 

* Records of my Life, i. 26. 

t Ex inform. T. W. King, York Herald. 

X College of Arms, p. 421. 

§ Mr. Thompson Cooper, of Cambridge, in "N. & 



MATHEMATICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

{Continued from 2 nd S. xii. 518.) 

I here resume the list, a preceding portion of 
which will be found at pp. 162 — 164 of vol. x. 
2 nd S. 

Birmingham, seventeen-fortysix. [Thacker, A.] 
4 A Treatise containing an Entire New Method of solv- 
ing Adfected Quadratic, and Cubic Equations, With their 
Application to the Solution of Biquadratic Ones ; In au 
easier, and more concise Way, than any yet publish'd; 
together with the Demonstrations of the Methods. And 
A Set of New Tables for Finding the Roots of Cubics. 
Invented'by the late ingenious Mr. A. Thacker, deceased ; 
But calculated entirely, and in a great Measure exem- 
plified, by W. Brown, Teacher of the Mathematics, at the 
Free-School, in Cleobury, Shropshire . . . Printed by 
Thomas Aris.' viii + llo pages. Octavo in twos. 

Tables for the solution of the irreducible case 
in cubics were given by Mr. George Scott in 
vols, xlii (pp. 246-7 and 298-9) and xliii (see pp. 
86-7) of the Mechanics Magazine (1845). At pp. 
185 — 199 of the work next described (see also 
pp. xxiv — xxxi of the Introduction) will be found 
" Table IV. for the solution of the irreducible 
case in cubic equations." Sir W. II. Hamilton 
has had the curiosity to construct and to apply 
two new tables of double entry for the solution of 
one of Mr. Jerrard's trinomial quintics (see Trans. 
R. I. A, vol. xviii, pp. 251-2). 

London, eighteen-fourteen. Barlow, Peter. 'New 
Mathematical Tables, containing the Factors, Squares, 
Cubes, Square roots, Cube roots, Reciprocals, and Hyper- 
bolic Logarithms, of all numbers from 1 to 10000 ; Tables 
of Powers and Prime Numbers ; an extensive Table of 
Formula?, or general Synopsis of the most important 
Particulars relating to the Doctrines of Equations, Series, 
Fluxions, Fluents, &c. &c. &c.' lxi+ 336 pages. Octavo 
in twos. 

London, eighteen- twenty seven. Hirsch, [Meyer]. 
' Collection of Examples, Formula?, and Calculations, on 
the Literal Calculus and Algebra. Translated from the 
German, by the Rev. J. A. Ross, A.M., Translator of 
Hirsch's Integral Tables '. xi + 384 pages. Octavo in tivos. I 

To this 1 Collection ' there are appended three 
Tables in which the symmetric functions, as high 
as the tenth dimension inclusive, of the roots of; 
any equation, are expressed in terms of the coef- 
ficients. Vandermoncle had, in the Paris Memoires 
for 1771, given tables of the same extent. Mr. 
Jerrard has, at the end of Part I of his Mathema- 
tical Researches, given a table, expressed in his 
own notation, up to the fifth dimension inclusive. 
Mr. Cay ley {Phil. Trans, for 1857, pp. 494 et 
seq.) has given inverse as well as direct tables up 
to the tenth dimension inclusive. 

Paris, eighteen-thirtyone. Fourier, [Jh.] 'Analyse 
des E'quations Determinees . . . Premiere Partie '. xxiv 
+ 258 pages. Quarto. 



Q." 2"d S. iii. 514, has stated, that " on turning to a con- 
temporaneous account of the funeral, I find that Norroy 
did carry the coronet on that occasion." We have not 
been able to trace the authority for this statement. 



3 rd S. IT Jan. 25, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



G5 



The printing of this work can scarcely be said 
to have been commenced when death overtook its 
author. The xxiv introductory pages (dated 
Paris, l er juillet 1831) are due to the editor Na- 
vier. Fourier's preface bears date Paris, 1829. 

London, eighteen-forty. Stainks, Edward. 'Solu- 
tion of a peculiar Form of Cubic Equation by Means of a 
Quadratic '. 9 pages. A rather large Duodecimo. 

[ Genova, eigbteen-forty. Badano, il P. Gerolamo, Car- 
melitano Scalzo, Professore di Matematica nella R. 
Universita di Genova. ' Nuove Ricerche sulla Risolu- 
zione Gcnerale (telle Equazioni Algebricbe del P. G. . . . 
Genova, Tipogratia Ponthenier 1840.'] 

London, eigbteen-forty three. Young, J. R. « Theory 
and Solution of Algebraical Equations of the Higher 
Orders . . . Second Edition, enlarged '. xxiii + 47G pages. 
Octavo. 

London, eigbteen-fortyfour. Young, J. R. « Re- 
searches respecting the Imaginary Roots of Numerical 
Equations: being a Continuation of Newton's Investiga- 
tions on that Subject, and forming an Appendix to the 
"Theory and Solution of Equations of the Higher Or- 
ders '' '. vi and to 56 pages. Octavo. 

London, eighteen- forty four. Gray, Peter. 'On the 
Numerical Solution of Algebraical Equations: being the 
Substance of Four Papers in the Mechanics' Magazine 
for March, 1844.' 16 pages. Octavo. 

London, eighteen -fiftar.? Young, J. R. 'On the Ge- 
neral Principles of Analysis '. 64 pages. Octavo. 

^ This work illustrates the inconvenience of 
giving a book no other title page than a coloured 
wrapper which (as is the case with my copy of 
the present essay) may probably not be bound up 
with the other matter. I gather the above de- 
scription of this work from an allusion of my own 
to it (in the Mech. Mag. for July 13. 1850, 
p. 38). 

Braunschweig, eigb teen-fifty. Schnuse, C. H. ' Die 
Thcorie und Auflbsung der hohern algebraischen und der 
transcendenten Gleichungen, theoretisch und praktisch 
bearbeitet von Dr. . . IV + 488 pages. Octavo. 

The preface is dated " Heidelburg, im Januar 
1850." Professor J. 11. Young in a Note at pp. 
vii— viii of the Preface to his " Course," described 
below, has charged Dr. C. H. Schnuse of Heidel- 
burg, in his capacity of author of the work just 
described, with a "disgraceful literary felony". 
It seems that a like charge, and in respect of the 
same matter, had already been preferred against 
Dr. Schnuse by a distinguished writer in the 
AlhciHciun for March 5, 1859. It would be well 
that the fact of these charges having been made 
should be brought directly under Dr. Schnuse's 
notice. I should be glad to be informed if any 
answer to them has yet appeared. 

Hyde, eighteen- fifty four. Bekcroft, Philip. 'Bee- 
croft's Method of finding all the Roots, both real and 
imaginary of algebraical Equations, without the Aid of 
anxdiary Equations of higher Degrees', x + 48 patjes 
Octavo. 

London, eighteen-fiftynine. Ramchundua. 'ATrea- 
aT .° n Problems of Maxima and Minima, solved by 
Algebra. By Ramchundra, late Teacher of Science, Delhi 
College. Reprinted by order of the Honourable Court of 



Directors of the East India Company for Circulation in 
Europe and in India, in Acknowledgment of the Merit of 
the Author, and in Testimony of the Sense entertained of 
the Importance of independent Speculation as an Instru- 
ment of national Progress in India. Under the Superin- 
tendence of Augustus Du Mokgan, E.R.A.S. E.C.P.S.' 
&c. v + (185) pages. Octavo in twos. 

Ramchundra's preface is dated "Delhi, lGth 
February, 1850," and is preceded by a title-page 
dated " Calcutta :" " 1850". The title-page from 
which the above description is taken and the edi- 
torial preface of Professor De Morgan precede 
the title-page last mentioned. 

London, eighteen-sixtyone. Young, John Radford. 
' A Course of Mathematics, affording Aid to Candidates 
for Admission into either of the Military Colleges, to 
Applicants for Appointments in the Indian Civil Service, 
and to Students of Mathematics generally', xi + G37 
pages. Octavo. 

Halle, eighteen-sixtyone. Schuleneurg, Adolf von 
der. 'Die Auflbsung der Gleichungen funlten Grades', 
pp. IV + 3G. Octavo. 

The preface is dated "Magdeburg am 30 Oc- 
tober 1860." 

Cambridge and London, eighteen-sixtyone. TomiUN- 
ter, I. * An Elementary Treatise on the Theor3' of 
Equations, with a Collection of Examples', vi + 279 
pages. Octavo. 

I have put Prof. Badano's work between 
brackets [ ] because, not having seen it, I have 
borrowed the materials for its description from 
Sir W. Rowan Hamilton's footnote tit p. 329 of 
vol. xix of the Transactions of the Royal L'ish 
Academy. James Cockle, M.A., &c. 

4 Pump Court, Temple, London., 



PRINCELY FUNERALS. 

The recent obsequies, more seemly distin- 
guished by national sorrow than by courtly os- 
tentation, reminded me of a long- forgotten folio, 
entitled : — 

" Pompe Funebre du tres pieux et tres puissant Prince 
Albei t, Archiduc d'Autriche, Due de Bourgogne, de Bra- 
bant, &c. ; represente'e an naturel en tail les donees, des- 
sine'es par Jacques Erancquart, ct gravees par Corneille 
Galle; avec une dissertation historique et morale 
d'Ervce Putenajus, Conseiller et Historiographe du Roi. 
Bruxelles, 1729." 

The object of this mortuary magnificence, hav- 
ing in 1599 espoused the Spanish Infanta Isabella 
XII., and, jure marito, become sovereign Prince 
of the Netherlands, died in July, 1621, and was 
buried in March, 1622; the intermediate eight 
months being devoted to the preparations of his 
interment. And here might the record and the 
remembrance of Albert VII. have found their 
consummation, had not courtiers and counsellors 
elaborated this volume, describing in four several 
languages — Latin, Spanish, French, and Flemish, 
his exploits, his qualities, and his funeral proces- 
sion — a whole day's length between the Palace of 



66 



NOTES AND QUERIES. £3** s. 1. Jax.%, 



Brussels, and Saint Gudule's Cathedral ; present- 
ing on sixty-three bi-paginal plates the portraits, 
ad vivum, of its numerous assistants. Of more 
than 250 of these, the unnamed train of chaplains 
and choristers, heralds and pages, musicians and 
servitors, some are synecdochally set down for a 
greater number; while nearly 500 personages, 
the princes and prelates of Belgium ; her nobles 
and high dignitaries ; her counsellors and magis- 
trates, are each designated by name and title, and 
office. 

That all these figures are actual portraits may 
be inferred by the variety of the several counten- 
ances, wherein many existent families may trace 
majorum imagines. Five additional plates ex- 
hibit the faqade of the cathedral appropriately 
draped with candles and skeletons ; a chronicle of 
the archiducal victories, stretching from Lisbon 
to Ostend ; together with an array of epigraphs, 
attributing to H.I.H. "every virtue under heaven," 
— a catafalque, a chapelle ardente, and, to cap the 
climax, "the chariot of Generosity ;" wherein sits 
a Patagonian goddess (or saintess) twelve feet 
high, with half a dozen minor deities acting as 
postilions, " Reason" and "Providence" being be- 
tween the shafts, after the fashion of certain 
modern essayists, dos-a-dos. This gaudy machine 
— fitter for a living lord mayor than for a de- 
ceased archduke — is covered with some thirty 
flags, as many coat-armours, and more carving 
and gilding than " Iff. & Q." could afford my de- 
scribing. 

In the tetraglottic record of the Spanish king's 
counsellor and historiographer, I lighted on one 
passage eminently applicable to our own Prince, 
Friend, and Father — a diamond in a heap of 
pebbles : — 

" Amplius erat, Albertura esse quam Eegem ; amplius, 
mereri diadema, quam induere." 

Edmund Lenthal Swifte. 



HAMPSHIRE MUMMERS. 

I have just witnessed a performance of the 
mummers in the hall of an old country house 
in the south-west part of Hants. T regret to 
find that the " act " now varies every year, 
and is furnished from London. The speech of 
Old Father Christmas is the traditional epi- 
logue, which has not been tampered with. Thfe 
dramatis persona wore white trousers, and coats 
like tunics of printed calico, with scarves, wooden 
swords, and hats covered with ribbons and artifi- 
cial flowers. They represent Sir H. Havelock 
(who kills) Nana Sahib, and Sir Colin Campbell 
(who kills) Tanty Tobes (Tantia Topee), and the 
physician, who was distinguished by a horse-hair 
plume in a pointed cap. Old Father Christmas 
wore breeches and stockings, carried a begging- 
box, and conveyed himself upon two sticks ; his 



arms were striped with chevrons like a noncom- 
missioned officer. 

" In come I, Father Christmas, 

Welcome or welcome not ; 

I hope Old Father Christmas 

Will never be forgot. 

Christmas comes but once a-year, 

When it comes it brings good cheer: 

Roast beef, plum-pudding, 

And Christmas pie, 

Who likes it better than I. 

I was born in lands 

Where there was no one to make my cradle, 
They first wrapped me in a bowldish, 
And then in a ladle. 

Where I go, I am nick-named [half silly] 
And hump-backed; 
My father was an Irishman, 
My mother was an Irishman. 
My sister Suke 
Cocked an eye, 
And played the rattat-too. 
My father he was a soldier bold 
As I used to often hear them say, 
They used to fight with great big sticks, 
And often run away ; 
There's no such fighting in our . time, 
They fight with sword and gun, 
And when in battle forced to go 
There is no chance to run. 
In comes I, little Twing-Twang, 
I am the lieutenant of the press gang ; 
Also I press young men and women 
To go board man-of-war. 
Likewise Little Johnny Jack, 
My wife and family at my back ; 
Although that they be any small. 
If you do not give me lamb, bread, and onions, 
I'll starve them one and all. 
Likewise Little Jackie John, 
If a man want to fight 
Let him come on ; 
I'll cut and hack 'um 
Small's the dust. 
Send Uncle Harry 
To make piecrust 
For my dinner to-morrow." 
Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, M.A., F.S.A. 



BOOKS AND THEIR AUTHORS. 

Much is it to be wished that authors and edi- 
tors would, by prefixing to the works written and 
edited by them respectively, an analytical table of ; 
contents, follow the laudable example of Mr. 
Henry Thomas Buckle in those two volumes he 
has published on the History of Civilization in j 
England. The student, having committed to 
memory this table, could, with increased facility, j 
acquire a complete knowledge of the volume he j 
would thereafter read, and in his inquiries on the | 1 
subject, by its aid, at once refer to the passage 
containing the required information. Nor could 
such an analysis be unacceptable to any ; and his 1 
labour entailed in the construction thereof should 
amply be compensated for by the reflection that 
the writer has in some measure lessened the dim- 



3 rd S. t Jan. 25, '02.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



67 



culties which beset the student's path. I am well 
aware that to all works this table could not be 
applied; still, however, I would, on my own be- 
half, and for the interest of others, suggest its 
general adoption. 

Again, to each paragraph, let a brief analysis 
of its contents be annexed in the margin, as is 
now done in printed acts of Parliament, and in 
most legal works. 

The necessity for a complete list of authors 
quoted or referred to must be evident to any 
reader of " N. & Q." The frequent questions 
inserted therein relating to the edition of some 
work, or the name of an author, will justify 
my reference to the subject. Herein also Mr. 
Buckle deserves the thanks of all students. 

Below I venture to give a tabulated statement 
of the necessary information : — 



Author's 
Name in 
Full. 



Title of Edition 
Book, or Editor. 



Place of 
Date. Publica- Remarks, 
tion. 

Ernest W. Bartlett. 



The Polyphemus or Turner. — Mr. Thorn- 
bury {Life of Turner, i. 316) thinks "there can 
be no doubt that Turner selected, this subject 
from the ninth book of the Odyssey." He also 
says (ii. 210): " I do not think he went much fur- 
ther than Lempriere for his ' Polyphemus.' " But 
Mr. Thornbury has omitted the Cyclops of Euri- 
pides, to which Turner could have access in an 
English translation ; or if not, his old friend the 
Rev. Mr. Trimmer, who essayed to teach Turner 
Greek at fifty, might have furnished the particu- 
lars of this story to Turner, ever ready to catch 
at information, from the seaman to the classical 
critic of art. T. J. Buckton. 

Lichfield. ^ 

Surnames. — A fruitful source of such, often 
very curious and unusual, may be found in the 
subscription lists of various societies, religious and 
philanthropical. In instance, a page now before 
me of some years ago supplies the names of Lar- 
roder, Hatchett, Sansbury, Clogg, Emary, La- 
vender, Snee, Draegar, Starey, Roseblade, Hixter, 
Bacot, Dearlove, Boyman, Bigsby, Cahill, Ditmas 
Grisbrook, Hiscoke, Chinn, Snosswell, Byles, 
Evill, Nanson, Portal, Tinney, Sprosten Marsen, 
Alchin, Gamwell, Dunnage, Dyne, &c. &c. Cer- 
tainly several of these are, at least, unusual. 

S. M. S. 

The eirst Bank in Australia. — Circum- 
stances have changed since the following item of 
news was circulated throughout the Eastern Coun- 
ties by the oldest of our country newspapers : — 

" A banking-firm, composed of the principal inhabit- 
ants, has been established at Botany Bay ; their capital 



is 20,000/., raised in 50/. shares." — The Stamford Mer- 
cury, April 3, 1818, 

K P. D. E. 

The Jackdaw a Weather-Prophet. — Time 
out of mind the citizens of AVells, whenever a 
jackdaw has been seen standing on one of the 
vanes of the cathedral tower, have often been 
heard to say " W e shall have rain soon." I have 
closely observed the habits of these cunning birds 
for nearly twenty years, and particularly with 
respect to the old saying about the weather ; and 
as sure as I have seen one or more of them on the 
cathedral vanes, so sure has rain followed — 
generally within twenty-four hours. I have men- 
tioned these facts to many persons, and from 
several have learnt that the same circumstances 
have been a " household tale " in different locali- 
ties for many years past. Two places I may 
mention : Croscombe, near Wells ; and Romsey, 
Hants. I have not much doubt the readers of 
" N. & Q." can enumerate other instances. Can 
any good reason be assigned why these birds 
should sit on such elevated points at the approach 
of wet weather ? Ina. 

Metric Prose. — Mr. Keightley's article in 
" N. & Q.," 2 nd S. xii. 515, has reminded me of a 
note which I made some time ago whilst reading 
Mr. D'lsraeli's Wondrous Tale of Alroy. If any 
person will refer to that book, he will find there 
a few extraordinary specimens of metric prose. 
I subjoin one quotation taken from the first 
volume (1st edition) pp. 27, 28 : — 

" Why am I here? are you not here? and need I urge 
a stronger plea ? Oh ! brother dear, I pray you come 
and mingle in our festival ! Our walls are hung with 
flowers you love; I culled them by the fountain's side; 
the holy lamps are trimmed and set, and you must raise 
their earliest flame. Without the gate my maidens wait, 
to offer you a robe of state. Then, brother dear, I pray 
you come and mingle in our festival." 

In the Preface to his work, Mr. D'Israeli says, 
"I must frankly confess that I have invented a 
new style." Not very new, I should say ; nor yet 
very good. Gustave Masson. 

Harrow-on-the-Hill. 



Authorised Translator of Catullus. — In 
the AthencBum of Dec. 21, 1861, appears the fol- 
lowing advertisement : — 

" Education in Germany, Bonx. — Mr. *•«***, 
authorised Translator of Lord Macaulay's History, Vol. 
5, of the Poems of Catullus, &c, receives Two Pupils." 

Now, how on earth can the man be " authorised 
translator" of the "Poems of Catullus" ? I really 
do not see how Catullus, or his publisher, could 
give the requisite authorisation, unless through a 
" medium," and I have not heard that the Roman 



68 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3ra S. I. Jan. 25, '62. 



poet has made his appearance in the Spiritualist 
Magazine; probably no "spiritualist" is able to 
make a Latin verse which could by any possibility 
pass for Catullus's, 

Perhaps some correspondent of "N". & Q." will 
relieve the perplexity of S. C. 

Colonel William Cromwell. — A warrant 
dated at the Castle of Dublin, 13th September, 
1642, by the Lords Justices and Council, directs 
the Treasurer-at-War in Ireland to pay to Colonel 
Win. Cromwell the sum of 24Z. 3.9. for " seven 
days' drink-money for the souldiers of the seuerall 
companyes undermentioned," which are as fol- 
lows : — 

£ s. d. 

"To Col. Cromwell for 181 men ~ - 7 11 0 

To Col. Bradshaw, 133 men - - - 6 13 0 
To Col. Robt. Broughton, 100 men - - 5 0 0 
To Capt. Honywood, 99 men - - - 4 19 0 

£24 3 0 " 

And endorsed is a receipt signed " W. Cromwell." 
Can any of your readers say who this was ? and 
whether any, and what relation to Oliver ? M. 

The Duchess d'Angouleme and the Count 
x>e Chambokd. — I copy from a newspaper cut- 
ting, which h;is been for some time located in my 
portfolio, the following curious and, to me, mys- 
terious scrap of royal gossip. One of your earlier 
correspondents has pathetically alluded to " the 
' well-known anecdote' which one does not know ;" 
and I entreat you to enlighten me upon " the 
purport of the secret," which is "only too well 
known." The utmost 5 efforts of my imagination 
fail to discover what it was for which the Duchess 
" regarded her whole life as one long expiation." 

" Ever since the death of the Duchess d'Angouleme, 
this indifference and disbelief of all things is said to have 
increased tenfold in the spirit of the Count de Chambord. 
About an hour before that venerable lady's demise, the 
Count was, by her desire, left alone beside her dying bed. 
So great was her fear of being overheard, that they say 
she insisted upon the door of the antechamber being left 
wide open, and that of the staircase locked, to prevent 
the possibility of eaves-droppers. The secret, which had 
for so many years bowed her spirit to the very earth, and 
for which her whole life was regarded by her as one long 
expiation, was breathed into his ear, leaving its rancorous 
poison to distil into his brain as it had done into her 

own The purport of the secret is but too well 

known. The Pope himself and Lord Charles are 

said to be the only sharers in the knowledge [how then 
can its purport be 'too well known'?] which seems to 
have robbed the Count de Chambord of all his interest in 
life, and to have replaced the hope with which he once 
regarded his future fate, by the remorse which his aged 
relative had in vain endeavoured to shake off during the 
whole of her existence — a remorse and fear which neither 
decrees of the Tribunal of the Seine, nor the judgment of 
the Minister of Police, nor the book of M. de Beauchene, 
though written for the express purpose, will ever be able 
now to shake off." 

Hermentrude. 



Emblems : Tinelli. — Will any of your corre- 
spondents, who are collectors of books containing 
emblems, have the kindness to say whether there 
is any such work published, with the name of 
Tinelli as author ? I have a MS., apparently of 
the seventeenth century, with the title : — 

" Emblemata variis datis, occasionibus aptanda, etc. 
.... per me Comitem Heliodorum Mariam Tinellium." 

It contains 261 folio leaves of emblems ; and I 
wish to ascertain whether it be an original MS., 
or the copy of a printed book. X. 

" Gilded Chamber." —I shall feel obliged by 
references to any of the poets, &c, in which this 
expression occurs. R. S. Charnock. 

Heraldic. — Argent, a chevron azure be* 
tween three garbs, as many mullets* argent. 
Crest. A game cock proper. 

I shall be much obliged to any reader of " 1ST. 
& Q." who will inform me of the name and place 
of any family who use the above arms ; and when 
and to whom they were granted. J. C. II. 

Jakins. — Can any of your readers afford me a 
probable explanation of the surname " Jakins," as 
to its origin, &c. Another branch of the same 
family have spelled it " Jachins." Is it likely to 
be in any way related to Jachin, a son of the 
Patriarch Simeon, and Jachin, the name bestowed 
on one of the pillars of Solomon's Temple? W. V. 

Mrs. Maxwell, an Amazon. — In the List of 
Deaths in the Gentleman's Magazine (1746), vol. 
xvi. p. 496, the following announcement ap- 
pears : — 

" Mrs. Maxwell, at Dublin, famous for having served 
in the horse during most of the last war in Flanders." 

Where may particulars of Mrs. Maxwell be 
found ? Abhba. 

The National Colour or Ireland. — What is 
the national colour of Ireland ? Contrary to the 
general opinion, many (with good reason, they 
assert,) represent it as purple, and not green. 

Abhba. 

Paulo Dolscto, " Psalterium." — I should be 
glad of some account of a book which I have, with 
the following title-page, and of the author : — 

" AafiCSov npofyriTOv koX /3acriA.ews ixeKos eAeyeiois nepiei\ijn m 
fxevov, vno IlavAou tou AoAcr/aov HAaeajj." 

" Psalterium Prophetae et Regis Davidis versibus ele- 
giacis redditum a Paulo Dolscio Plavensi. Basileae per 
Joannem Oporinum." 

The* date at the end is 1555, and the epistle 
dedicatory concludes thus : " Datse in Salinis in 
ripa Sala3. Cal. Sep. Anno 1554." A note in 
pencil says : " Liber rarissimus, v. Salthen. Catal. 
p. 498, n. 25 ii.f E. A. D. 

[* Qy. Where are the mullets? — Ed.] 
[f The following is the note in Salthenii Bibliothecm 
Viri, "Liber rarissimus, de quo adeo nil rescire potuit 



3** S. L Jan. 25, '62.3 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



69 



Quotations Wanted. — 

1. " Go, shine till thou outshin'st tho gleam 

Of all the 

Go — dance till all the diamonds flash, 

That stain thy inky hair: 
Then kneel and show thy heart to God — 

What broken vows are there ! " 

2. " Vous defendez que jo vous aime — et bicn, 

j'obeirai ! " 

3. " What though the form be fair, 

What though the eye be bright, 
What though the rare and flowing hair, 

Vie with the rich sunlight, — 
If the soul which of all should the fairest be, 
If the soul which must last through eternity, 

Be a dark and unholy thing? " 

4. " And thus the heart mav break, yet brokenly livo 

on." 

[Childe Harold, Canto iii. Stanza 32.] 

f>. " Forgiveness to the injured doth belong, 

They never pardon who have done the wrong." 

C. " Yet died he as tho wise might wish to die, 
With all his fame upon him .... 
We may die otherwise — our dim career 
May rise and set in darkness ; we may give 
'Some kindly gleams which leave the rest more 
drear ; 

But 0! 'tis sad their brightness to survive, 
And die when nought remains for which 'twere 
well to live 1 " 

Hermentrtjde. 

" Just notions will into good actions grow, 
And to our Reason we our Virtues owe. 
False Judgments are the unhappy source of ill, 
And blinded Error draws the passive Will. 
To know our God, and know our selves, is all 
We can true Happiness or Wisdom call." 

" For let your subject be or low or high, 
Here all the penetrating force must lie . . ." 

" Till with a pleased surprise we laugh [or smile] and 
wonder 

How \_or that] things so like, so long were kept 
asunder." 

F. K. 

Whitehall. — Some few years ago I remem- 
ber to have read that, in adapting the Banquet- 
ing House of Whitehall as a chapel for the 
Guards, it was discovered that the upper or a 
part of one of the windows had evidently been 
removed, and the masonry replaced in a hasty 
manner. This circumstance, of course, indicating 
the window to be that through which Charles I. 
passed to the scaffold. Can you oblige me by 
a reference to the book in which the statement 
I have given may be found, as unfortunately I 
made no note ? L. M. 

Col. Thomas Winsloe. — I was looking one 
day at an old diary, date 1766, when I came upon 
j the following curious memorandum : — 

Jac. Duportus, ut fere ineditum crederet, in Praefat. ad 
suam Metaphrasin Psalmor., p. 11, sq." We cannot find 
this very rare work either in the Bodleian or the British 
Museum Catalogues. — Ed.] 

I 



« Sat. August, 23, 17GG. Last week died, at his seat 
in the county of Tipperary, Colonel Thomas Winsloe, 
aged 14G years : he was Captain in the reign of Charles I., 
and came with Oliver Cromwell, as Lieut.-Colonel into 
Ireland." 

I have copied this vcrhatim. Can any of your 
correspondents give me more particulars about 
Colonel Thomas Winsloe. X. (1.) 



tiiutxizZ tcttfc ®n£crjenf. 

Lady Sophia Buckley. — Who was this lady 
in our Charles II.'s court, and what is known of 
her ? C. H. 

[This lady's name is Bulkeley, not Buckley, as errone- 
ously spelt in Dalrymple's Memoirs, part ii. p. 189. She 
was the daughter of the Hon. Walter Stuart, M.D., third 
son of Walter, Inst Lord Blantyre. The Duchess of Rich- 
mond, Frances Teresa, was her elder sister. Pepys, who 
Avas fond of "gadding abroad to look after beauties," 
once met the two fair sisters in his walks. "So I to the 
Park," says he, "and there walk an hour or two; and 
in the King's garden, and saw the Queen and the ladies 
walk: and I did steal some apples off the trees; and here 
did I see my Lady Richmond, who is of a noble person as 
ever I did see, but her face worse than it was consider- 
ably by the small-pox: her sister is also very hand- 
some." Sophia Stuart married Henry Bulkeley, fourth 
son of Thomas, first Viscount Bulkeley, and Master of 
the Household to Charles II. and James II. Sophia was 
a lady of the bedchamber to the Queen in 1G87, and in the 
list of those ladies she is placed between the Countess of 
Tyrconnel and Lady Bellasyse, which seems to imply 
that she had precedence above a baroness. Her duties 
about the Queen probably occasioned her being present 
at the birth of the attainted Prince of Wales. See State 
Poems, iii. 260. Granger says, that " in the reign of Wil- 
liam III. it was reported that Sophia was confined in the 
Bastile, for holding a correspondence with Lord Godol- 
phin. That she had some connection with that Lord 
may be presumed from the following stanza, which is 
part of a satire against Charles, written in 1680 : — 

• Not for the nation, but the fair, 
Our treasury provides: 
Bulkeley's Godolphin's only care, 
As Middlcton is Hyde's.' " 

But according to the Treasury Order Book at the Cus- 
toms, D. 352, F. 303, (where her surname is also spelt 
Buckley), she was residing in France in 1G80. Consult 
Collins's Peerage, viii. 16, ed. 1812; and Granger's Biog. 
Hist. if. 184, ed. 1775.] 

" A Discourse against Transubstantiation. 
Lon'd. 1687." — I possess a pamphlet thus en- 
titled : — 

" A Discourse against Transnhstantiatiov. The Sixth 
Edition. London: Printed for Brabazon Aylmer . . . 
and William Rogers . . 1687. Price Three Pence." 
Pp. 40. 8vo. 

It is one of the most remarkable treatises on the 
subject I ever read, and exhibits uncommon learn- 
ing and ability ; but there is scarcely anything 
in it that a Zwinglian might not have written. 
It commences thus : 

" Concerning the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, one 
of the two great positive Institutions of the .Christian 



70 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[>d S. I. Jan. 25, '62. 



Eeligion, there are two main points of difference between 
us and the Church of Rome. One, about the Doctrine of 
Transubstantiation, . . The other, about the adminis- 
tration of this Sacrament to the people in both kinds. 
Of the first of these I shall now treat." 

At the end of the pamphlet are the following 
Advertisements : — 

" There is lately published a Discourse of the Com- 
munion in one kind, in answer to a Treatise of the Bishop 
of Meaux's of Communion under both species. In Quarto. 

" Also a View of the whole Controversie between the 
Kepresenter and the Answerer ... In Quarto." 

I suppose my pamphlet is to be found in Peck's 
Catalogue of Controversial Treatises. Was it 
written by Wake or Dodwell ? I should be glad 
to know the author's name ? Eirionnach. 

[This Discourse is by John Tillotson,*afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. It was first published in 1684, 
and in the following year had passed through four edi- 
tions. It was attacked in a work entitled, " Reason and 
Authority ; or the Motives of a late Protestant's Recon- 
ciliation to the Catholick Church. Together with Re- 
marks upon some late Discourses against Transubstanti- 
ation. Publisht with allowance. 4to. Lond. 1687." This 
work is attributed in the ^Bodleian and Dublin Cata- 
logues to Joshua Bassett, Master of Sidney I College, 
Cambridge. Dodd (Church Hist, iii. 483.) attributes it 
to Gother. The main object of the work is to attack this 
Discourse of Tillotson, and that by Dr. Wake (Vide 
Birch's Life of Tillotson, p. 118, edit. 1753.) A Discourse 
of the Communion in one kind, is by Win. Payne, M.A., 
Rector of St. Mary's, Whitechapel ; A View of the ivhole 
Controversy, &c, by Dr. Wm. Claget.] 

The " Press-gang" in 1706. — When did im- 
pressment for the navy begin? The following 
instance (transcribed from the original warrant), 
which occurred early in the last century, will 
show in what way men were] at that time im- 
pressed : — 

" Wells Civit. sive Burgus in Com. Som. : — We, whose 
names are herevnto subscribed (two of Her Maj 'tie's jus- 
tices of the peace for the said Citty or Borrough), pur- 
sueant to a late Acte of Parliam't made in the fourth 
and fifth yeares of her said Maj'tie's reign, entitled 'An 
Act for the Encouragement and better encrease of Sea- 
men, and for the better and speedier Manning of her 
Maj'tie's Fleet,' Do exhibite and certifie, vnder our 
hands and seales, That James Middleham, Jun r , of the 
said Citty or Burrough, was, the nineteenth day of Aprill 
instant, brought before vs by Edward Bence and John 
Kenfield, two of her Maj'tie's officers belonging to the 
said Citty or Burrough, and then Impressed before vs; 
and at the same tyme delivered over by vs vnto John 
Horsman, appointed Conductor to receive the same ac- 
cording to the direction of the said Act. Dated vnder 
our hands and seales the Thirtieth day of Aprill, in the 
fifth yeare of the reign of our sovereign Lady Ann, Queen 
over England, &c, Anno D'ni, 17(K 

" Jacob Worrall, May'r. 
Pe. Davis, Record'r." 

Ina. 

[Haydn, in his Dictionary of Dates; the last edition of 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and similar works, quote 
Sir Michael Foster's dictum, that 2 Rich. II. cap. 4, 
granted the right to the crown to impress men for the 
naval service. But according to a writer of a pamphlet. 



entitled A Discourse on the Impressing of Mariners ; where- 
in Judge Foster's Argument is Considered and Answered 
8vo. [1777], the words of this statute do not in the least 
countenance the right of impressment. The words of the 
original are .these : " Item, pur ceo qe plusours mariners 
apres ce qils sont arestuz et retenuz pur service du Roi 
sur la meer en defence du roialme et en ont receux lours 
gages appurtenantz senfuent hors du dit service sanze 
conge." The great mistake and impropriety (continues 
this writer) consists in the translator's having rendered 
the French word arestuz by the [English word arrested; 
whereas it implies to bargain with, to hire, to agree for. 
He also contends that the commission in 29 Edward III. 
has no reference to compulsory impressment. Even the 
statute 2 & 3 Phil. & Mary, c. 16, only applies to water- 
men who use the river Thames between Gravesend and 
Windsor.] 

Trap Spider. — Having tried many sources 
without avail, I write to you to ask if you can 
tell me the name, i. e. the proper name of the 
spider called the " Trap Spider " at Corfu. It 
makes a door to its habitation, and if anyone 
attempts to get at the inmates, it so places one of 
its legs within the network that it cannot be 
opened. It is well known in Corfu, but I should 
be much obliged to you to tell me in " N. & Q." 
what its proper name is. An Inquirer. 

[We regret that our correspondent has not told us 
where he met with the above particulars. There are 
spiders of the genus Mygale (Walckenaer), species Avicu- 
laria, which at the entrance of their tunnel, " construct 
a door, moving upon a hinge," with a mat of silk fastened 
to the inner surface, " on Avhich the animal frequently 
reposes, possibly for the sake of guarding the entrance." 
There is also another species of the same genus, Sp. 
Ccementaria, Araignee mineuse, which inhabits Spain, the 
south parts of France, and other shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, therefore probably Corfu. " It resists the open- 
ing of its door with its utmost strength, and continues 
struggling in the entrance till the light has fairly en- 
tered, after which it retreats into the earth." Can this 
be the species after which our correspondent inquires? 
See Encyclo. Britan, ed. 1853, iii. 377, 378, under Arach- 
nides.] 

" Preces Private." — Will any of your cor- 
respondents kindly tell me anything concerning 
the subjoined book, particularly as to its worth or 
rarity ? 

" Preces privatas, in Studiosorum gratiam collectse, et 
Regia Authoritate approbatae. Londini: Excudebat 
Gulielmus Seres, Anno Domini, 1564." 

Exon. 

[The Preces Private may be considered as a revised 
edition of Queen Elizabeth's Orarium, the Canonical 
Hours of Prayer being omitted. In fact, the two works 
have been confounded by Strype (Annals of Reformation, 
vol. i. pt. I. p. 354, ed. 1824), and by Dibdin {Ames, iv. 
219.) Consult also the Preface to Bishop Cosin's Collec- 
tion of Private Devotions. The Preces Privatce was first 
published in 1564, and reprinted in 1568, 1573, and 1574. 
(Herbert's Ames, pp. 696, 702.) The edition of 1573 is 
best known, from the circumstance of its being, accord- 
ing to the title-page, an enlarged (quibusdam in locis 
auctae), and an improved edition, and is of considerable 
rarity. The edition of 1564 is reprinted in the Private 
Prayers put forth by authority during the Reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, edited by* the Rev, W, K. Clav for the Parker 



3 r <i S. L Jan. 25, T.2.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



71 



Society, 1851 ; and that of 1568 by Mr. Parker of Oxford 
in 1854. The first edition, 1564, fetched 21. 8s. at Sothe- 
by's, in April, 1857.] 

Bisuors' Charges. —Can I be informed whe- 
ther any public libraries in England or Ireland 
contain any considerable number of printed copies, 
or original manuscripts, of the charges delivered 
by Bishops of the United Church within the last 
hundred years ? And if so, by what titles they 
arc indexed in the Catalogues. R. P. 

[The charges would bo entered in all library catalogues 
under the surname of each bishop.] ] 

Abbey Counters or Tokens. — Where can|I 
find some account of these pieces, which not un- 
frequently turn up in the cultivation of land in 
Scotland "? J. H. 

[We know of no specific work on Abbey Tokens ; 
but the following may be consulted : Nouvelle E'tude de 
JetonSf par J. de Fontcnay ; Les Liberies de Bourgogne 
d'aprcs les Jetons de ses E'tats, par Gl. Rossignol ; Lind- 
say on the Coinage of Scotland, 2 Parts, 4to, 1845-59 ; 
and Snelling's Jettons or Counters, especially those known 
by the name of Black Money and Abbey Pieces, 4to, 17G9. 



Myites?. 

PELAYO'S VISITS TO NORTH OF SPAIN". 
(2 nd S. xi. 70, 115.) 

Pelayo is not the author of a book of travels, 
but the hero of a novel : — 

" Ilistoria Fabulosa del distinguido Caballero Don 
Pelayo Infanzon de la Vega, por Don Alonso Bernardo 
liibero y Larrea, Cura de Ontalvilla y Despoblado Onta- 
riego de Segovia. Madrid, 1792, 12°, 2 torn." 

The only notice I have found of this work is 
in Ticknor, who says : — 

" El Quijote de la Cantabria rcfiere los viajes a la 
corte de un hidalgo llamado Don Pelayo, su residencia 
en ella, y en vuelta a lamontanu, admiradoy sorprendido 
de que los Vizcainos y montaneses no estem reputados en 
todas partes por los mas nobles y ilustres del mondo." — 
Tom. iv. p. 238, Spanish translation. 

The novel is an imitation of Don Quixote, 
written in a good style, and abounding in good 
sense, but feeble in interest and wit. Don Pelayo 
leaves his father's house to convince the world 
that the Biscayens are its most illustrious in- 
habitants. On all other subjects he is sane and 
talks to the purpose, though somewhat prosily. 
He is accompanied by a retainer, Mateo de Palacio, 
an Asturian, who speaks the dialect of his country, 
and may say some good things which I do not 
understand. Don Pelayo is cured of his illusion 
by a short residence at Madrid, and some visits 
to the Court, and he goes home and marries. 

Cervantes often calls his tale historia verda- 
dera ; on the contrary, Ribera says, esta historia 
Jingida. Were any restraints placed, either by 
discipline or opinion, on the Spanish clergy, as to 
novel writing ? The passage referred to is in a 



conversation between Don Pelayo and a clergy- 
man whom he meets at an inn : — 

"Tanto fue lo que se este'md el pronombre de Don, 
que los Reyes le concedicron a algunos hombres en 
fuerza de servicios grandes. Al conde de Cabra quando 
hizo prisionero en una batalla al Rev chico de Granada; 
a Cristobal Colon porque descubrio las Indias, que estdn 
hacia el Poniente : a Basco de Gama por la rnuclia tierra 
que descubrio a la parte de l'Oriente; y a Cortes bizo la 
misma gracia el Senor Don Carlos Quinto despucs que 
anadid un Nuevo Mondo a su dilatado Imperio. Esto 
sucedia por aquellos tiempos; pcro en el dia de boy 
anda tan comun el Don, que se agravia vivamente un 
escribano, si se le llama Rodrigo Talavera, y su Reveren- 
disima habra hecho alto acerca del recado que un mozo 
de esta casa me ha dado a mi mismo quando le envie a 
llamar un Barbero, y se salid con decinnequo sus dome's- 
ticos le habian dado por respuesta, de que su merced no 
se hallaba en casa." — T. i. p. 114. 

II. B. C. 

U.U. Club. 



THE SACKS OF JOSEPH'S BRETHREN. 
(2" J S. xii. 502.) 

Unfortunately I have not one of these primaival 
sack-bags in my museum to enable me to give a 
decisive answer to your correspondent C. In the 
year 1855, a friend of mine passing through Con- 
stantinople, bought saddle-bags made of leather 
at the horse-bazaar at Stamboul, this being the 
usual sack for carrying merchandise in the East, 
whether on a pack-saddle, or with the ordinary 
Turkish saddle on which the traveller sits, a bag 
hanging on each side, and two leathern bottles in 
front of him. And I myself have, lying in a lum- 
ber room at an old family house in the country, 
similar saddle-bags used by my ancestors in past 
centuries, a leathern contrivance borrowed from 
remote antiquity, long before weaving was known 
among the Britons. For these reasons I believe 
skins were the first and earliest contrivance ap- 
plied by man for locomotion, whether of liquids 
or dry goods, or for seating his own person on the 
back of a beast of burden, especially among the 
pastoral tribes in the East. Do we not gather as 
much from the narrative of Joseph's Brethren ? 
What else could their "sack-bags" have been but 
the skins of beasts ? Jacob and his sons had no 
" woven fabric" in their wild country. In Egypt 
there was plenty of such material, and so Joseph 
gave all his brothers changes of raiment, and Ben- 
jamin five changes. But you may say, What of 
the coat of many colours made for Jacob's darling 
child? It was the skins of the smaller wild ani- 
mals, or of the wild beast incidentally alluded to 
in the narrative. Deerfoot, the American Indian 
savage, " wild as in his native woods he ran," 
wears just such a showy skin across his shoulder, 
fastened by a brooch-pin (ojSeAos, a spit, Cleopa- 
tra's needle), like Hercules and the Nemean lion. 
And the minstrels from the Abruzzi, wild tracts 



72 



NOTES AND QUERIES. im s. i Jan. 25, '62. 



in Calabria, now wandering about our streets, 
wear skin coats just as they come stripped from 
the sheep's back, and their breeches, and their 
laced sandals, and the bags or sacks for their pipes, 
are all of the same primseval material. Avkos fioos, 
the bag in which iEolus bottled up the winds 
(Od. x. 19.) 

Skins (leather when tanned) have been the 
staple for human clothing from Adamitical times 
to the present day in all wild districts of the 
globe. Yes, " nothing like leather," for houses or 
dress, for shields or boats. JEgida Palladis ; su- 
tilis cymba Charontis. The Cymri had their 
coracles, and their segan, the skin cloak, now be- 
come the Welsh whittle of flannel. The shepherd's 
" bottle and bag " {Od. ii. 291) were both leathern. 
David's bag for the five smooth stones, and his sling 
(i;j„a<>) were the same, and so was the bag or purse the 
traitor Judas bore (yXaxraoKofj-ou), the palate or 
cud-bags of ruminating animals, curious speci- 
mens of which may be seen in any tripe- dresser's 
shop. " Old Bags," saccos nummorum, was the 
common sobriquet of Lord Chancellor Eldon. 
College bursars and ships' pursers get their names 
from leather ; and a hide, or five hides of land, 
was a common gift by William after the Norman 
Conquest to his retainers, and the ville was called 
Hyde, or Five-head ; e. g. Five-head Neville. 

It appears from Burckhardt's Notes, that the 
Bedouin Arabs very early made skins leather by 
tanning them. And according to Robinson's 7?e- 
searches they use small sacks and larger saddle- 
bags of hair cloth (camlet sack ?), but this was 
long posterior to Jacob's time. The oriental lan - 
guage of Job, " I have sewed sackcloth on my 
skin, and defiled my horn in the dust," may be 
simply the expression for deep mourning ; or if 
taken literally would be, "pinned a sheep- skin 
round him, and sat covered with dirt" like a hermit 
{ep-wos) in a cave — " leather and ashes." 

But the philological question. If I were skilled 
in the Semitic dialects I might enter critically into 
the etymology of sack, a word, Dr. Johnson says, to 
be found in all languages, but the root not on this 
side the Flood. C. tells me sak and amtakhah are 
used indiscriminately in Genesis; and I find no 
enlightenment as to a difference in their meaning 
by marginal references in the Polyglot. It would 
be therefore useless, if not something worse, to fill 
your columns with hobbyhorsical derivations and 
definitions, which we old antiquaries are always 
too fond of indulging in. If C. will refer to the 
parallel texts — Mark i. 6, Matt. iii. 4, 2 Kings 
i. 8, Zech. xiii. 4, Joshua ix. 4-6, he will find skin, 
leather, and camlet, or hair shirt, almost syno- 
nymous, and strongly confirming my interpreta- 
tion of sak. 

Burder's Oriental Customs (edit. 1802), note 
32, says, on the authority of Chardin and 
Harmer, " Sacks for corn (in Genesis) are not 



to be confounded with tambellit, sacks of wool co- 
vered in the middle with leather, used, through 

all history, for baggage." Queen's Gardens. 

THE AMERICAN STANDARD AND NEW 
ENGLAND FLAG. 

(2 nd S. xii. 338, 444.) 

It would appear that the prior existence of a 
flag with thirteen red and white stripes, suggested 
its adoption at the period of the Revolution by 
the thirteen English colonies then in rebellion ; 
but it can scarcely be imagined that the armorial 
bearings of their commander-in-chief conduced 
towards such a choice. 

A work entitled Present State of the Universe, 
by John'' Beaumont, jun., 4th edit., published in 
London 1704, represents the East India Com- 
pany's flag as consisting of a field bearing thirteen 
alternate red and white stripes with a St. George's 
cross on* a white canton, which rests upon -the 
fourth red stripe. From your last correspondent 
on the subject (C. Harbertoniensis, who quotes 
some French authority), we find this same flag 
still in use on the English squadrons in 1737, 
while the E. I. Company's flag, at that period, 
bore but nine red and white stripes with the same 
canton as before ; this last, .with the British Union 
instead of the St. George's Cross, is still the flag of 
the company. 

On the 15th of May, 1759, Admiral Charles 
Saunders issued Sailing Orders and Instructions 
in the harbour of Louisbourg before setting out 
for Quebec. Among the signal-flags mentioned 
we have the English ensign, the Dutch flag, a red 
flag, a red flag with white cross, a yellow flag with 
blue cross, a flag half blue and half white, flags 
blue and yellow checkered, and red and white 
checkered, a flag yellow and white striped, and a 
flag red and white striped, with corresponding 
pennants, &c. Of course such provincial vessels 
as joined the fleet were well acquainted with these 
signals. 

The first American fleet raised under the im- 
mediate superintendence of Congress sailed from 
Philadelphia Feb. 9th, 1776, " under the display 
of a Union flag* with thirteen stripes in the field." 
The following flags are mentioned on the orders 
issued to the several captains of the fleet, on sail- 
ing from the Capes of Delaware, Feb. 17th, 1776: 
the standard, bearing a rattle-snake on a yellow 
field, &c. (as described 2 nd S. xii. 338), the striped 
jack, and the ensign, under which they had sailed 
a week previous ; also a St. George's ensign with 

* That is, with the British Union of the crosses of St 
George and St. Andrew on a canton, being the same flag 
raised by the Continental army on Prospect Hill, before 
Boston, Jan. 3, 1776. 



8*1 S. I. Jan. 25, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



73 



stripes, a white flag, a Dutch flag, a broad pen- 
nant, and pennants of red and white. 

During the month of July, 1776, Capt. Lambert 
Wickes appears to have been cruising oft" the coast 
in the Reprisal, under a flag of " thirteen stripes 
in a white and yellow field." This is not a very 
lucid description, but the flag may have been 
similar to the signal one of yellow and white 
stripes used by Admiral Saunders at Quebec in 
1759. 

On the 14th of June, 1777, it was resolved by 
Congress " That the flag of the Thirteen United 
States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white: 
That the Union be thirteen stars, white in a blue 
field, representing a new constellation." This re- 
solution was not made public until the following 
September. 

Relative to the early New England flag a few 
remarks may not be unappropriate. Upon the 
planting of the colony, among numerous articles 
deemed necessary for an intended voyage, 26th 
Feb. 1628(0), are mentioned "two ensigns and 
certain arms for one hundred men," to be brought 
out by the Talbot, Thorn. Beecher, Mr. The 
ancient or ensign appears, then, to have been an 
elongated red banner with the red cross upon a 
white chief running along the staff. Soon after 
the arrival of the settlers under Gov. Winthrop, 
in 1630, military companies were organised, and 
subsequently a temporary fort was erected on 
Castle Island, in the harbour off Boston. In 1634, 
John Enchcott, deeming the red cross in the 
King's colours to be " a superstitious thing, and a 
relic of antichrist," cut from the ensign at Salem 
a portion of the same. Many now refused to 
follow the old colours, and the commissioners for 
military affairs ordered all the ensigns to be laid 
aside, until new ones should be appointed for the 
companies. It was subsequently proposed to in- 
sert the red and white roses in lieu of the objec- 
tionable emblem, but this was not agreed to, and 
early in 1635(6) the commissioners assigned new 
colours to every company. These colours, from 
what we can learn, were merely the old ensigns 
from which the entire white chief, with its accom- 
panying cross, had been removed, though into that 
one displayed at Castle Island they wisely deter- 
mined to insert the King's arms, probably in the 
then usual manner, upon a shield. This latter 
arrangement, however, does not appear to have 
been carried out immediately, and but a few 
months after the St. Patrick of Ireland, on enter- 
ing the harbour, was obliged to strike her flag to 
the fort, " which had then no colours abroad." 
The act occasioned much discontent among the 
masters of some ten vessels, then lying in the vici- 
nity of Boston, and accordingly the King's colours 
were obtained from Capt. Palmer of the St. Pa- 
trick, while Lieut. Morris was ordered to spread 
them " at Castle Island when the ships passed by, 



yet with this protestation, that we held the cross 
in the ensign idolatrous, and therefore might not 
set it up in our own ensigns ; but this being kept 
as the King's fort, the Governor (Sir Henry Vane) 
and some others were of opinion that his own 
colours might be spread upon it." In May, 1645, 
the General Court, in reply to some inquiries 
which had been made by Richard Davenport, the 
Commander at the Fort, directed that he should 
'make use of the old colours till new be provided,' 
upon such occasions as it should be necessary. 
This last order was repeated in 1651, the Court 
conceiving ' the old English colours now used by 
the Parliament of England to be a necessary 
badge of distinction betwixt the English and other 
nations in all places of the world, till the state of 
England shall alter the same, which ' (with the 
former antipathy to the cross) ' we much desire.' 
It may be supposed that after this period the Eng- 
lish ensign again came into general use, especially 
subsequent to the accession of Charles II., who 
was proclaimed at Boston on the 8th of August, 
1661, and yet early in 1676 CoAmissary Fair- 
weather was ordered by the Council to provide 
seven colours for the army of Narraganset, each to 
be made of red sarcenet a yard square, one with a 
blaze of white in it ; the others to have each of 
them a figure of white in them, No. from 1 to 6." 
These flags last alluded to may have been merely 
expressive of the colonists' hostile intentions 
against the savages, red being the colour of the 
English flag of defiance.* 

In December, 1686, Sir Edmund Andros ar- 
rived as Governor of New England under James 
II., bringing with him a new seal and flag, and 
" about sixty red coats." This new flagf bore on 
a square white field the red cross of St. George, 
and inscribed on the latter was the royal cipher 
surmounted by a crown in gold. 

During the succeeding reigns of William and 
Mary the sea-colours of New England appear, 
with slight difference, to have been the same "as 
the English ensign of the period. In proof of 
which Beaumont, in his State of the Universe, 
1704 (already alluded to) gives the Royal Stan- 
dard of William III., and the various flags of 
England, including that of New England. The 
latter is depicted as bearing on a square red field 
a white canton with the red St. George's cross, in 
the first quarter of which is a green tree ; the co- 
lonists had, as early as 1652 adopted the tree, 

* In 1689 Thomas Pound was captured at Tarpauline 
Cove, by the armed sloop Mary of Boston, commanded 
by Capt. Samuel Pease of Salem. Pound was convicted, 
seeing that he " being under a red flag at the head of the 
mast, purposely and 'in defiance of their Majesty's au- 
thority, had wilfully, and with malice aforethought, 
committed murder and piracy upon the high seas, being 
instigated thereunto by the devil." 

f New England Papers, vol. iv. p. 223, in British State 
Paper Office. 



74 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3ra S. I. Jan. 25, '62. 



usually called a pine-tree, as a device upon their 
coinage. 

In opposition to the above we have another re- 
presentation of the New England colours in Carel 
Allard's Niewe Hollandre Scheeps-Bouvj, 2nd vol., 
published at Amsterdam in 1705. This flag is the 
same as that quoted by Harbertoniensis from 
the French work of 1737, viz. on a blue field the 
white canton and St. George's cross, with a globe* 
in its first quarter. A similar flag is described as 
having been borne by the colonists on Bunker 
Hill in 1775, save that the pine tree supplied the 
place of the globe. 

Perhaps some of your numerous readers may 
determine, from better authority, whether cre- 
dence is to be given to the statement of Beau- 
mont or that of Allard, as also at what time such 
flag was first borne by the colonists. 

I. J. Greenwood. 

New York, 30th Dec. 1861. 

I observed in an article in Blackwood's Magazine 
(April, 1861), on Americanisms the following re- 
marks : — 

"The original flag was merely 13 stripes .... adopted 
by resolution of Congress, June, 14, 1777 .... It is scarcely 
to be thought a new republic, in the first flush of its liberty, 
would adopt as its ensign the heraldic blazon of an Eng- 
lish house." 

I beg, with all diffidence, to suggest that such 
an adoption, considering the then general igno- 
rance of the poorer classes on such subjects, would 
not have been recognised or detected ; but setting 
this aside, American Independence was mainly 
secured, not by the popular majority, but by the 
upper minority. The conduct of the first war 
proved that success was due to the exertions of 
the American gentry, and not to the lower orders, 
whose more underspread descendants have ap- 
propriated the credit. 

What is more, we have (published) Washing- 
toil's own desire, expressed in several notes on the 
subject, that the present flag of the Union should be 
adopted, and if I mistake not, he also made sketches 
of his proposed flag, which are to be found, I be- 
lieve, amongst others, in Harpers Magazine. 

Singapore, Nov. 1861. Sp. 



Archbishop Leighton's Library at Dun- 
blane (3 rd S. i. 3.) — Your able correspondent 
Eirionnach does not seem to be aware that the 
account of the foundation of this library, written 
by Bishop Robert Douglas, of Dunblane, with the 
list of Leighton's manuscripts, and other valuable 
matter relating to the same subject, was printed 
by the Bannatyne Club in 1855. Your corre- 

* The crest of the East India Company, incorporated in 
1600, was a sphere without a frame, bound with a zodiac, 
in bend, or, between two split pennons, flotant, ar. each 
charged with a cross gules ; over the sphere the words, 
" Deus indicat." 



spondent will find the paper to which I allude in 
the Bannatyne Miscellany, vol. iii. p. 227. I men- 
tion this circumstance for your correspondent's 
information, and by way of spreading a knowledge 
of the existence of this paper among the admirers 
of Leighton, not with any view of casting doubt 
upon Eirionnach's research. ]STo one ought to 
be blamed for unacquaintance with the pro- 
ceedings or publications of these exclusive print- 
ing Clubs. The paper in question contains a copy 
of Leighton's will, a fac-simile of his signature to 
the covenant, and also of a letter of his, presumed 
to be written about 1673. John Bruce. 

Vossius " De Historicis Gr^cis " (2 nd S. 
xii. 369, 525.) — My copy has also the phenome- 
non described by C. J. R. T. I have waited to 
give the explanation — about the correctness of 
which I entertain no doubt — until I could see 
whether the whole edition was so issued, or whe- 
ther I happen to possess an exceptional copy. 

It is important first to remark that the prac- 
tice we now have of detecting a cancel, by verti- 
cally slitting the leaf which is to be replaced, was 
in vogue in 1651 : I have rare instances nearly 
thirty years older. The first thing that suggested, 
itself to me was that this pair of vertical lines 
was some kind of warning of the nature of a can- 
cel : and examination showed that it must have 
been so, and in the following way. 

Gerard Vossius died in 16'49, leaving the second 
edition almost printed. His son Isaac was then in 
Sweden, and the first act of the publisher was to 
procure an editor who superintended the remain- 
ing printing, and added an Ad Lectorem, explain- 
ing that Isaac Vossius was not accessible. This 
editor must have been, I suppose, A. Thysius, 
who in 1651 also edited the De Historicis Latinis. 
On second thoughts, however, it seems that it 
was determined to wait, and to apply to Isaac 
Vossius for a preface of some kind. The type of 
the Ad Lectorem was therefore put by, having 
first had a couple of lines inserted in the manner 
now visible, as a warning not to print from it 
without inquiry. Isaac Vossius, by 1651, fur- 
nished what was wanted in the shape of a dedica- 
tion to Christina of Sweden. This ought to have 
taken the place of the Ad Lectorem, which ought 
to have been withdrawn. But, by neglect, the 
dedication was inserted between the Ad Lectorem 
and the work, the black lines were not noticed, and 
the catch-word Gerar — , which was meant to 
be followed by Gerardi at the head of page 1, 
has all the dedication interposed. I have not met 
with any person who has seen a similar instance. 

A. De Morgan. 

Cowell's Interpreter condemned (3 rd S. i. 9.) 
— The entire Proclamation referred to in this com- 
munication is printed in the best edition of Cowell, 
published in 1727, and there is a somewhat cha- 



S. I. Jan. 25, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



75 



racteristic variation in one passage. The extract 
given in " N. & Q." reads " the History of the 
Monarchic," but the Proclamation, as printed in 
the Preface of the edition above mentioned, gives 
" the Mysteries of this our Monarchic" 

Lancastriensis. 

The Proclamation from which Ithuriel gives 
an extract is printed in extenso with more relative 
matter in the preface to the edition of the Inter- 
preter, continued by Thoinas Manley, published 
in 1701. Q. Q. 

Army Lists (2 nd S. xii. 434.) — The earliest ap- 
proach extant to a, printed army list will be found 
in the Gentleman' s Magazine, xviii. 506-7, xv. 
92. The former gives a list of general and staff 
officers in Great Britain and Ireland, with their 
pay per day ; governors of garrisons in Ireland, 
and generals in Flanders in 1748 ; the other list 
embraces all the regiments in his Majesty's ser- 
vice, the number of each colonel in succession to 
the year 1744, with the lieut.-colonels, majors, 
&c. This list is of great* interest. The house- 
hold cavalry embraces* Horse Guards, Grenadier 
Guards, and Horse Guards Blue. The 5th Dra- 
groons appear as the Royal Grenadier Dragoons 
of Ireland,* like the 6th formed at Inniskilling. 
The 3rd regiment of Guards is designated the 
Scotch regiment; the 21st Foot are called the 
Royal Scotch Fusileers ; the 31st* are stated as 
"formed to be Marines ;" the 41st as "Invalids;" 
43rd as "formed from independent companies in 
the Highlands of Scotland ;" the 44th to the 53rd 
inclusively formed the ten regiments of marines. 
The 63rd was the last regiment on the list, and 
the total of the forces is stated to be 79,572. 
See also vol. xvii. pp. 9-12. The succession of 
colonels and pay of all grades are'given in vol. vi. 
368-9 ; the half-pay and strength of regiments 
in vol. x. 613-4. 

Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, M.A., F.S.A. 

Lord Nugent and Capital Punishment (3 rd 
S. i. 33.) — In a pamphlet bearing no author's name, 
but dated 1853, and entitled the Death Penalty 
Considered, I find it stated "that in a late debate" 
in the House of Commons Lord Nugent had said, 
that for a long series of years one innocent person 
had been hanged every three years. The writer 
then goes on to say, that in 1841 Sir Fitzroy 
Kelly had asserted that during the previous fifty- 
eight years no less than forty-seven persons had 
been executed whose innocence had been subse- 
quently established. 

The statements are repeated in several pam- 
phlets published on the same subject ; but the 
writers in no case give any citation of the cases. 
Both Lord Nugent and Sir F. Kelly would doubt- 
less speak from a conviction of the absolute cor- 
rectness of the statements ; but it is strange that 
they did not feel it necessary to give any list of 



the persons who had been thus innocently con- 
demned. Mr. Charles Phillips is almost the only 
writer * who has quoted cases in support of his 
argument, at least modern cases, and almost the 
only ones with which the public are familiar are 
those given by the Messrs. Chambers in one of 
their very useful tracts, all of which are of a very 
ancient date. Mr. Phillips has, however, quoted 
cases which are not proved, and where very con- 
siderable doubt must rest as to the guilt or inno- 
cence of the persons condemned. 

My present object is to ask your numerous 
readers whether any authentic history, or even 
catalogue of such cases exists. Such a compila- 
tion, if carefully made, and without the bias which 
would naturally belong to a person who amassed 
them to supply an argument in support of a favo- 
rite theory, would be both interesting and useful. 
I have collected a few cases u which at some future 
time I may submit to you. I mean cases which 
are not commonly known. T. B. 

America before Columbus (3 ld S. i. 7.) — Kid- 
der and Fletcher, in their History of Brazil and 
the Brazilians (Philadelphia), state that it was 
from that part of America that Amerigo Vespuccio 
carried to Europe the famous dye-wood which so 
resembled the brazas or coals of fire used in the 
chating-pans of the Portuguese, that the latter 
called the place whence they came the brazas- 
land, and thence " Brazil." J. Doran. 

Tiffany (2 nd S. xii. 234, 4'82.)— This surname 
is most probably derived from the old French 
word tiphaine, tiphagne, tiphaingne, fete of the 
Epiphany (Eiri<paueia). The initial letter in ti- 
phaine may be an abbreviation of st. Cf. Tooley 
from St. Ooley, i.e. St. Olaf. R. S. Charnock. 

Taylor Family (2» d S. xii. 519.) — The fol- 
lowing account of a branch of the Taylor family 
settled at South Littleton, near Evesham, may 
interest your querist Heraldicus though it may 
not afford him any useful information. The ac- 
count is taken from deeds and settlements in the 
possession of informant, whose mother, with her 
younger sister, were 'co-heiresses, and the last re- 
presentatives of this branch of the Taylor family. 
William Taylor (spelt in the register in South 
Littleton church Taylour) married, 1638, Judith, 
daughter of John Charlett, D.D., of Cropthorne, 
co. Worcester, prebendary of Worcester Cathe- 
dral 1607. William Taylor was in holy orders, 
and by this marriage obtained the house and 
lands at South Littleton. 

1. Francis Taylor, their son, married Elizabeth 

Rawlins, daughter of Rawlins, Esq., and 

Ann Mary his wife, of Poppell or Poppleton 
parish of Church-Salford, Warwickshire. This 
Francis was of Univ. Coll. Oxford, and succeeded 



* Vacation Thoughts. 



76 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. I. Jan. 25, '62. 



his father at South Littleton. His arms were 
sable, a lion statant arg. ; crest, a leopard proper. 

2. Ralph Taylor, S.T.P., born 1647, died Dec. 
1722, set. seventy-five, not married. Informant 
has an excellent half-length portrait of him by 
Verelst. 

3. Elizabeth Taylor died unmarried, 1696. 
Francis and Elizabeth Taylor had five children, 
viz. — 

1. Judith died in Infancy. 

2. Francis, eldest son and heir, died 1748, un- 
married. 

3. William, born 1697, a barrister, Recorder of 
Evesham, 1727, and its representative in Parlia- 
ment, 1734; died 1741. There is a handsome 
monument to his memory in the church at Broad- 
way, co. Worcester. He died unmarried. 

4. Elizabeth married John Tandy, and their 
only son and heir, William, married Mary Yearall 
of Offenham, near Evesham, and had three child- 
ren — Francis, who died at seven years of age; 
Mary, who married Thos. Griffith of Wrexham, 
and whose eldest son supplies the above informa- 
tion. Thos. Taylor Griffith. 

Wrexham. 

It may interest Heraldic us to know that my 
father claimed to be the representative of one 
branch of the Taylor family, that of Cam and 
Stinchcombe, co. Gloucester, being the son of 
Edith, daughter of Thomas Taylor, who settled at 
Publow, Somerset, about 1765. I believe the last 
of the name was Jeremiah Taylor, who died about 
1824 a. p. 

I cannot give the arms with certainty, but I 
presume they would be the same as the Bishop's 
(erm. on a chief dancette sa., 3 escallops or), as 
the family was always considered to be collaterally 
descended from him. Jno. W. Sage. 

9, North Street, Pentonville Eoad. 

Book of Common Prater (3 rd S. i. 13.) — 
F. S. A. Clericus will find an account of the 
Prayer-Book of 1604, giving all its peculiarities, 
in Mr. Proctor's valuable work on the Common 
Prayer, p. 91 ; and although the original edition 
may be scarce, I would remind him that that, and 
all the other editions of the Prayer-Book, were 
printed verbatim by Pickering in 1844, to which, 
as they are not rare, reference may be easily made. 

G. W. M. 

Trial of the Princess of Wales (3 rd S. i. 32.) 
— I am in possession of a volume which appears 
to differ from those mentioned at the above refer- 
ence. The following is a copy of the title-page : 
> " The Book, Complete; being the Avhole of the Depo- 
sitions on the Investigation of the Conduct of the Princess 
of Wales before Lords Erskine, Spencer, Grenville, and 
Ellenborough, the four Commissioners of Inquirjr ap- 
pointed by the King, in the Year 1806 ; prepared for 
publication by the late Right Hon. Spencer Perceval. To 
which is prefixed an Historical Preface, including every 



fact that has transpired since! the Period of the Investi- 
gation ; the whole forming one of the most interesting 
Documents ever laid before the British Public. By C. V. 
Williams, Esq , Author of the Life of the Right Hon. 
Spencer Perceval. London, printed for Sherwood, Neely, 
& Jones, 20, Paternoster Row, 1813." 

The printer's name is at the end of the " His- 
torical Preface," viz. " Charles Squire, Furnival's 
Inn Court, London." 

Qy. Which edition, if either, is genuine ; or are 
all simply reprints of the same matter ? R, M'C. 

Special Licences (2 nd S. xii. 348.) —In Eng- 
land the practice of granting special licences in- 
discriminately was put an end to by the Marriage 
Act passed in 1753 ; but I cannot inform your 
correspondent when the measure was extended to 
Ireland ; nor do I know| anything about the re- 
striction that he speaks of. The power of grant- 
ing special licences is, by the English Act, confined 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury, but no restric- 
tions are imposed upon him. If in point of fact 
there are any to which he is subject, I conclude 
that they must be such as were in existence before 
the Act passed. Yerac. 

Manor Law (2 nd S. xii. 1 1 .)— A careful in- 
quiry into the constitution and incidents of manors 
is calculated to throw much light upon the real 
nature of feudalism] and the development of mo- 
dern society. But no real progress can be made 
in this inquiry till the legal idea of a manor is 
thoroughly mastered, and on this point I would 
refer your correspondent Grime to Watkins on 
Copyholds, ch. i. ; Comyns's Digest, tit. Copt- 
hold (Q) (R), Co. Litt. 58 a. There are some 
short but pithy sentences in Hallam's Middle 
Ages that afford a clue to further inquiry ; and if 
I remember rightly, there is a good deal to be 
gleaned from Tyrrell's Bibliotheca Politica, a sort 
of open field where, by the custom of the country, 
gleaning is allowable. If it is any part of Grime's 
object to trace the constitution of the court baron 
up to the time of the Anglo-Saxons, and through 
them to work out its connection with the judicial 
organisation of other Teutonic races, he may 
study with advantage* Moser's History of Osna- 
bruck, and the chapter in Savigny's History of the 
Roman Law, in which he treats of the judicial or- 
ganisation of the Germans. Yerac. 

The "Remember" of Charles I. on the 
Scaffold (2 nd S. x. 164.) — Has any English his- 
torian noticed the following remarkable passage in 
the Memoires de Madame de Motteville ? — 

" Un anglais, bon serviteur de son Roi, et bien instruit 
de ses affaires, me compta toutes les particularites que je 
viens d'ecrire, avec celles qui suivent jusques a sa mort. 
Ce fut la meme personne qui me donna la harangue sni- 
vante. Elle est traduite de l'anglais en assez mauvais 
francois; et sans doute elle est plus belle en sa langue; 
je l'ai ecrite de la meme maniere qu'elle m'a ete donnee." 



3 rJ S. I. Jan. 25, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



77 



The particular passage relating to the word 
"Remember" is as follows: — 

" Puis il [Charles] 6ta son man tea u, et donna son cordon 
bleu, qui est l'ordre de la Jarreticre, audit Sieur Juxson, 
disant, ' Souvenez-vous;' et le rente il le dit tout bus."* 

If Madame de Motteville's English informant be 
worthy of credit, the "Remember" was not a soli- 
tary word, but the commencement of a sentence, 
the remainder of which was inaudible to all except 
Bishop Juxon, to whom it wa3 whispered. 

Hermentrude. 

Pitt and Orbell of Kensington, Middlesex 
(3 rJ S. i. 25.) — To perpetuate the notice of these 
families of the West of England in connection 
with the parish of Kensington, I avail myself of 
the present opportunity to give their armorial 
bearings and alliances from a pen-and-ink trick- 
ing in my possession, more particularly as I do 
not meet with the arms of Orbell in any printed 
heraldic authority : — 

Pitt of Cricket Malherbe, co. Somerset. — Gules a fesse 
chequj' argent and azure, between three bezants. 

Crest.— A stork proper, resting its dexter claw upon a 
bezant. 

Quartering. — Second, Barry of six or and azure, on a 
bend sable, three escallops argent, — for Linyard. 
Third. Orbell, as given below. 

Fourth. Chace, viz. Gules, four cross-crosslets, two and 
two or, on a canton azure {sic) a lion passant or. 

OrbelVs coat consists of four quarters, viz. : — 

1. Per cheveron sable and argent, in chief two pair of 
sickles interlaced, of the second ; in base a heath-cock of 
the first— for Orbell. 

2. Argent a cheveron azure, between three sinister 
hands gules— for Maynard. 

3. Azure, three treble -viols each in bend sinister, two 
and one, or — for Siveeting. 

4. Per cheveron crenelle' sable and or, in chief two es- 
toiles argent ; in base a cock of the first— for Faite. 

The Orbell arms seem to have been derived 
from those of Huckmore or Hochnore, of the 
county of Devon. H. G. 

Prophecy of Malaciii (3 rd S. i. 49.) — It is 
the statement of Mr. Hendriks, in the last number 
of " N. & Q.," that " the Prophecy of Malachi for 
the existing Pope Pius IX. ' Crux de Grace,' 
speaks for itself." May I ask with what inter- 
relation ? I hold penes meipsum a meaning, but 
had not deemed it so obvious. Breachan. 
Husbandman (3 rJ S. i. 30.) — The word hus- 
bandman, as used at the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, was synonymous with our term 
farmer, and was applied to the occupier or holder 
of the land (whether owner or not), and never, 
that I am aware of, to the labourer on the land. 

The distinction between husbandmen and mere 
labourers is clearly shown by the statute 5 Eliza- 
beth cap. 4 ; by the 22nd section of which it was 
enacted, that " Husbandmen being householders, 

* Edition of 1855, Charpentier, Paris. 



and using half a ploughland at least in tillage, 
might take by indenture apprentices above the 
age of ten years and under eighteen, to serve in 
husbandry until the age of twenty-one years at 
least, or twenty-four years, as the parties could 
agree." 

To this I may add that husbandman is the 
proper legal addition of a farmer at the present 
day, while no lawyer would think of applying it 
to the labourer in husbandry. 

The Lancashire testator mentioned by your 
correspondent was doubtless, then, a farmer as 
well as a small freeholder ; and, although he might 
by virtue of his freehold have been designated a 
yeoman, which Sir Thomas Smith, in his Republ. 
Anglorum, b. i. c. 23, takes to be " a free born 
man, that may dispend of his own free land in 
yearly revenues to the sum of forty shillings ster- 
ling," yet the lawyer who drafted the will chose 
rather to describe him as an occupier of land, fol- 
lowing husbandry. D. M. Stevens. 
Guildford. 

Heraldic Query (3 rd S. i. 30.) — If we sub- 
stitute " wolves' heads " for " horses' heads " in 
the Query of Hermentrude, we have the coat of 
Robertson of Strowan in North Britain, with 
merely the impalement of some female arms. The 
proper crest of Robertson is an arm or hand hold- 
ing up a crown ; and as the hand is usually de- 
picted much smaller than the crown, it may have 
escaped the notice of a casual observer. The tra- 
dition respecting the origin of this crest and motto 
may be learnt from Elvin's Handbook of Mottoes, 
edit. 1860, p. 224. H. G. 

Christopher Monk (2 nd S. xii. 384, 442, 526.) 
— -A Note of mine to the Monk pedigree, which I 
endeavoured to trace, is as follows : — 

"In a Collection of Letters, 1714 (Worcester College, 
Oxford) is a pedigree showing that a Mrs. Sherwin 
claimed to be only surviving niece and right heir to the 
Duke." 

I omitted to add my authority, and have now 
no recollection of it. 

It seems a suit was also brought by Lord Mon- 
tagu and his wife (widow of Christopher Monk) 
against the Earl of Bath, Mr. Grenville and Sir 
Walter Clarges, disputing the interpretation put 
upon some parts of the Duke's will. This was 
determined in 1693 in favour of Lord Bath. The 
Law Reports of the time will no doubt have the 
case. D. 

"The Wandering jEw"(3 ra S. i. 14.) — Par 
excellence you must add Salathicl, by the late Rev. 
G. Croly, D.D. It is in some sort a work of 
fiction, but withal historical, philosophical, tra- 
ditionary; depicted too in language classical, 
chaste, eloquent, and beautiful ; indeed it is 
throughout a well-sustained narrative, abounding 
in a succession of powerful incidents, and delight- 



1' 



78 



3ST0TES AND QUERIES. C^s.-i. Jan. 25, '62. 



ful imagery. The first edition in 3 vols. 8vo, ap- 
peared in 1828 ; a cheap two-shilling edition has 
recently been issued. James Gilbert. 

2, Devonshire Grove, Old Kent Road. 

Jetsam, Flotsam, and Lagan (2 nd S. xii. 357, 
427, 508.) — It seems a pity that the origin and 
meaning of these terms, after having been so well 
settled by previous correspondents, should have 
been again unsettled by A. A. 

Neither jetsam nor flotsam are directly from 
the Latin ; and, independently of graver reasons, 
it seems inconsistent to derive ligan from that 
source. 

The general idea is that of things abandoned or 
unowned, waifs and estrays of the ocean ; and not 
that of things in any way secured or appropriated, 
by being tied up. Lig is still a common provin- 
cialism for lie ; e. g. " Where's my hammer ? " 
" There her ligs " ; and I think no philological in- 
genuity will ever prove these three words to mean 
either more or less than things thrown overboard ; 
things found floating, and thing lying stranded. 

Douglas Allport. 

In the derivation which he gives for ligan, all the 
text-books are on the side of A. A. ; but, as far as 
I have seen, they all rely solely on the authority 
of Sir Edward Coke, who, in Sir Henry Con- 
stable's case, says that ligan comes a ligando 
(5 Rep. 106.) The derivation does not appear to 
me to be satisfactory, and I have no great respect 
for Sir Edward Coke as an etymologist. I am 
therefore led to inquire whether, independent of 
him, there is any authority in favour of the deri- 
vation in question. Yerac. 

Scotch Weather Proverbs (2 nd S. xii. 500.) 

— Another one is — 

" If Candlemas Day be wet and foul, 
The half of the winter 's gane at Yule ; 
If Candlemas Day be dry and fair, 
The half of the winter 's to come and mair." 

Anon. 

Eats leaving a Sinking Ship (2 nd S. xii. 502.) 

— I recently heard an accomplished gentleman of 
Orkney, whose residence is in one of the islands, 
tell that, as a boy, walking with his father, they 
one day came upon an immense number of rats 
proceeding towards the shore, where they saw them 
take to the sea, and swim off. From the point of 
their departure, the nearest land opposite must 
be several miles, and as the currents among the 
Orkney Islands run with great force, it is scarcely 
conceivable that they could have succeeded in 
making their way across. This seems even more 
remarkable than their leaving a sinking ship, 
when their instinct may some how teach them 
that their only chance of safety is to get clear of 
the vessel before she founders. Anon. 

Not having seen any reply to the Query upon 



this subject, I forward the following extract, which 
throws some light upon the inquiry : — 

" At the beginning of our voyage an incident occurred 
which had considerable influence on the men's cheerful- 
ness. This was the jumping overboard of a rat, just as we 
were getting well out to sea, which, after swimming 
round a circle two or three times, struck out in the direc- 
tion of the shore. I believe it went over to escape from the 
pigs; for these animals seemed to have a great taste for 
rats, and I had myself seen them wrangling over one not 
long before, and I told the men so ; but they preferred to 
believe that the act was a voluntary one on the part of 
the rat, and indicative of misfortune to the ship." — Leisure 
Hour, Jan. 16, 1862, p. 37. 

It seems, then, to be a nautical superstition. 

Vedette. 

Wolves in England (2 nd S. xii. 453.)— -I 
have heard in Hertfordshire of a similar occur- 
rence to that mentioned by B. H. C. In this 
case, however, the young wolf had attracted at- 
tention by worrying sheep at night. The matter 
may be easily explained by the habit of import- 
ing fox-cubs from France. It has often happened 
that among these [cubs a young wolf has made its 
appearance. L. A: M. 

English Ambassadors to France (3 rd S. i. 11.) 
— The following is the information required by 
Secundum Ordinem : — 

John Frederick Sackville, Duke of Dorset, 
1783, till 

1784, Daniel Hales, minister plenipotentiary, ad 
interim, April 28. 

1785. Right Hon. Wm. Eden (afterward Earl 
of Auckland), envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary for commercial affairs, Dec. 9. 

Mr. Eden remained till 1790, when George 
Granville, Earl Gower, was appointed ambassador 
on June 11. He was recalled in Sept. 1792, and 
diplomatic relations were suspended till Oct. 13, 
1796, when James Lord Malmesbury was sent 
over as ambassador extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary for negociating a treaty of peace. 

R. J. Courtney. 

New Street Square. 

The Laugh or a Child (3 rd S. i. 31.) — On 
reading these lines, I could not fail being struck 
with the similarity in the tone of the lines given 
by your correspondent and those by Eliza Cook 
of the following : — 

" I love it, I love it, and who shall dare, 
To chide me for loving that old arm'chair," &c. 

I have given these lines in extenso, but you 
need not give more in the reply than the first two 
lines, as it is intended only to ask the reader to 
observe the comparison, and to inquire at the 
same time if the authors of the different poems 
are not one and the same person. 

John Nurse Chadwick. 

Mr. Serjeant John Birch, Cursitor Baron 
(3 rd S. i. 29.) — Mr. Foss is correct in his sugges- 



3"* S. I. Jan. 25, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



79 



tion that this gentleman was the nephew of Colonel 
John Birch, the eminent parliamentary com- 
mander, whose career he shortly describes. A full 
account of the family may be seen in pp. 70-120 
in one of the publications of the Chetham Society, 
entitled, A History of the ancient Chapel of Birch, 
in Manchester Parish, by the Rev. John Booker, 
M.A., F.S.A. Mr. Foss will find there that the 
Serjeant was the second son of the llev. Thomas 
Birch, Rector of Hampton Bishop, in Hereford- 
shire, and afterwards Vicar of Preston, by his wife 

Mary : and that lie married Sarah the 

youngest daughter of his uncle the Colonel, who 
had by his will left her his estates on condition of 
her agreeing to that marriage. After this lady's 
death the Serjeant married, secondly, Letitia 
Hampden of St. Andrews, Holborn, but left no 
issue by either wife. C. de D. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The History of Scottish Poetry. By David Irving, 
LL.D., Author of the Life of Buchanan, ^c. Edited by 
John Aitken Carlyle, M.D. With a Memoir and Glossary. 
(FMmonston & Douglas.) 

As this is the last, so it is certainly not the least valu- 
able book, for which students of Scottish literature are 
indebted to the learning and research of Dr. Irving. The 
long list of works written by Dr. Irving, from his Life 
of Robert Fergusson, published upwards of sixty years 
since, to his Lives of Scottish Writers, which appeared in 
1839, give evidence of those preliminary studies which 
were essential to the production of a satisfactory history 
of Scottish Poetry; and the consequence is, that this 
new volume by Dr. Irving abounds at once in accurate 
and solid information, and in a shrewd and intelligent 
criticism on the Poets of Scotland, from Thomas the 
Kymer to the close of the last century. Its value, there- 
fore, to Scottish readers is at once obvious. But the in- 
timate relation which existed between the early literature 
of Scotland and that of England invests it also with no 
common interest for us ; not only for the information it 
affords upon the subject of Scottish Poetry, but as a com- 
panion or supplement to Warton'a invaluable work; and 
the writings of John Barbour, Robert Ilenryson, William 
Dunbar, Gavin Douglas, and others of these Northern 
worthies, Avill be found to throw new and invaluable light 
upon the writings of Gower and Chaucer, and well repay 
the attention of English students. 

The Proverbs of Scotland, collected and arranged with 
Notes Explanatory and Illustrative, and a Glossary. By 
Alexander Ilislop. (Porteous & Hislop, Glasgow.) 

When we state that the present is both the most ex- 
tensive and most systematic Collection of Scottish Pro- 
verbs which has yet been given to the public, we say 
enough to recommend the book to all lovers of Proverbial 
Literature. 

The Dialect of Leeds and its Neighbourhood, illustrated 
by Conversations and Tales of Common Life, §*c. To which 
are added a Copious Glossary, Notices of the various Anti- 
quities, Manners, and Customs, and General Folk Lore of 
the Districts. (J. Russell Smith.) 

The " home-keeping" Londoner, whose ideas of what 
the Yorkshire dialect is have been formed from the 
Yorkshireman of our popular drama, will be astonished 



when he finds the variety of forms which that dialect 
assumes in different parts of the county. This little 
volume of nearly 500 pages, devoted to "the dialect of 
Leeds, exhibits the peculiarities of language in that dis- 
trict, and the forms in which it differs from the "talk of 
the people "in adjoining localities; and these are well 
and clearly exhibited by the author's conversations and 
tales of common life (which show no small artistic skill) ; 
while the Glossary and Notices of the Manners, Customs, 
and Folk Lore of the district give a completeness to the 
book which entitles it to a high place among works illus- 
trative of the Provincial Dialects of England. 

History of the Names of Men, Nations, and Places in 
their connection with the Progress of Civilisation. From the 
French of Eusebius Salverte. Translated by the Rev. II. 
L. Mordacque, M.A. Vol. I. (J. R. Smith.) 

" What is in a name ? " said Shakspeare ! " Notre nam 
propre e'est nous-memes," replies the Frenchman ; and M. 
Salverte's clever and elaborate History of Names, which 
M. Mordacque has translated for the benefit of English 
readers, forms only a part of a larger scheme in which the 
accomplished French Author proposes to treat of Civili- 
sation from the earliest historic "periods to the conclusion 
of the eighteenth century. No one who has read any of 
M. Salverte's writings, but must be aware of the amount 
of learning and ingenuity with which he supports his 
ofttimes very original opinions. The origin of names has 
of late years occupied a good deal of attention in this 
country. The subject interests every one, for every one 
has a name; and, as our Author observes, "our proper 
name is our individuality :" but no more interesting con- 
tribution to this peculiar branch of study has been fur- 
nished than that for which we are now indebted to the 
labours of Mr. Mordacque. 

The new number of The Quarterly Review opens with a 
very important paper on Railway Control, of which the 
means which may best be made available are, in the 
opinion of the writer, competition and publicity. The 
Autobiography of Miss Cornelia Knight, and the Life of 
Lord Castlereagh, furnish the Biographical Notices — 
always so pleasing in the Quarterly ; to which we ought 
to add, an admirable sketch of the lamented Prince Con- 
sort. The writings of Mr. Dasent and Mr. Metcalfe furnish 
materials for an instructive paper on Iceland, which is 
followed by one on the Revival of Spain. The Educa- 
tional Code, and the American Crisis, furnish the political 
ballast which every Quarterly is expected to carry. 

In the new Number of The 3Iuseu?n, Quarterly Maga- 
zine of Education, Literature, and Science, our literary 
friends, who are not interested in the able papers on edu- 
cational subjects which it contains, will find two articles 
— Aschani and his Schoolmaster and Geoffrey Chaucer — 
well deserving their perusal. 



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80 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 r <i S. I. Jan. 25, '62. 



Caricatures; and 



Evans and Wright's Historical Account of Gillray' 
Wriyht's England under the House of Hanover. 

Indoctus. In the two Books of Common Prayer, temp. King Edward 
VI, a.d. 1519 awl 15 )2, as well as in the Sealed Book of 166-', the passage 
in the Litany reads " In all time of our wealth," not weal. 

Examkn. The Marble Arch from Buckingham Palace ' ivas set up at 
Cumberland Gate, March 29, 1851. 

Corious. On the peculiar attributes of the Seventh Son, see 1st S. vols, 
iii., v., x., ands.ii. 

Zeta. The. commendatory verses prefixed to Eobert Baron's tragedy 
Mirza.,\6\7, are by J.Hall; Jo. Quarl.s, Fellow of Peter House, Cam- 
bridge; Ro. Hills, Esq.; Jo. Cary, 31. A.; and E. Manny ng : those to 



Robert JVevile's comedy, The Poor Scholar, 1662, are signed E. M. ; T. L. ; 

and W. W. In Hewlett's College Life, 3 vols. 8ro, 1842, is a dramatic 

piece of one act. entitled, "Keeping Term ; or, a. Lark to London,' ' consisting 

or five scenes: see vol. iii. pp. 2—46, Sir John Hammer's Fra Cipolla, 

1839, does not contain any dramatic piece Dolby's Apotheosis of 

Shakspeare is not in the Briti-h Museum The Rev. H. J. UrquharVs 

address is left blank in The Clergy List for 1862. 

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81 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1862. 



CONTENTS.— N» 5. 

NOTES : — Memoir of William Oldys, Esq., Norroy-King-at- 
Arrns, 81 — Mr. Dycc and I, 85 — Dutch Paper Trade, 86 — 
An Order of Merit and the lato Prince Consort, 87 — M. 
Philaretc Chasles, lb. 

Minor Notes : — Wronp; Position of the Adverb — Prohi- 
bition atraiust eating Flesh in Lent — The Hon. Reboecr 
Polliott, 88. 

QUERIES: — The Emperor Napoleon III. —'Roger As- 
cham's '* Ncholemaster," Quotations in —Browning's " Ly- 
rics"— Bibliography of Alchemy and Mysticisms — Caro- 
line Princess of Wales at Charlton —Frances JDe Burgh 
— Guildhall, Westminster — Hebrew Grammatical Ex- 
ercises — Rev. E. Mainsty, or Manisty — The Families of 
Mathews and Gough — Medahic Query — Monumental 
Elligies — Miss Peacock— Presentations at Court — Pro- 
phecy respecting the Crimean War — Routh Family — 
Starch — Turners of Eckington — Xavier and Indian Mis- 
sions, 88. 

Queries with Answers : — Buzaglia — Winkin — Rev. 
John Kettlcwell — Mr. Bruce — Lord Chancellor Cowpcr : 
Appeals of Murder — Norfolk Visitation — Richard de 
Marisco, or Marais— "A Brace of Shakes," 91. 

REPLIES :— Ornamental Tops: the Cotgreavc Forgeries 
and S pence's " Romance of Genealogy," 92 — Neil Douglas, 
lb. — Earthquakes in England, 91 — Daughters of William 
the Lion, 95 — Eastern Costume : Rebckah at the Well — 
Old MS: Pandects — Knaves' Acre — Thomas Craskell — 
Mr. Turbulent — Flight of Wild Geese and Cranes — Topo- 
graphy in Ireland — Foilles de Gletuers — "Retributive 
Justice" — William Oldys: "Bend sinister" — Danby of 
Kirkby Knowle, or New Building , &c, 95, 

Notes on Books. 



$0&& 

MEMOIR OF WILLIAM OLDYS, ESQ., 

NORROY KING-AT-ARMS. 

(Concluded from p. 64.) 

Oldys was connected with the College of Arms 
for nearly five years. His library was the large 
room up one pair of stairs in Norroy's apartments, 
in the west wing of the college, where he chiefly 
resided, and which was furnished with little else 
than books. His notes were written on slips of 
paper, which he afterwards classified and reposited 
in small bags suspended about his room. It was 
in this way that he covered several quires of 
paper with laborious collections for a complete 
Life of Shakspeare ; and from these notes Isaac 
Reed made several extracts in the Additional 
Anecdotes to Howe's Life of the Bard. 

Oldys at this time frequently passed his even- 
ings at the house of John Taylor, the cele- 
brated oculist of Hatton Garden *, where he 
always preferred the fireside in the kitchen, that 
he might not be obliged to mingle with the other 
visitors. He was so particular in his habits, that 
he could not smoke his pipe with ease till his 
chair was fixed close to a particular crack in the 
floor. " The shyness of Mr. Oldys's disposition," 
says John Taylor, jun., "and the simplicity of his 

* John Taylor of Hatton Garden was the son of the 
celebrated Chevalier Taylor, and father of John Taylor 
the author of Monsieur Tonson, and editor of The Sun 
newspaper. 



manners, had induced him to decline an introduc- 
tion to my grandfather, the Chevalier Taylor, who 
was always splendid in attire, and had been used 
to the chief societies in every court of Europe ; 
but my grandfather had heard so much of Mr. 
Oldys, that he resolved to be acquainted with 
him, and therefore one evening when Oldys was 
enjoying his philosophical pipe by the kitchen 
fire, the Chevalier invaded his retreat, and with- 
out ceremony addressed him in the Latin lan- 
guage. Oldys, surprised and gratified to find a 
scholar in a fine gentleman, threw off his reserve, 
answered him in the same language, and the col- 
loquy continued for at least two hours ; my father, 
not so good a scholar, only occasionally interpos- 
ing an illustrative remark."* 

Oldys's literary labours were now drawing to a 
close, his life having extended to nearly three- 
score years and ten. His last production was the 
Life of Charles Cotton, piscator and poet, pre- 
fixed to Hawkins's edition of Walton's Corn-pleat 
Angler, edit. 1760, which made forty-eight pages. 
It was abridged in the later editions. As we have 
elsewhere noticed ("N. & Q." 2 ud S. xi. 205), 
Dr. Towers, who compiled the Life of Cotton for 
Kippis's Biog. Briiannica, has erroneously attri- 
buted Oldys's Life of this poet to our musical knight. 
Grose informs us {Olio, p. 139), that "among 
Oldys's works is a Preface to Izaak Walton's An- 
gling." This Preface was probably no other than 
his ".Collections" for a Life of Walton. In his bio- 
graphical sketch of Charles Cotton he reminds Sir 
John Hawkins, that " as Izaak Walton did oblige 
the public with the lives of several eminent men, 
it is much that some little historical monument 
has not, in grateful retaliation, been raised and 
devoted to his memory. The few materials I, 
long since, with much search, gathered up con- 
cerning him, you have seen, and extracted I hope, 
what you found necessary for the purpose I in- 
tended them." (Page iv. See also Hawkins's 
Life of Walton in the same volume, p. xlviii.) 

William Oldys died at his apartments in the 
Heralds' College on April 15, 1761, and was 
buried on the 19th of the same month in the 
north aisle of St. Benet, Paul's Wharf, towards 
the upper end.f His friend, John Taylor of Hat- 
ton Garden, on the 20th of June, 1761, adminis- 
tered as principal creditor, defrayed the funeral 
expenses, and obtained possession of his official 
regalia, books, and valuable manuscripts. The 
original painting of William Oldys, formerly be- 
longing to Mr. Taylor, is now, we believe, in the 

* Records of my Life, i. 27. 

\ There is a discrepancy respecting the age of Oldys 
at the time of his death. On his coffin, as well as in a 
document belonging to the Heralds' College, it is stated 
to be seventy-two, and in the newspapers of that time, 
seventy-four, which would place his birth in 1687 or 1689 ; 
whereas we have in his own handwriting as the date Julv 
14, 1696. Vide Addit. MS. 4240, p. 14. 



82 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3rd S. I. Feb. 1, '62. 



possession of Mr. J. H. Burn of Bow Street ; an 
engraving from it by Balston will be found in 
The European Magazine for November,* 1796. 
He is drawn in a full-dress suit and bag-wig, and 
has the complete air of a venerable patrician. 
The following punning anagram on his own name, 
and made by himself, occurs in one of his manu- 
scripts in the British Museum ; — 

" In word and Will I am a. friend to you, 
And one friend Old is worth a hundred new." 

The printed books found in the library of Oldys, 
some of them copiously annotated, together with 
a portion of his manuscripts, were sold by Thomas 
Davies, the bookseller, on April 12, 1762. Mr. 
John Taylor, jun., has given the following ac- 
count of the dispersion of some of his manuscripts. 
He says, " Mr. Oldys had engaged to furnish a 
bookseller in the Strand, whose name was Walker, 
with ten years of the life of Shakspeare unknown 
to the biographers and commentators, but he 
died, and 'made no sign 'of the projected work. 
The bookseller made a demand of twenty guineas 
on my father, alleging that he had advanced that 
sum "to Mr. Oldys, who had promised to provide 
the matter in question. My father paid this sum 
to the bookseller soon after he had attended the 
remains of his departed friend to the grave. The 
manuscripts of Oldys, consisting of a few books 
written in a small hand, and abundantly inter- 
lined, remained long in my father's possession, 
but by desire of Dr. Percy, afterwards Bishop of 
Dromore, were submitted to his inspection, 
through the medium of Dr. Monsey, who was 
an intimate friend of Dr. Percy. They continued 
in Dr. Percy's hands some years. He had known 
Mr. Oldys in the early part of his life, and spoke 
respectfully of his character. The last volume of 
Oldys's manuscripts that I ever saw, was at my 
friend the late Mr. William GifFord's house, in James 
Street, Westminster, while he was preparing a 
new edition of the works of Shirley ; and I learned 
from him that it was lent to him by Mr. Heber. 

My friend Mr. D'Israeli is mistaken in 

saying that on 'the death of Oldys, Dr. Kippis, 
editor of the Biographia Britannica, looked over 
the manuscripts.' It was not until near thirty 
years' after the death of Oldys, that they were 
submitted to his inspection, and at his recommen- 
dation were purchased by the late Mr. Cadell."* 

Oldys was the fortunate possessor of a large 
collection of Italian Proverbs, entitled Giardino 
di Recreatione, in manuscript, by John Florio, the 
editor of a Dictionarie in Italian and English, con- 
taining commendatory verses prefixed by Matthew 
Gwinne, Samuel Daniel, and two other friends. 
This volume afterwards belonged to Sir Isaac 

* Records of my Life, pp. 28, 29. For the searching 
inquiries after the missing biographical manuscripts of 
Oldys made by Mr. Isaac D'Israeli, see his Curiosities of 
Literature, edit. 1823, iii. 476. 



Heard, from whom it passed to Mr. B. H. Bright, 
and was sold in the sale of his manuscripts, on 
June 18, 1844. (Hunter's Illustrations of Shaks- 
peare, i. 275.) 

Among other books enriched with notes by Oldys 
is that of England's Parnassus, 8vo, 1600. It was 
owing to his bibliographical erudition that the 
name of the compiler of these "Choysest Flowers" 
became known. Wood, misapprehending the in- 
formation given by Phillips in his Theatrum 
Poetarum, 1675, designated Fitz-Geffry as the 
compiler; but Oldys had discovered in one or 
two copies that the initials R. A. to the dedica- 
tory Sonnet to Sir Thomas Mounson were signed 
R. Allot. To the signature R. A.. Oldys has added 
the following note : — 

"Mr. Edmund Bolton, in his Hypercritica, mentions 
Robert Allott and Henry Constable as two good poets in 
his days. So I conclude upon the whole, that the said 
Robert Allott, the poet, was the Collector of this book. 
John Weever, in his little book of Epigrams, printed in 
3 2ino, 1600 (or the year before), yet, 1 think, quoted in 
this work, has the following lines : — 

'AdRo: Allot, and Chr: Middleton. 
1 Quick are your wits, sharp your conceits, 
Short and more sweet your lays ; 
Quick, but no wit ; sharp, no conceit, 
Short and less sweet my praise.' " 

A censure passed upon England's Parnassus by 
Oldys, in his Preface to Hayward's British Muse, 
1738, though tinctured with too much severity, is 
certainly not unfounded in its general reprehen- 
sion. He shrewdly and • sarcastically concludes 
that the book, " bad as it is, suggests one good 
observation upon the use and advantage of such 
collections, which is, that they may prove more 
successful in preserving the best parts of some 
authors, than their works themselves." Mr. War- 
ton, however, considers the extracts as made "with 
a degree of taste : " and Sir "S. Egerton Brydges 
as " very curious and valuable." The last men- 
tioned remarks (Cens. Liter, ii. 318), that the state 
of our knowledge on these subjects is materially 
altered since the time of Oldys ; who, though his 
bibliographical erudition was very eminent, could 
add, that " most of the authors were now so obso- 
lete, that not knowing what they wrote, we can 
have no recourse to their works, if still extant."* 

Oldys's annotated copy of England's Parnassus 
passed into the hands of Thomas Warton, and 
subsequently came into the possession of Colonel 
Stanley, at whose sale in April and May, 1813 
(lot 378), it was purchased by Mr. R. Triphook as 
his own speculation for 13/. 135. 

The most valuable and curious work left by 
Oldys is an annotated copy of Gerard Langbaine's 
Account of the early Dramatick Poets, Oxford, 
1691, 8vo. It has already been stated {ante, 
p. 3), that the first copy of this work with his 

* Thomas Park, in the Preface to the reprint of Eng- 
land's Parnassus, 1815. 



P* S. I. Fer. 1, »C2.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



83 



notes had passed into the hands of Mr. Coxeter. 
After Mr. Coxeter's death his books and manu- 
scripts were purchased by Osborne, and were 
offered for sale in 1748. The book in question, 
No. 10,131 in Osborne's Catalogue for that year, 
was purchased either by Theophilus Cibber, or by 
some bookseller who afterwards put it into his 
hands ; and from the notes of Oldys and Coxeter, 
the principal part of the additional matter fur- 
nished by Cibber (or rather by Shiels) for the 
Lives of the Poets, 5 vols. 12mo. 1753, was unques- 
tionably derived. Mr. Coxeter's manuscripts are 
mentioned in the title-page, to whom, therefore, 
the exclusive credit of the work is assigned, but 
which really belongs as much, if not more, to Oldys. 

Oldys purchased a second Langbaine in 1727, 
and continued to annotate it till the latest period 
of his life. This copy was purchased by Dr. 
Birch, who bequeathed it to the British Museum. 
It is not interleaved, but filled with notes written 
in the margins and between the lines in an ex- 
tremely small hand. Birch granted the loan of 
it to Dr. Percy, Bishop of Dromore, who made 
a transcript of the notes into an interleaved copy 
of Langbaine in four vols. 8vo. It was from 
Bishop Percy's copy that Mr. Joseph Haslewood 
annotated his Langbaine. He says, " His Lord- 
ship was so kind as to favour me with the loan of 
this book, with a generous permission to make 
what use of it I might think proper ; and when 
he went to Ireland, he left it with Mr. Nichols, 
for the benefit of the new edition of The Tatler, 
Spectator, and Guardian, with Notes and Illus- 
trations, to which work his Lordship was by his 
other valuable communications a very beneficial 
contributor." 

George Steevens likewise made a transcript of 
Oldys's notes into a copy of Langbaine, which at 
the sale of his library in 1800, was purchased by 
Ilichardson the bookseller for 91 ., who resold it to 
Sir S. Egerton Brydges in the same year for four- 
teen guineas. At the sale of the Lee Priory li- 
brary in 1834, it fell into the hands of Thorpe of 
Bedford- street, Covent Garden, from whom the 
late Dr. Bliss purchased it on Feb. 7, 1835, for 
nine guineas/ It is now in the British Museum. 

Malone, Isaac Reed, and the Rev. Rogers Elid- 
ing, also made transcripts of Oldys's notes. The 
Malone transcript is now at Oxford; but Rud- 
ing's has not been traced. In a cutting from one of 
Thorpe's catalogues, preserved by Dr. Bliss, it is 
stated to be in two volumes, the price 51. 5s. ; that 
Ruding transcribed them in 1784, and that his 
additions are very numerous. In Heber's Cata- 
logue (Pt. iv. No. 1215) is another copy of Lang- 
baine, with many important additions by Oldys, 
Steevens, and Reed. This was purchased by Rodd 
for 41. 4s. In 1845, Edward Vernon Utterson had 
an interleaved Langbaine. What has become of it ? 

It is scarcely possible to take up any work on 



the History of the Stage, or which treats of the 
biographies of Dramatic Writers, without finding 
these curious collectanea of Oldys quoted to illus- 
trate some or other obscure point. M The Biogra- 
graphical Memoirs I have inserted in Censura 
Literaria" remarks Sir S. E. Brydges, " have been 
principally drawn from the minute and intelligent 
inquiries, and indefatigable labours of Oldys, pre- 
served in the interleaved copy of Langbaine. 
Many of them are curious, and though parts have 
already been given to the public in the Biographia 
Dramatica, yet as they are in the originals from 
whence that work borrowed them, it became not 
only amusing but useful to record them in their 
own form and words." 

In the British Museum (Addit. MS. 12,523) is 
a manuscript volume, in Oldys's hand writing, of 
miscellaneous extracts for a work with the follow- 
ing title : " The Patron ; or a Portraiture of Pa- 
tronage and Dependency, more especially as they 
appear in their Domestick Light and Attitudes. 
A Capital Piece drawn to the Life by the Hands 
of several Eminent Masters in the great School of 
Experience, and addressed to a Gentleman, who 
upon the loss of Friends, was about to settle in a 
great Family." 

The subjoined catalogue of the books found in 
Oldys's library at the time of his death, cannot 
fail to interest every one curious in bibliography. 

Ojldys's Library and Manuscript Woeks.* 

The collection of books formed by this accurate 
and laborious antiquary, through whose exertions 
English literature and bibliography have been so 
essentially improved, was purchased by Thomas 
Davies, author of The Life of Garricli, and 
offered for sale in "A Catalogue of the Libraries 
of the late William Oldys, Esq. Norroy King-at- 
Arms (author of The Life of Sir Walter Baleigh) ; 
the Rev. Mr. Emms of Yarmouth, and Mr. Wm. 
Rush, which will begin to be sold on Monday, 
April 12 [1762], by Thomas Davies." 

The trifling prices which were asked for some 
books that are now esteemed amongst the scarcest 
in the language, will amuse the bibliomaniac of 
the present day, who, if his wishes tend towards 
the collection of early literature, not so much on 
the score of its rarity as from its utility, will as- 
suredly lament that he did not live at a period 
when his taste and desires could have been so 
readily gratified. 

The charge for that invaluably illustrated copy 
of Langbaine f must astonish those who are ac- 

* From Frv's Bibliographical Memoranda, -Ito. Bristol, 
1816, p. 33. 

f Mr. Fry is not correct. The famed annoted Lang- 
I baine, purchased of Davies by Dr. Birch for one guinea, is 
I the edition of 1091. It would appear, however, from lot 
1511 of the above list, that Oldys had commenced anno- 
| tating Giidon's edition of 1G99. 



84 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3* d S. I. Feb. 1, '62. 



quainted with the large sums which have been re- 
quired for transcripts only of those important 
additions to our dramatic biography. 

227. Nicolson's Historical Libraries, with a great num- 
ber of MS. additions, references, &c. by the late Wm. 
Oldys, very fair 21. 2s. 1736. [Now in the British Mu- 
seum. ] 

230. Fuller's Worthies of England, with MS. correc- 
tions, &c. by Mr. Oldys.* A price had originally been 
attached to this article, but is obliterated, apparently by 
the publisher.! 

268. Linschoten's Voyages to the East Indies, with a 
great many cuts, black-letter, 12s. Gd.% 

593. A Collection of scarce and valuable Old Plays, 
most of them in small quarto, amounting in all to above 
450, with a written catalogue [no price.] 

705. Virgil, translated into Scottish Meter, by Gawin 
Douglas. Black-letter, Lond. 1553. 5s.§ 

717. Complaints, containing Sundry Poems of the 
World's Vanity, by Ed. Spenser, the Author's own edi- 
tion, 1591. 2s. Gd. 

.719. The Book which is called the Body of Poly eye, 
black-letter, very fair, 1521. 5s. 

720. The Book of Faleonrie and Hawking, with Cuts, 
black-letter, 1611. The Noble Art of Hunting, with Cuts, 
black-letter, 1611, very fair. 6s. 

725. Cooper's Chronicle, black-letter, neat, 1560. 3s. 

728. Milton's Paradise Lost, in Ten Books, first edi- 
tion, verv fair, 1669. 5s. 

736. Whetstone's English Mirror, 1586. Crowley's 
Answer to Powndes Six Reasons, 1581 : black-letter. 3s. 

738. Goulart's Admirable 'and Memorable History of 
the Times, Englished by Grimeston, 1607. 2s. 

832. Enemy to Unthryftiness, a perfect Mirrour for 
Magistrates, by Whetstone, and six other Curious Tracts. 
7s. Gd. 

836. Lavaterus of Ghosts and Spirits walking by 
Night; of straunge Noises, Crackes, &c, black-letter, 
1596. A Thousand Notable Things of Sundry Sortes, by 
Lupton ; black-letter, no date, and three others. 6s. 

852. Hyperius's Practice of Preaching, translated by 
Ludham, black-letter, 1577. Tragical History of the 
Troubles and Civill Warres of the Low Countries, black- 
letter, 1581. 4s. 

1511. Lives and Characters of the English Dramatick 
Poets, by Langbaine and Gildon, with MS. additions by 
Oldys, 1699. 3s. Gd. 

1683. The British Librarian, six numbers in boards, 
1738. Is. Gd. 

1684. The same, bound. 2s. 

* " This copy," says Mr. Fiy, " was purchased at the 
sale of George Steevens's library by the late Mr. Malone, 
in whose collection it still remains." Mr. Isaac DTsraeli 
states, however, that Steevens's copy contained a tran- 
script of Oldys's notes. He says, ''The late Mr. Boswell 
showed me a Fuller [ Worthies'] in the Malone collection, 
with Steevens's transcription of Oldys's notes, which 
Malone purchased for 43/. at Steevens's sale ; but where 
is the original copy? " (Curiosities of Literature, Second 
Series, iii. 469, ed. 1823.) In Steevens's Sale Catalogue 
it is thus described : " Lot 1799. Fuller (Thos.) Worthies 
of England, a very fine copy in russia, with the portrait 
by Loggan, and Index ; a most extraordinary and match- 
less book, the late Mr. Steevens having bestowed uncom- 
mon pains in transcribing every addition to render it 
valuable, written in his peculiarly neat manner, fol. 
Lond. 1662." 

t The price was 11. lis. 6d. — Bolton Corney. 

X At the Roxburghe sale it fetched 10Z. 15s. 

§ At the Roxburghe sale it fetched 71. 7s. 



2449. A Manifest Detection of the most vyle and de- 
testable Use of DicePlav, black-letter, sewed, 1552. ls.6d 

2450. Vaughan's Golden Grove, 1600. Is. 
2554. Wit and Drollerv, 1682. Is. 

2569. Stevenson's Norfolk Drollery, 1673.* Is, 

2570. Shakespeare's Poems, 1640. Is. 

2572. Vilvain's Epitome of Essays, 1654. Is. Gd. 

2573. Collop's Poesie Reviv'd, 1656. Is. 

2574. Wit Restor'd, 1658. Is. 6d. 

2575. Wits' Recreation, 1640. ls.f 

2579. Palingenius's Zodiake of Life, Englished by 
Googe, black-letter, 1565. 2s. Gd. 

2580. Dunton's Maggots, 1685. Is. Gd. 

2581. The Muses' Recreation, 1656. Is. 

2633. Lingua: or the Combat of the Tongue, 1657. 
Is. Gd. 

2634. Lilly's Six Court Comedies, 1632. 2s. 
%* The last twelve articles are in verse. 

William Oldys's Manuscripts. 

3612. Catalogue of Books and Pamphlets relating to 
the City of London, its Laws, Customs, Magistrates ; its 
Diversions, Public Buildings; its Misfortunes, viz. Plagues, 
Fires, &c, and of every thing that has happened remark- 
able in London from 1521 to 1759, with some occasional 
remarks. Folio. J 

Quarto. 

3613. Of London Libraries; with Anecdotes of Collec- 
tors of Books, Remarks on Booksellers, and of the first 
publishers of Catalogues. [Printed in " N. & Q." 2 nd S. 
vol. xi.] 

3614. Epistolas G. Morley ad Jan. Ulitium. 

3615. Catalogue of graved Prints of our most eminent 
countrymen, belonging to Mr. 01dy3. 

3616. Orationes habitaj in N. C. 1655 : English verses. 

3617. Memoirs relating to the Family of Oldys. [In 
British Museum, Addit. MS. 4240.] 

3618. Barcelona: or the Spanish Expedition under 
the Conduct of the Right Hon. the Earl of Peterborough ; 
a Poem by Mr. Farquhar, never before published. [This 
seems to have been copied from the printed edition. — 
Bolton Corney. ~] 

* About this period many books were published with a 
similar title, such as Songs of Love and Drollery, 1654; 
Bristol Drollerv, 1656 ; Sportive Wit, or the Lusty Drol- 
lery, 1656 ; Holborn Drollery, 1672 ; Grammatical Drol- 
ler, 1682 ; all in verse. — Fry. 

•j- Fetched at the Roxburghe sale, 4Z. 8s. 

+ Gough (British Topog. ed 1780, i. 567) informs 
us, that "he had been favoured by George Steevens, 
Esq., with the use of a thick folio of titles of books 
and pamphlets relative to London, and occasionally to 
Westminster and Middlesex, from 1521 to 1758, collected 
by the late Mr. Oldys ; with many others added, as it 
seems in another hand. Among them are many purely 
historical, and many of too low a character to rank under 
the head of topography or history. The rest, which are 
very numerous, I have inserted marked O, with correc- 
tions, &c, of those I had myself collected. Mr. Steevens 
purchased this MS. of T. Davies, who bought Mr. 
Oldys's library. It had been in the hands of Dr. Berken- 
hout, who had a design of publishing an English Topo- 
grapher, and may possibly have inserted the articles in a 
different hand. 51. 5s. is the price in the first leaf. In 
a smaller MS. Mr. Oldys says he had inserted 360 arti- 
cles in the folio, April 12, 1747, and that the late Alder- 
man Billers had a fine collection of tracts, &c, relating to 
London." — " Mr. Oldys's collection of titles for London 
have passed from Mr. Steevens to Sir John Hawkins." 
(Ib. i. 761*.) Sir John Hawkins's library was destroyed 
by fire. 



3** S. I. Feb. 1, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85 



3G19. The Life of Augustus, digested into fifty-nine 
Schemes, by James Robey. 

Octavo et infra. 

3620. The Apophthegms of the English Nation, con- 
taining above 500 memorable sayings of noted Persons, 
being a Collection of Extempore Wit, more copious than 
any hitherto published. [It was probably founded on a 
MS. collection of earlier date. — Life of Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh. — Bolton Cornei/. ] 

3621. Description of all Kinds of Fish. 

3622. The British Arhorist; being a Natural, Philolo- 
gical, Theological, Poetical, Mythological, Medicinal, 
and Mechanical History of Trees, principally native to this 
Island, -with some Select Exoticks, &c. Not finished. 

3623. Description of Trees, Plants, &c. [Addit. MS. 
20,724.] 

3624. Collection of Poems written above one hundred 
years since. 

3625. Trinarchodia : the several Raignes of Richard 
II., Henry IV., and Henry V. in verse, supposed to be 
written 1650. [This volume became the property of J. 
P. Andrews : Park describes it, Restituta, iv. 166. — Bol- 
ton Corner/. ~\ 

3626. Collection of Poems by Mr. Oldys. 

3627. Mr. Oldys's Diarj', containing several Observa- 
tions relating to Books, Characters, &c. [Printed in 
" N. & Q." 2"d S> voL xi> ] 

3628. Collections of Observations and Notes on various 
subjects. 

3629. Memorandum Book, containing as above. 

1 3630. Table of Persons celebrated by the English Poets. 

3631. Catalogue of MSS. written by Lord Clarendon. 

3632. Names of English Writers, and Places of their 
Burial, &c. 

3633. Description of Flowers, Plants, Roots, &c. 
*3633. Description of all Kinds of Birds. [See Addit. 

MS. 20,725.] 

" So end," says Mr. Fry, " the minutiae of this 
curious Catalogue, which I have thought it not 
incurious to record, more especially as Mr. Dibdin, 
whilst noticing the interleaved Langbaine, in his 
Bibliomania, does not seem to have been aware of 
its passing through the hands of the humble friend 
of Dr. Johnson." 

Here we must terminate our notice of this dis- 
tinguished writer and indefatigable antiquary, 
whose extended life was entirely devoted to lite- 
rary pursuits, and whose copious and characteristic 
accounts of men and books, have endeared his 
memory to every lover of English literature. If 
Oldys possessed not the erudition of Johnson or 
of Maittaire, he had at least equal patience of in- 
vestigation, soundness of judgment, and accuracy 
of criticism, with the most eminent of his contem- 
poraries. One remarkable trait in his character 
was the entire absence of literary and posthu- 
mous fame, whilst he never begrudged his labour 
or considered his toil unproductive, so long as his 
researches substantiated Truth, or promoted the 
study of the History of Literature, which in other 
words is the history of the mind of man. Hence 
the very sweepings of his library have since been 
industriously collected, and enrich the works of 
Malone, Ritson, Heed, Douce, Brydges, and 



others, and will always serve, as it were, for land- 
marks to those following in his wake. In his own 
peculiar departments of literature — history and 
biography — he has literally exhausted all the 
ordinary sources of information ; and when he 
lacked the opportunity to labour himself, or to fill 
up the circle of his knowledge, he has neverthe- 
less pointed out to his successors new or unex- 
plored mines, whence additional facts may be 
gleaned, and the object of his life — the develop- 
ment of Truth — be secured. 



MR. DYCE AND L 

I may venture, I hope, to set myself right with 
the readers of " JSL & Q." respecting a grave 
charge of most abject printer-worship brought 
against me, and I think rather maliciously, by 
Mr. Dyce. It was done four years ago, but I never 
knew of it till within the last few days, when I 
read for the first time Mr. Dyce's Preface to his 
Shakspeare. In that Preface, after quoting the 
extravagant opinions of Horne Tooke and Mr. 
Knight respecting the merits of the folio of 1623, 
Mr. Dyce proceeds : — 

" The latest champion of the folio, and one determined 
to go all lengths in its defence, is Mr. Keightle3 r ; who 
(' N. & Q.' 2 nd S. iv. 263,) ' does not despair ' of seeing 
some future editor print, with the folio, in As You Like 
It, Act II. Sc. 3. : — 

' From seventy years till now, almost fourscore,'" 
Here lived I, but now live here no more. 
At seventeen years many their fortunes seek," 
But at fourscore it is too late a week.' 
" (Poor Rowe ! when he altered 4 From seventy years ' 
to 1 From seventeen years,' he fancied that he had made 
an emendation which was fully confirmed by the third 
line of the passage)." 

Now is not the animus here bad, and the ob- 
ject of the writer to hold me up to ridicule ? And 
would not anyone, at all acquainted with my 
literary character, have presumed that I must 
have been writing ironically ? And so in effect 
I was ; though I must confess that, in the full 
persuasion that no one could suspect me of such 
blind stupidity as I am here charged with, I ex- 
pressed myself very carelessly and very loosely. 

I was — in accordance with an established rule 
of criticism, of which mayhap Mr. Dyce may know 
nothing — showing that in Titanias speech (71/ id. 
Night's Dream, Act II. Sc. 1.) — " When thou 
ivast stolen away from fairy-land" — was probably 
the true reading ; and I then proceeded thus : 

" I trust now that some future editor will take wast 
into favour, ' print it and shame the rogues'; fori do 
not despair of even 4 From seventy years till now almost 
fourscore,' in As You Like It, resuming possession of the 
text as 'the sweet sound that breathes upon a bank of 
violets ' has recently done in Twelfth Night." 

Now I ivas writing ironically ; though, for the 
reason above given, I expressed myself most in- 



86 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. i. Feb. i, '62. 



adequately ; and my meaning was, that since such 
an absurdity as a sound breathing had been brought 
back into the text, and there was no saying to 
what lengths of absurdity future editors might go, 
a right reading such as wast stood a very fair 
chance of being recalled. That I say was my 
meaning, but expressed most carelessly. 

I can tell Mr. Dyce that, in critical sagacity, I 
consider myself at least his equal ; and I will set 
my Milton against anything he has ever done. 
It is true I am not so well-read as he is in old 
plays, pamphlets, and broadsheets ; but I have 
studied criticism in the writings of the great Ger- 
man commentators on the Scriptures and the 
Classics, and I go to work by rule, not by hap- 
hazard, as our Shaksperian critics in general seem 
to do. As an instance of my sagacity compared 
with Mr. Dyce's, I may refer to the correction of 
two passages in Peele's Edward given in " N. 
& Q." this time two years. Of these Mr. Dyce, 
the editor of two editions of Peele's Works, could 
make nothing, and I corrected them — the one 
with certainty, the other with great probability — 
the very first time I read the play. I finally say 
to Mr. Dyce : — 

" If there's a hole in a' your coats, 
I recle you tent it " : 

for I consider myself now at liberty to expose his 
critical short-comings, which are by no means 
few. Thos. Keightlet. 



DUTCH PAPER-TRADE. 
The following is from a communication in 
Dutch, kindly drawn up, at my request in 1859, 
by Mr. J. Honigh, junr., one of the most eminent 
papermakers at Zaandijh, in North Holland: — 

" The manufacturing of paper in the seven United 
Provinces was commenced in 1613 by Martin Orges, a 
fugitive from France, his fatherland, for religion's sake. 

" Orges soon found a fit place for establishing his 
manufacture in the streamy commune of Uchelen, near 
Apeldoorn, in Guelderland: and there ten paper-mills, 
lor aught we know, are still working, as if in pious con- 
tinuation of the impulse given by him. The first mill 
was, of course, moved by water, and reduced the rags 
with stampers to the requisite p'ulp. 

" But when, in 1672, Louis XIV. for a short time had 
conquered the province of Guelderland, many of those 
who, after Orges's example, had erected factories in the 
neighbourhood of Apeldoorn, now betook themselves to 
North Holland, and principally to the so-called Zaan ; 
where, at that period, most of the branches of industry 
flourishing in the Netherlands, the art of paper-making 
included, were exercised. For it should also be kept in 
mind that, as early as 1616, there already existed a 
paper-mill at Westzaan, and posterior to that date many 
were the mills built alongside the river. These, how- 
ever, were all windmills, and only served for the fabrica- 
tion of grey and blue paper: but, after the influx of emi- 
grants from Guelderland in 1672, first Pieter van der Ley, 
and afterwards Jacob and Adriaan Honigh, all of them 
resident millers, acceding to the proposal of their home- 
less brethren, also raised white paper factories : and so 



this triumvirate laid the foundation for a new industry, 
which soon reached a high degree of prosperity ; and, by 
its perfection, acquired a European reputation. 

" The paper, which till that period was used in Europe, 
for the most part came from Italy, Genoa being the port 
that shipped the largest quantities, and had the most 
extended trade in that sort of commodity. When, how- 
ever, the Hollanders once had become thoroughly fami- 
liar with the dipper's art, our Dutch article, being of 
greater value and minor price, soon superseded the Italian 
imports; and, ere long, even mounted the distinctive 
water- marks of the several countries dealt with: as, for 
instance, the arms of London or of Venice, the French 
lilies, &c. Yes, I even do not think I say too much, by 
asserting, that the time was when the Low Countries 
provided the whole of Europe with this peculiar ware ; 
and that, in commendation of a new book, it was ex- 
pressly stated 'to be printed on Dutch paper.' This cele- 
brity it owed to the good materials resorted to (rags of 
sterling Dutch linen abounding), to their nice sifting, 
and to the cleanliness and solidity of manufacture, which 
allowed the same quality to be permanently delivered. 
But it was principally by the invention of a revolving 
cylinder, instead of the old stampers or hammers, our 
Netherlands article realised that degree of fineness and 
consistence which formed its material boast. And, albeit 
the inventor of this simple and beautiful contrivance is 
to us unknown, so much is certain, that the foreigner 
still honours the man who devised it, by calling it ' the 
Hollander: 

" The decline of our paper trade dates from the incor- 
poration of Holland with France; and from the contin- 
ental system, instituted by Napoleon. This partly trans- 
ferred our mart to other lands that formerly did either 
not manufacture their own paper, or, till that time, had 
only produced an inferior quality. And so it was that, 
after the peace of 1815, only a portion of the old customers 
— those who, between whiles, had not been taught to help 
themselves — returned: whilst those who had, had in the 
interim invented the, till then, unknown vellum-paper. 
The neighbourly nations now also protected their newly- 
raised mills by duties on importation : competition in- 
creased, and ephemeral literature only desired gloss 
without solidity. So, in 1802, the Dutch fabricators also 
began to issue the new commodity, and with good suc- 
cess ; but, alas! vellum-paper was only the forerunner of 
mechanical fabrication ; and this signed, as it were, the 
death-warrant of most of the hand paper-mills. For the 
new production, by its cheapness, softness, and faded 
whitewash, soon not only superseded the mass of the 
sterling article, but also was used for purposes that, in 
the first place, demanded durability. This even went so 
far, that, some fifteen years ago, our government had to 
decree that, for deeds and the like, no vellum-paper 
might be employed. No wonder that the manufacture of 
the present century — bearing, as it does, the signs of its 
hectic caducity in the whiteness produced by deleterious 
means — is not likely to exist for two centuries and 
longer, to testify, like the old samples of our fabric, to 
the excellence of the materials used. 

" However, as the spirit of the times necessitated, 
mechanical paper-makers were also erected in Guelder- 
land and the Zaan-regions, but only at a loss. Higher 
wages than in foreign lands, coals to be bought from our 
competitors, who had them at prime- cost, engines to be 
ordered from England and Belgium — such were the cir- 
cumstances under which we had to accept the challenge 
given. Most of the oldest firms declined it. Thus the 
mills, that in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
had mustered to between thirty and forty, already in 1847 
had diminished at the Zaan to twentj'-one, of which 
but two were mechanical fabricators : and now there exist 



3 rd S. I. Feb. 1, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



87 



but thirteen, only one amongst them after the new fashion. 
Of these thirteen, only three manufacture white paper; 
whilst the others, one mechanically, furnish grey and 
blue paper and paste-board. In Guelderland, under this 
reign of cotton, nearly the same state of things exists ; but 
that the mills there are much more circumscribed in ex- 
tension, and produce smaller quantities. With the ex- 
ception of two, they are all driven by water; and so are 
much less expensive in construction and repair than the 
factories at the Zaan, where wind is the motive power, 
and the structure of the flights and corresponding wheels 
costs a great deal in making, and not a little in keeping. 
Add to this, that in Guelderland the water can be used 
which turns the mill ; whilst at the Zaan every factory 
requires an extensive plot of ground, intersected by 
canals ; and a costly apparatus to boot, for purifying the 
water fiom salt and sulphureous matters. It was this 
that occasioned in olden time a rivalry between the two 
concurrent districts — the one being able to furnish, 
especially the minor sorts, at a much cheaper rate ; the 
other executing its orders, and increasing them by the 
greatest solidity and better looks of the article fabri- 
cated. So the finer qualities of the Zaan are still in de- 
mand amongst foreigners, as are the several varieties of 
packing-paper. 

" In the present time, there does not seem to be a 
further falling off; and there even would be a develop- 
ment in the trade, if the foreign powers did away with 
their protecting duties." 

John H. van Lennep. 

Zeyst, near Utrecht. 



AN ORDER OF MERIT AND THE LATE 
PRINCE CONSORT. 

Few persons will deny that an " Order of 
Merit" is very much required to reward those 
who have distinguished themselves in science 
and art. 

Might not an Order be instituted to perpetuate 
in a graceful form the imperishable memory of 
him who laboured so long, so zealously and suc- 
cessfully, to revive art in this country ? Would 
not the " Order of the Albert Cross " be a fitting 
and lasting memorial to the zeal and genius of 
the illustrious dead, whose good works will live 
after him for generations yet to come? We have 
already the " Victoria Cross " for deeds done in 
the held ; might we not have the pendant to it, 
for exploits no less worthy in the peaceful paths 
of science ? J. W. Bryans. 



M. PHILARETE CHASLES. 

We owe to M. Philarete Chasles, Conservateur 
de la Bibliotheque Mazarine*, the solution of a 
Shakspere problem which has resisted all the 
efforts of our "homely wits." What was visible 
to every one had been seen by no one ! 

It was formerly a national boast that Samuel 
Johnson had " beat forty French " — but here is 
a Frenchman who has routed a whole army of 
English editors, annotators, pamphleteers, etc. 

The discovery relates to the inscription which 

[* See Athenaum of Saturday last. — Ed.] 



precedes the Sonnets of our dramatist in the au- 
thoritative edition of 1609, entitled — 

" Shake-speares sonnets, Neuer before imprinted. At 
London By G. Eld for T. T. [Thomas Thorpe] and are to 
be solde by William Aspley, 1G09," 4° 40 leaves. In 
some copies, for William Aspley we have Iohn Wright, 
dwelling at Christ-church gate, 1G09. 

The mysterious inscription, which occupies the 
recto of the second leaf, was given by Mr. Steevens 
with commendable exactness in 176G, and is thus 
printed : — 

TO . THE . ONLIE . BEGETTER . OF . 
THESE . INSVING . SONNETS . 
Ml' . W. II . ALL . HAPPINESSE 
AND . THAT . ETERNITIE . 
PROMISED . 

BY . 

OVR . EVER-LIVING . POET . 

WISHETH . 

THE . WELL-WISHING . 
ADVENTVRER . IN . 
SETTING . 
FORTH . 

T. T. 

This inscription should be considered with re- 
ference to its peculiarities. A point after each 
word is no punctuation. The bare words must 
therefore decide the sense. It has hitherto passed 
as one inscription. Now, M. Chasles suggests that 
the real inscription ends with the word wisheth, 
and that the rest was added by Mr. Thorpe. 

I have described the explanation of M. Chasles 
as a suggestion, but it is almost a demonstration. 
Acting on that conviction, I shall briefly report 
my own inferences, and proceed to justify them by 
admitted facts and probable circumstances. 

I now firmly believe that the begetter of the 
sonnets was the earl of Southampton — that Wil- 
liam Herbert, afterwards earl of Pembroke, wrote 
the real inscription — and that Mr. Thorpe did 
no more than express his wishes for the success of 
the publication. 

In 1593 Shakspere dedicated his Venus and 
Adonis to the earl of Southampton as " the first 
heir of his invention." In 1594 he chose the same 
patron for his Lucrece, and made this declaration : 
" What I have done is yours, what I have to do is 
yours." Did he forget this promise? I must 
either tax him with ingratitude, or assume that 
he wrote the sonnets as the fulfilment of that 
promise. The existence of " his sugred Sonnets 
among his priuate friends " was announced by 
Meres in 1598 — and they may have closely fol- 
lowed Lucrece. At a later date he had other 
cares, and other occupations. 

William Herbert was born at Wilton in 1580, 
and succeeded to the earldom of Pembroke in 
1601. As he had been educated at Oxford, and 
was of a lively turn, we may account for his adop 



88 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. I.Teb. 1, »62. 



tion of the classical form of inscription, of which 
no doubt there were examples at Wilton. If it was 
written in the life-time of his father, his own 
designation was correct ; and if written about the 
year 1600, there was much reason to conceal the 
name of the earl of Southampton. 

I now come to Mr. Thorpe. How did he ob- 
tain the MS.? There is no evidence on that 
point, but the expression Never before imprinted 
seems to prove that he was aware of the date of 
their composition. He may have had various 
reasons for avoiding an advertisement. 

One word more. — Thorpe was a humorist, as 
his dedication of a certain poetical volume to Ed- 
ward Blount testifies, but his epigraphic humor, 
and the injudicious punctuation of Malone in suc- 
cessive editions, have led wiser men astray. 

Barnes, S.W. Bolton Cornet. 



Wrong Position of the Adverb. — May I be 
permitted, Mr. Editor, through your columns, to 
raise my feeble voice against a perversion which I 
am sorry to see is rapidly creeping into our lan- 
guage ? So long as it was only employed by 
those classes who inform you that " they ain't 
going, and don't want to," it was not of much 
consequence ; but it is now invading the pages of 
some of our best writers, and has even appeared 
in the polished " leaders " of The Times. I allude 
to the placing of the adverb between the prepo- 
sition and the verb : e. g. " We are anxious to 
entirely get rid of it." Will no influential gram- 
marian arrest this transatlantic intruder into the 
Queen's English, and banish it from good society 
and correct diction, for the term of its natural 
life ? Hermentrude. 

Prohibition against eating Flesh in Lent. 
— One of the old "Sessions Books," at Wells, 
abounds with instances such as that which is here 
transcribed, which is dated Feb. 1st, 1 Charles I. 
The magistrates present at the Sessions were : 
Virtue Hunt, Mayor; John Baker, Esq., Re- 
corder ; and Bartholomew Cox, Justice ; when 
William Myllard, tailor, and J. Gibbons, glover, 
were bound, in the penalty of 10Z., as sureties for 
Henry Batt, tippler, who was also bound in a 
similar sum : — 

" The Condition of the Recognizance is such that yf 
the aboue bounden Henry Batt, nither by hymself, or by 
any other by his Com'andment, nor for his vse or good, 
shall kill, eate, or dresse, or suffer to be killed, eaten, or 
dressed, in his howse in Welles, or in any other place 
w'thin the said Citty or burrow of Welles, any Flesh this 
p'sent tyme of Lent, or days p'hibited by the law. Then 
this Recognizance to be voyed." 

Ina. 

The Hon. Rebecca Folliott. — In the register 
of the parish of Trysull, co. Stafford, I find the 
following entry : " Rebecca, daughter of the Right 



Honble. Henry Lord Folliott, died Sept. 5, 1697," 
and as I imagine that the very last place in which 
the record of burial of the daughter of an Irish 
peer would be sought, to be in the register of a 
small and little-known parish in Staffordshire, I 
may be doing a service to the compiler, present or 
future, of the Folliott pedigree, by thus " making 
a note " of what I have " found." 

Sir Henry Folliott was cr. Baron Folliott of 
Bally shannon, in the county of Donegal, in 1619, 
which peerage became extinct at his death in 1630. 
His eldest daughter, Elizabeth, was twice married : 
by her first husband (Wingfield) she was ances- 
tress of the noble house of Powerscourt ; and fey her 
second (Ponsonby) of that of Bessborough. S. T. 



The Emperor Napoleon III. — In some of the 
daily papers there have been statements relating 
to the intimacy which existed between the Earl of 
Malmesbury and the Emperor Napoleon III. during 
the time the latter was an exile in Switzerland ; 
and an account of a daring feat is mentioned as 
witnessed by Lord Malmesbury, which convinced 
him that the Prince was a man of extraordinary 
boldness and determination. 

I have heard his Lordship relate this story with 
some slight variation ; but my object in recurring 
to it, is to suggest how interesting it would be if 
persons who were intimate with the Prince Na- 
poleon when a sojourner in this country would 
contribute to your columns any facts known to 
them, which tend to exhibit the true character of 
the man while sometime resident amongst us. 

I remember the time when he was held up to 
ridicule almost by the whole press of this country. 
Yet there were some who then foretold his coming 
greatness, while the multitude charged him with 
folly and rashness. The late W. Brockedon, 
author of the Passes of the Alps, and the father of 
the Graphic Society, was well acquainted with the 
Prince's habits, and I recollect his saying at the 
period when the Prince (amidst much derision) 
was aspiring to become the President of the 
French Republic, — " Mark my words, that man 
is not the fool people take him for ; he only waits 
an opportunity to show himself one of the most 
able men in Europe," justifying his prediction by 
relating a discussion he had heard at a public 
meeting, between the Prince and some civil en- 
gineers, respecting a projected railway across the 
Isthmus of Panama, in which the former displayed 
great ability, showing an amount of scientific 
knowledge which amazed every body present; 
not only stating his case with clearness, but com- 
bating all objections in a most masterly way. 
Now it certainly would be worth while to collect, 
through the medium of " N. & Q.," some further 
information respecting the habits of this remark- 



3 rd S. I Feb. 1, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



89 



able man during Lis residence in England. The 
antecedents of the most powerful sovereign in 
Europe cannot fail to be interesting to many of 
your readers. Benj. Ferrey. 

Roger Ascham's " Scholemaster," Quota- 
tions in (ed. 1570). — I shall be much obliged by 
a reference to the sources of the following pas- 
sages. As I have nearly finished printing a new 
edition of Ascham's treatise, I may be allowed to 
urge the importance of an early reply. 

Fol. 8, verso, ad fin. from Aristot. lihet, 2. : " Libertie 
kindleth love: Love refuseth no labor; and labor ob- 
teyneth what' so ever it seeketb." 

Ascham cannot allude to Rhet. ii. 19, §§ 13, 18, 
19? 

Fol. 11, recto: "We remember nothing so well when 
we be olde, as those thinges which we learned when we 
were yong . . . new wax is best for printyng . . . new 
shorne wooll, aptest for sone and surest dying : new fresh 
flesli, for good and durable salting. And this similitude 
is not rude; nor borowed of the larder house, but out of 
his scholehouse, of whom the wisest of England neede not 
be ashamed to learne." 

The "proverb of Birching lane" ( U N. & Q." 
2 nd S. i. 2o4) seems still to require explanation. 
Who is Mr. Brokhe, fol. 35, verso ? t 

" Soch kind of Paraphrasis, in turning, chopping, and 
changing the best to worse, either in the mynte or scholes 
(though M. Brokhe and Quintilian both say the contrary), 
is moch misliked of the best and wisest men." 

Fol. 65, recto : " That good councell of Aristotle, lo- 
quendum ut multi, sapiendum ut pauci." 

John E. B. Mayor. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 

Browning's "Lyrics."— One of Robert Brown- 
ing's Dramatic Lijrics is called " How they brought 
the Good News from Ghent to Aix." On what 
historical incident is the poem founded ? Exon, 

Bibliography or Alchemy and Mysticisms. 

— What works on this subject exist in Latin, 
English, French, Italian, or Spanish ? Delta. 

Caroline Princess of Wales at Charlton. 

— A short time since, whilst looking through some 
papers relating to the unfortunate Princess Caro- 
line of Wales, I found a portion of one sentence 
as follows : — 

" She (the Princess) afterwards removed from Carlton 
House to Charlton, where she was visited by the King." 

Can any of your readers inform me whether 
the Charlton referred to is the village of that 
name near Woolwich ? whether the house occu- 
pied by the princess is standing, and in what 
part of Charlton ? Or, if pulled down, where is 
its site ? D. S. T. 

Frances De Burgh. — Will any reader of ?*JNT. 
& Q." kindly inform me who was the mother of 
Frances De Burgh, daughter of Thomas De 
Burgh, sixth Baron ; and sister of Robert De 
Burgh, seventh Baron of Gainsborough, bearing, 



I think, a shield azure, three fleurs-de-lys, er- 
mines ? This Frances De Burgh married Francis, 
second son of Thomas Coppinger of Stoke, co. 
Kent, Esq., and had issue. W. Bryan Cooke. 
Pisa, in Tuscany. 

Guildhall, Westminster. — Mr. Scott, in his 
Gleanings from Westminster Abbey (p. 88), says 
that the old Guildhall stood at the west side of 
King Street, about fifty feet to the south of Great 
George Street. "An ancient painting representing 
it — perhaps the gift of a Duke of Northumber- 
land — was transferred to the walls of the present 
Sessions House." Where is this old painting ? It 
is not in the Sessions House now ; nor has it been 
seen there by those who have known the building 
for the last thirty years. 

According to Widmore (p. 11), the present 
Sessions House was built in 1805, on the site of 
the old belfry tower. I was told many years ago, 
by an old inhabitant of Westminster, that in dig- 
ging the foundation for the present structure, a 
subterraneous passage was discovered, apparently 
leading to the Abbey ; but so choked up, as not to 
be traced to any distance. Was any notice of 
this taken in the magazines or newspapers of the 
time, or is such a passage known to exist ? 

F. SoMNER MERRYWEATHER. 

Colney Hatch. 

Hebrew Grammatical Exercises. — Is there 
any Hebrew grammar, written in German or 
English containing exercises for translating into 
Hebrew, besides those of Grafenham, Wolfe, and 
Hurwitz ? Many of the leading grammarians — as 
Gesenius, Nordheimer, Ewald, &c. — appear to 
rest satisfied with an analysis of the language, 
and omit all exercises which are certainly neces- 
sary to imprint rules upon the memory of 

A Student. 

Rev. E. Mainsty, or Manisty, a divine of the 
Church of England, in the time of the Great 
Rebellion ; and, by his own account, author of a 
sermon on Canticles ii. 1,2; and also of an un- 
published Commentary on the whole Song of 
Solomon, which he dedicated (and presented as a 
New Year's gift) to the Lady Anne Lexington in 
1648. The MS. of the last mentioned formerly 
belonged to the collection of Dr. A. Clarke. Who 
was Mainsty ; or where may information concern- 
ing him be found? W. K. 

The Families of Mathews and Gougii. — 
In Philip Henry's Day-Book, now in my posses- 
sion, there is a pedigree of his wife's family, 
Mathews of Broad Oak, given in the handwriting 
of his son Mathew Henry. It consists of nineteen 
generations ; beginning with Bleddyn ap Kinwyn, 
Meredith, Madock, Enion, Rhyn, &c, &c; and 
comes down to another "Madock" (28th of 
Henry VI.), who is said to have married " Mar- 
garet, daughter and heir to Mathew Gougb, Esq., 



9C 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. l Feb. 1, to. 



a great Captain in France." I should be glad of 
any information about this M. Gough, whose arms 
were : " Az. three boars ar., pass, in pale." 

The arms of the Mathews are not given with 
their pedigree, nor have I found them quartered 
upon any of the Henry or Warburton monu- 
ments. Can any of your readers inform me 
whether the names above given are of historical 
note in Wales ? Whether the " Mathews " family 
in South Wales trace up to^the same ancestors ? 
And what their arms are ? Mw. H. Lee. 

Morland. 

Medalltc Query. — I have before me a medal 
on which is pictured a lion, stretched across a 
sheaf of wheat, with his eyes open, but in a posi- 
tion of rest which might be mistaken for sleep ; 
and behind him is a cock, about to peck the grain 
from the ears of wheat ; and above them this 
legend : — 

" VIGILI NIMIVM NE CREDE SOPORI." 

On the reverse : 

" TRAU NICHT DEM APPETIT. DIE KORNER AUS ZU 
PICKED. ES KONTE DIR DIE LUST. IN EINER KLAU 
KRSTICKEN." 

" Ne'er in thy hunger think 
This sheaf of corn to rifle ; 
The fatal wish might hring 
A claw thy breath to stifle." 

And round the outer rim : 

" HIER LIEGT KEIN SCHAF, 
TRAU NICHT DEM SCHLAF." 

" Here lies no sheep, 
Trust not the sleep." 

Can you inform me when the medal was cast, 
and what political event it was intended to mark ? 

Edward Melton. 

Melton, near Brough, East Yorkshire. 

Monumental Effigies. — At the eastern end of 
the north aisle of Bristol cathedral is a mural mo- 
nument in memory of Robert Codrington and 
Anna his wife, of the county of Gloucester, date 
1618. Beneath the effigies of the parents are 
those of their seventeen children. Seven sons are 
represented kneeling, and one lying down, with 
clasped hands like his brothers. Eight daughters, 
two side by side, are also represented kneeling, and 
one appears lying down, closely swathed. All the 
figures have their faces in profile except the four 
younger daughters, and the youngest (kneeling) 
son. Of the two daughters kneeling side by side, 
and supposed to be twins, one holds a skull. Does 
this mark that her death preceded that of her 
parents ? Why are some of the faces in profile 
and others turned towards the spectator? Does 
want of space alone cause the youngest son to be 
represented lying down? A correspondent of 
" N. & Q.," 2 nd S. x. 218, has explained the 
swathed figure to represent a child who died in 
infancy, but information on the other points would 
be acceptable. Denkmal. 



Miss Peacock. — I am desirous to know who 
this friend of Campbell the poet was. I have a 
letter addressed by Campbell to her, in which he 
styles her his "dear old friend," and where he 
alludes twice to my father. On this account I am 
doubly anxious to know something about the lady. 
There is no date to the letter, but it was written 
at Sydenham. Its date must be prior to 1812, 
the year my father died. Thomas H. Cromek. 

Wakefield. 

Presentations at Court. — Is there a regis- 
ter of presentations at Court kept, and does it 
include the reign of George I. ? Curious. 

Prophecy respecting the Crimean War. — 
A remarkable prophecy of the Crimean war is 
said to be contained in Quaresmius' Elucidatio 
Terra Canitce — the discovery of which raised 
the price of the book at the time of the war. If 
any reader of "JST. & Q." can refer me to it, I 
shall be very much obliged. G. 

Routh Family. — Can anyone supply the few 
missing links in the connexion between the Wens- 
leydale Rouths and the East Riding family of that 
name (circa 1600) ? R. O. J. 

Starch. — Are there any publications which 
make any reference or allusion in any way to 
" starch " at any period from the reign of Eliza- 
beth to Charles II. ? From the portraits of that 
period, it is evident that starch was largely 
used. If there are any such books, where could 
they be found ? Inquirer. 

Turners of Eckington. — I shall be obliged 
by information about a large family named Tur- 
ner, who lived, as late probably as 1680, either at 
Eckington, co. Derby, or in that immediate vici- 
nity. My inquiries are chiefly directed at present 
to their antecedents and direct posterity, as well 
as to the crest and arms which they bore ; but 
any particulars, or clue which may tend to throw 
light upon the family, will be acceptable. 

R. W. T. V. 

Xavier and Indian Missions. — 1. Are there 
any MSS. extant relating to Xavier's missionary 
travels in India ? If so, where are they ? 

2. Which books in Latin, French, Portuguese, 
or English, give the best accounts of his labours, 
and of other Jesuit missions in India ? 

3. I wish if possible to obtain a complete list of 
all books relating to Indian missions, especially 
those giving accounts of the earlier missionary 
endeavours, in connexion with the Syrian, the 
Danish, Baptist, American, or Wesleyan Churches, 
&c, &c. 

While I particularly wish the names of works 
regarding the earlier missions, I would also like to 
be made aware of the names of any good books on 



3 rd S. I. Feb. 1, '62. ] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



91 



Indian missions, which may have been published 
on the Continent or in America? 

Jno. Paton, Presbyterian Chaplain, 
72nd Highlanders. 
Mhow, Bombay, 17th Dec. 1861. 



Buzaglia. — Extract from Great Yarmouth As- 
sembly Book, 15th Oct. 1784 : — 

" Ordered that the old dismounted cannon belonging 
to the Corporation be sold by the Chamberlains, and that 
a Buzaglia for the Toll-house Hall, not exceeding the ex- 
pence of twenty pounds, be bought." 

Query. What is a buzaglia? A. W. M. 

Great Yarmouth. 

[Buzaglia is doubtless a species of ordnance, which in 
ancient times was called falcon or falconet, and is perhaps 
an Italianized form of the French word Busaigle, or Buse 
pattue. If so, this would suggest that the word Harque- 
buse, with its terminal buse, may possibly have some 
affinity. It will be observed, that the old dismounted 
cannon was sold to pay for the Buzaglia.] 

Win kin. — To run like winkin, a south country 
phrase, denoting speed. Who was Winkin ? 

D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

f_ Winkin is probably winking; and "like winkin " is a 
phrase applicable to anything that is done with great 
expedition, or, as we say, "in the twinkling of an eye." j 
So in French, C'est l'affaire d'un clin d'ozil ; and in Ita- 
lian, In un batter <T occhio. For the country phrase " to 
run like winkin," the London variation is "to cut like 
winkie."] 

Rev. John Kettle well. — Can any of your 
correspondents*favour me with any information 
as to the date of death, where buried, &c, of Jane, 
relict of the Rev. John Kettlewell, A.M., vicar of 
Coles Hill from 1682 to 1691, and daughter of 
Anthony Lybb, Esq., of Hardwick, in the parish 
of Whitchurch, co. Oxford ? Her husband died 
in London on the 20th April, 1695, aged forty- 
two, and was buried in the church of Allhallows 
Barking, near the Tower, where she caused a 
monument to be erected to his memory. 

C. J. D. Ingledew. 

[The bequests of this saintly divine to North Allerton 
and Brompton (available after the death of his wife) 
came into the hands of trustees in 1720, so that Mrs. 
Kettlewell must have deceased shortly before that year. 
(Reports of the Commissioners of Charities, viii. 700, A.D. 
1823.) In the British Magazine for Oct. 1832, vol. ii. p. 
132, it is stated that " the first distribution of the pro- 
ceeds bears date in 1719." Who was Anne Kettlewell 
buried at North xVllerton Jan. 29, 171G? May there not 
be an error somewhere respecting the Christian name?] 

\ Mr. Bruce. — Can you give me any informa- 
tion regarding Mr. Bruce, who published in 1837 
a translation of Schiller's Don Kurlos ? To whom 
was it dedicated, and where was it printed ? 

Zeta. 

[The translator of Schiller's Don Karlos (printed by 



G. Reichard at Heidelberg, and published at Mannheim 
I by Schwan and Goetz, and in London by Black and Arm- 
; strong, 8vo, 1837), is John Wyndham Bruce, Esq , bar- 
\ rister-at-law, son of John Bruce- Pryce, Esq. of Dutfrvn, 

co. Glamorgan. The work is dedicated to his father.] 

Lord Chancellor Cowper : Appeals of Mur- 
der. — In Wilkins's Political Ballads of the \7lh 
and 18th Centuries (I860), vol. ii. p. 91, is the 
following note : — 

" Wm. (afterwards Lord Chancellor) Cowper, brother 
to Spencer Cowper, who was honourably acquitted of the 
charge of having murdered a beautiful and opulent 
quakeress named Sarah Stout, to whom he paid his ad- 
dresses. The future Chancellor greatly distinguished 
himself in defending his brother in the ' appeal of mur- 
der ' sued out, subsequently to his trial, by the heir-at- 
law of the unfortunate quakeress." 

Where can I find a report of the above trial, 
or rather trials, for I suppose there were two of 
them ? W. D. 

[A report of this celebrated trial is printed in Burke's 
Patrician, iv. 299—318, 8vo, edit. 1847 ; and in the State 
Trials, ed. 1812, vol. xiii. 1190—1250. An attempt was 
made for a new trial by the process called " An Appeal 
of Murder," a mode of proceeding abolished in the reign 
of George IV. Vide Lord Raymond, 560 ; 12 Mod. 372.] 

Norfolk Visitation. — Has the Heralds' Vi- 
sitation of Norfolk in 1664 been printed ? Where 
can the original be seen ? N — n. 

[The original is in the College of Arras, MS. D. 20. It 
does not appear to have been printed.] 

Richard de Marisco, or Marais. — Can you 
inform me what were the arms of Richard de 
Marais, or Marisco, Bishop of Durham, anno 1217 
to 1226 ? And whether the English surname 
Marsh is the present Anglicised form of Marais ? 

El Uyte 

Capetown, South Africa, 
Dec. 21st, 1861. 

[The arms of Richard de Marisco are — A., on a cross 
engrailed S. a mitre O., in the first quarter a cross patee 
fitch y G. (MS. Bawlinson, 128.) Barry of six pieces, a 
bend. (MS. Brit. Mus. Addit. 12,413.) On his seal is, 
by way of rebus — Barry wavy of four, in chief four 
osiers. (Surtees's Durham.) Vide Bedford's Blazon of 
Episcopacy, 1858, p. 123. In ancient Latin deeds the 
Marsh family is styled De Marisco; and, according to 
Mr. Lower, Marais, or Maresq, has its counterpart in 
English sur-noaienclature in the name of Marsh.] 

" A Brace of Shakes/' — Some Surrey people 
I once knew, when speaking of anything that 
could be executed in a short time, occasionally 
made use of the expression that " It wouM be 
done in a hrace of shakes." Hearing a Kentish 
person use the same phrase, I am induced to ask 
whether it admits of explanation. It is, perhaps, 
connected with another, " To be done in tiro 
twos." F. E 

[We apprehend that " in a brace of shakes " is simply 
a variation of the more usual phrase " in a shake," i. e. 
with great rapidity. The allusion is probably to the dice- 
box ("shaking tlie elbows "). For instance, if the player 
lost 100/. by a single throw, "It was done in a shake;" 
if by throwing twice, " It was done in a brace of shakes."] 



92 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. i. f eb . i, '62. 



ORNAMENTAL TOPS. 

THE COTGREAVE FORGERIES AND SPENCE's " ROMANCE 
OF GENEALOGY." 

(3 rd S. i. 8, 54.) 

That the Editor of K f. & Q." will render 
service to the lovers of genuine genealogy by 
exposing to, and cautioning them against, be- 
lief in the quackery and impudence of the Cot- 
greave or Spence fabrications, there can be no 
doubt ; and believing them to have been car- 
ried to an extent that can hardly be credited, I 
beg to assist in the suggestion of S. T. in your 
number of January 4th, by sending for record 
some instances wherein the modest Mr. Spence, 
by the aid of the signatures of his amiable rela- 
tives Harriet and Ellen Cotgreave, have for the 
trifling sum of five pounds, or sometimes less, 
furnished ancestors of undoubted celebrity to those 
whose pedigree he thought wanted " Ornamental 
Tops," when commencing only with an apparently 
degenerated progenitory. In all or most cases 
their heroes nourished at Boroughbridge, Cressy, 
Poictiers, or Agincourt : a sum so totally insigni- 
ficant for the acquirement of so much ancient and 
valiant blood, that few could resist such a " Top- 
ping." There were, however, some persons who 
discovered the fraud, and repudiated the offer. 

That such descents should have imposed upon 
•editors of works pretending to any authority is, 
however, surprising, for they are mostly on the 
face of them palpably fictitious. A pedigree, it is 
said, that has once taken root in a printed book 
must be true, — at all events most people who read 
them believe, and that is good ground for caution 
against implicit, or indeed any, reliance upon Mr. 
Spence. 

1. The descent of William Huntley, living temp. 
1 Richard I. (who married Alice Cotgreave) from 
Sir Hugh de Huntlye, Seneschal to Hugh de 
Lacy, Constable of Chester, under the hand and 
seal of Harriet Cotgreave, and witnessed by W. 
S. Spence, 23rd March, 1842. 

2. Descent of Ellis Treherne (who married 
Isabel Cotgreave), showing a descent from Sir 
Hugh Treherne of Lettymour, temp. Edward III., 
under the hand and seal of Harriet Cotgreave, 13 
Oct. 1842. 

3. The descent of Samuel Long of Netterhaven, 
Wilts, signed Harriet Cotgreave, 27 April, 1846. 

4. A descent of Gay e, .... 1846. 

5. The descent of Lea of Kidderminster, ex- 
tract from a pedigree of Gamull of Mottington, 
signed Ellen Cotgreave ; witness W. S. Spence, 7 
Sept. 1849. 

6. The descent of Cross of Charlinges^and Sut- 
ton, signed Ellen Cotgreave, William S. Spence, 
July, 1849. E. I. 



NEIL DOUGLAS. 
(3 rd S. i. 18.) 
I beg to thank r. for his attention to my Query. 
Pending the opportunity of consulting his refer- 
ences, and consequently at the risk of communi- 
cating what may be already well known regard- 
ing my subject, I willingly comply with C.'s 
request by throwing together a few loose mems. 
about Douglas, which I have from time to time 
noted in such of his books as have fallen into my 
hands. 

Douglas would appear to have been a wavering 
Nonconformist, but a sincere Christian and mo- 
ralist ; whether he ever belonged to the Estab- 
lished Kirk I know not, but, as an author, he 
first comes before the public in the character of a 
minister of the Relief Church : — 

1. " Sermons on important Subjects, with some Essays 
in Poetry. By N. D., Min. of the Gospel at Cupar, in 
Fyfe. (A small 8vo, of 508 pages.) Edin. : Caw. 1789." 

In this work Douglas figures in the double 
character of theologian and poet. His " Essays," 
in the latter line, occupy 89 pages of the work, 
under the heads : " Versions and Paraphrases of 
some of the Psalms," and " Poems on various Oc- 
casions." The first, although sufficiently interest- 
ing to have entitled him to a niche in Holland's 
Psalmists of Britain, escaped that gentleman's 
researches ; and there are, among the second, 
some ultra-loyal effusions which might at a sub- 
sequent period have shielded their author from 
the suspicion of disaffection to the reigning family. 

I next trace Douglas as the author of an anony- 
mous work of remarkable character, entitled : — 

2. " A Monitory Address to Great Britain ; a Poem in. 
6 Parts. To which is added Britain's Remembrancer.* 

" Heav'n-daring sins unerring tokens yield, 
That mercy soon will cease a land to shield: 
For these abounding rouse Almighty ire, 
And waste a realm as with consuming fire, 
'Tis God incens'd that Empires does o'erthrow, 
To his just wrath these their destruction owe. 
Edin. : Guthree, 1792." 

This goodly octavo of 481 pages is addressed 
" To the King " by " Britannicus " ; and is a call 
upon his Majesty to abrogate the somewhat in- 
congruous Anti-christian practices of the slave- 
trade, duelling, and church patronage ; also to put 
in force his own proclamation against vice, which 
is here reprinted : together with a Preface, the 
burden of which is a general remonstrance against 
the degeneracy of the times. The Monitory Ad- 
dress itself occupies 207 pages, and touches upon 
an infinity of matters, regarding which we have 

* This is a reproduction of Jas. Burgh's Britain's Re- 
membrancer, or the Danger not over, suggested by the 
Rebellion of '45. It was reprinted at the period in Scot- 
land, by Boston & Willison, as the work of an unknown 
author, and Douglas erroneously assigns it to President 
Forbes. 



3 rd S. I. Feb. 1,'G2.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



93 



as a nation provoked the wrath of God. Among 
these, drunkenness, swearing, and debauchery 
stand foremost, and, in this earnest work of our 
honest modern Wither, obtain no quarter. His 
powerful lines, and no less pertinent notes, indeed 
reflect the reverend author in the light of an ad- 
vanced social reformer, and an amiable enthu- 
siast in his impatience for the arrival of that 
happy millennial state of moral perfection still 
in abeyance. The next work of Douglas's is 
startling : — 

3. " The Lady's Scull ; a Poem. And a few other 
Select Pieces. By N. D., Min. of the Gospel at Dundee. 
12mo. Dundee, 1794." 

This is a poetical exercitation upon the text — 
" The place of sculls," &c. — and is but an exten- 
tion of a shorter poem under the same title in 
No. 2. In this, as in all Douglas's books, there 
is much introductory matter ; and I owe the dis- 
covery that the Monitory Address was a work of 
his, to finding it claimed in the Preface to this 
little book; where also are some reflections upon 
the ingratitude of the world, painfully suggestive 
of books falling still-born from the press, and 
pecuniary and laborious endeavours to benefit 
mankind ending in disappointment ! From this 
time I do not meet Douglas again in my own col- 
lection, until 1799 ; but in the interim I find he 
published : — 

4. " Lavinia; a Poem founded upon the Book of Ruth, 
&c. With a Memoir of a Worthy Christian lately dec. 
Edin. : Sold by the A., Castle Hill." 

5. " Britain's Guilt, Danger, and Duty. Sermons." 

G. " The African Slave Trade, with an expressive 
Frontispiece, &c. ; and Moses' Song paraphrased; or the 
Triumph of the rescued Captives over their incorrigible 
Oppressors." 

7. " Thoughts on Modern Politics. Consisting of a 
Poem upon the Slave Trade," &c. 

8. " Journal of a Mission to part of the Highlands of 
Scotland in 1797. Bv Appointment of the Relief Synod, 
&c. By N. D. Sm."8vo, pp. 189. Edin. 1799." 

This is a very interesting account of a mission- 
ary incursion into the wilds of Argyleshire, in a 
series of letters, highly characteristic and amusing 
in its relation of the Relief Minister's difficulties 
with the rough Highland cateran on the one 
hand, and the jealous clergy on the other. My 
copy of this is appropriately bound up with a 
similar record of an attempt to awaken Donald to 
a sense of his religious deficiencies, by Messrs. 
Halden, Aikman, and Rate, the previous years, — 
the two presenting a fair picture of Celtic re- 
ligion and manners at the period. My bibliogra- 
phical history of Neil Douglas is now a blank 
until 1811, when there was published : — 

9. " The Royal Penitent ; or true Penitence exemplified 
in David Kins? of Israel. A Poem in 2 Parts. By N. D., 
Min. of the Word of God. ^8vo, pp. 52. Greenock, 1811." 

Want of biographical material prevents me 
saying when Douglas seceded from the Relief 



Church ; but his next publication, known to me, 
exhibits him in his last phase of a " Preacher of 
Restoration" : — 

10. " King David's Psalms (in Common Use), with. 
Notes, Critical and Explanatory. Dedicated to Messiah. 
Sm. 8vo, pp. 638. Glasgow: Prin. and Sold by N. 
Douglas, the Author, No. 161, Stockwell Street, 1815." 

" To Immanuel, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, his 
unworthy but much obliged Servant in the Gospel, hum- 
bly presents, as in Duty and Gratitude bound, this 
Work ; undertaken with a Single Eye to his Glory, and 
for the defence and illustration of his Truth; now finished 
through the kindness of his Providence in believing hope 
of his acceptance, Divine Patronage, and Blessing." 

" To God, Author of the Book of Psalms, and all other 
Books of Sacred Writ, be honour and glory. Amen." 

This work contains a portrait of Douglas, not 
in clerical costume, and certainly not of a pre- 
possessing character. The Psalms are, as stated, 
the common metrical version of the kirk, with 
Douglas's headings; in which, like Watts and 
John Barclay, he sets aside the literal for a sense 
applicable to the Christian dispensation. The 
extent of the work sufficiently indicates the bulk 
of the critical and explanatory notes," which 
accompany the text. A companion book is — 

11. " Translations and Paraphrases in Verse. With 
an Improvement now to each. (The Kirk Hymns simi- 
larly treated.) Sm. 8vo, pp. 132. Glas. 1815." 

12. " The Analogy; a Poem (of '46). 4-line Stanza." 
[This, purporting to be by N. D., will be found in A Col- 
lection of Hymns for the Universalists, Glas. 1824.3 

With this concludes my catalogue of the liter- 
ary labours of NTeil Douglas. If any correspon- 
dent can add to it, I shall be glad. 

In 1817 Douglas, when preaching his Restora- 
tion views, in Glasgow, fell into the hands of the 
law; and was, on the 17th May, arraigned before 
the High Court of Justiciary, Edin., upon an in- 
dictment charging him, the said N. D. (called a 
Universalist Preacher), with sedition ; in drawing 
a parallel between Geo. III. and Nebuchadnezzar; 
the Prince Regent and Belshazzar : and further, 
with representing the House of Commons as a 
den of thieves and robbers. A verdict of acquit- 
tal was pronounced, and the poor old man left 
the Courtj'.loyally declaring, that he had a high 
regard for his Majesty' and the Royal Family, 
and prayed that every Briton might have the 
same. Douglas went prepared for the worst; and 
there was published, after the trial : 

" An Address to the Judges and Jury on a Case of 
alleged Sedition, on 26 May, 1817, which was intended to 
be delivered before passing Sentence." 

An interesting paper, which I have seen too late 
to make use of in this note, already too extended. 

A. G. 

N.B. The published Report of the Trial con- 
tains a curious caricature-looking sketch of 
Douglas as he stood at the bar, with Dan. v. 17 — 



94 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 f d S. I. Feb. 1, '62. 



23, below, being the text which brought him 
into this trouble. 



EARTHQUAKES IN ENGLAND. 
(2 ad S.xii. 397; 3 rd S. i. 15.) 

An interesting notice of an earthquake in Eng- 
land, in 1692, occurs in the Autobiography of Sir 
John Brdmston, printed by the Camden Society in 
1845. It may be necessary to premise, before 
giving the extract, that the narrator and his fa- 
mily were residing in Greek Street,-] Soho, at the 
time of the shock : — 

" On the 8th of September, 1G92, about 2 of the clock 
in the afternoone, in London and the suburbs there was 
plainly felt a tremblinge and shakeing of the houses, the 
chaires and stooles hitting togeather ; many persons 
taken with giddiness. I myselfe was not sensible of it, 
nor did my daughter, nor Colonel John Bramston, who 
were at that time sitting with me at my table ; nor^ in- 
deed, did any of the servants perceave it. It lasted about 
2 minutes, as all our neighbours sayd; such as were 
above stayers were most sensible of it, in all the parts of 
the citie. It was felt in Essex, Kent, Sussex, Hamp- 
shire, &c. at the same time, and had the same continu- 
ance. The letters say it was also felt at the same time 
in Flanders and Holland ; where else, we heare not yet. 
It did no hurt, God be blessed, save only affrightfnge 
many persons ; and, indeed, it beinge so lately after the 
account come from Jamaica of the horrible and destruc- 
tive earthquake there, people had great reason to be ap- 
prehensive of the effects of this. I doe not heare any 
perticular hath authentickly been set out of that yet, and 
I pray God England may never experience the effects of 
earthquakes, tho' I look not on them as judgments from 
God, but as proceeding from naturall causes." 

I should be glad to be referred to any contem- 
porary account of the phenomenon here mentioned. 

Edward F. Rimbault. 

The narrative of the earthquake at The Birches, 
alluded to by Mr. Allport, bears the following 
title : — 

" A Dreadful Phenomenon Described and Improved. 
Being a particular Account of the sudden Stoppage of the 
River Severn, and of the terrible Desolation that hap- 
pened at the Birches between Coalbrook-Dale and Build- 
was ^Bridge, i n Shropshire, on Thursday Morning, May 
12, 1773. And the substance of a Sermon preached the 
next day on the Ruins to a vast Concourse of Spectators. 
By John Fletcher, Vicar of Madele}', &c." Sm. 8vo. pp. 
104; Shrewsbmy, 1773. 

The descriptive part occupies'33 pages ; and if 
A. A. or any other correspondent, investigating 
such matters would like to peruse it, I shall wil- 
lingly place my copy with the Editor, if he will 
take the trouble to communicate it. J. O. 



In reference to this subject I copy a letter from 
a friend : — 

" The Earthquake I felt at Nottingham was on a Sun- 
day in March, 18L6. We were in St, Mary's Church to 
hear the Assize Sermon. The whole church shook, or 



or rather oscillated. It was a most extraordinary thing 
to see; it was momentary; I do not remember feeling 
alarmed at all. Some people went out of church ; some 
said there was a rumbling noise, as if a waggon were 
passing by. In some houses the bells rang, and the clocks 

were stopped. At Mrs. F 's the cook was making pies 

or puddings, and the flour was all laid in regular little 
heaps on the dresser before her, to her great amazement. 
It was rather remarkable that it did not seem to be felt 
anywhere else in England." 

F. C. B. 



I was at Newstead Abbey at the same time with 
A. A., and remarked with regret the dilapidated 
and neglected state of Boatswain's monument. 
Knowing how religiously the late Col. Wildman 
preserved even the simplest memorials of his il- 
lustrious predecessor and schoolfellow, I inquired 
the reason of the ruin-like appearance of the mo- 
nument, and was told nothing about an earth- 
quake, but that the colonel allowed it to decay, 
because Lord Byron had, with very bad taste, 
buried his dog and raised his tomb on the site of 
the old altar. Even an earthquake would have 
appeared more reasonable to me, than the folly 
and shame of allowing so interesting an object to 
become a ruin, when it might have been removed 
and preserved on a spot more appropriate. 

I also remember the fissures in the wails of the 
abbey, and did hear something of an earthquake 
in connection with them. It strikes me also that 
I can recollect some fissures in A. A.'s neighbour- 
hood (Poets' Corner). Will he, as an expert in 
his profession, ascribe them to an earthquake, or 
to age and delayed repair ? S. T. 



Smart shocks of an earthquake were felt in 
Manchester on Sunday, Sept. 4, 1777. For an ac- 
count of them, see Hibbert's Public Foundations 
of Manchester, ii. 160, and also Aston's Metrical 
Records of Manchester, 19, 8vo, 1822. 

Lancastriensis. 



The account of the earthquake which oc- 
curred" at the Birches between Buildwas and 
Madeley, on the 27th of May, 1773, mentioned 
by Mr. Allport as being contained in a small 
volume by the Rev. J. Fletcher (the title of which 
Mr. A. has forgotten), must be the same as that 
which occurs (with the sermon preached on the 
occasion), in the Works of the Rev. J. Fletcher, 
vol. vii. fol. 209, Lomas, London, 1807, and also 
in his Works, published by Allman, 1833, vol. ii. 
fol. 347. ' J. Booth. 

Rochdale. 



The disturbance which your correspondent 
describes as having taken place near Newcastle 
on the 15th of November, 1844, would not be 
an earthquake, but what is popularly called " a 



8*« S. I. Feb. 1, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



95 



creep;" i. e. a subsiding or slipping in of the 
ground, in consequence of* the coal having been 
worked under it. In some colliery districts these 
disturbances are of frequent occurrence, and often 
lead to litigation. H. Fjshwick. 



DAUGHTERS OF WILLIAM THE LION. 
(2 nd S. xii. 357, 424.) 

I believe there is no doubt that the two eldest 
daughters of William the Lion were Margaret and 
Isabella. In June, 1220 (4 lien. III.), a treaty 
was made between Henry King of England and 
Alexander II. King of Scotland (the son and suc- 
cessor of William) by which it was agreed that 
Henry should provide marriages in England for 
these two sisters of the Scottish King. In proof 
of this I adduce the following extract from the 
Calendarium Rotulomm Patentium : — 

" Patent, de anno quarto Itegis Henrici Tertii. 
" Compositio inter Kegem et. Alexandrum Regem 
Scotia>, — viz. quod Rex daret ei in Maritagium Joh' pri- 
mogenitam sororem suam, vel Isabellam sororem suam 
juniorcm, ac quod Rex maritaret Margaret et IsubeW 
sorores ipsius Regis Scotia? infra Regnum Anglire ad ho- 
norem suum. Act' apud Eboracum 15° : Junii coram," etc. 

Margaret, the eldest of the two^ sisters, was 
married to Hubert de Burgh, afterwards created 
Earl of Kent. I do not know on what au- 
thority Hermentrude represents the marriage as 
not having taken place till 1225. Matthew Paris, 
as quoted by Dugdale {Baronage, vol. i. p. 694), 
sets it down to the year 1221 (5 Hen. III). 

In 1225 Isabella was married to Roger Bigod, 
as appears from the following extract from the 
Calendarium : — 

"Patent, de anno nono Regis Jlenrlci Tertii. A. pars 2 d . 

"Rogerus tilius et Haeres H. Comitis Bigod duxit Isa- 
bcllam sororem Alexandri Regis Scotias." , 

Some time afterwards Alexander contended, 
that during the life-time of William the Lion 
there had been a treaty between him and King 
John, by which it was agreed that the two prin- 
cesses should be married, the one to Prince Henry 
(afterwards Henry III.) and the other to his bro- 
ther Richard. If in point of fact there ever was 
any such treaty, at all events after the composi- 
tion made in 1220 (4 Hen. III.), it must have 
been deemed to have been waived. But however 
this may have been, it would appear that there 
was at one time a convention between Henry III. 
and Alexander II., by which Henry engaged to 
marry one of Alexander's sisters. This sister is 
by some authorities spoken of under the name of 
Margaret, by others under the name of Ma?genj. 
The latter I suppose to be correct, and if so we 
arrive at a third sister, the one whom Hermen- 
trude calls, apparently with some hesitation, 
Margery or Marian. All that relates to this 
third sister is exceedingly obscure. But I hope 



that some of your learned correspondents north of 
the Tweed may be able to give some clue to her 
individuality. 

The statement is probably correct, that all the 
daughters of William the Lion died without issue, 
or, at all events, without issue living in 1290. For 
any descendant of theirs, whether male or female, 
would, on the death of Margaret of Norway, have 
been undoubted heir to the crown of Scotland, in 
preference alike' to Baliol and Bruce. 

I must however observe, that, according to 
Dugdale {Baronage, vol. i. p. 700), there were 
descendants of Margaret, Countess of Kent, long 
after the disputed succession. But this is also a 
very obscure point and requires investigation. 

Isabella, who married Robert de Roos, was an 
illegitimate daughter. It was the great-grandson 
of this Isabella, and not (as Mr. Dixon supposes) 
her grandson, that was one of the competitors for 
the crown of Scotland. 

Margaret, who married Eustace de Vesci, was 
another illegitimate daughter. Her grandson 
William de Vesci was also one of the competitors. 

Meletes. 



Eastern Costume : Rebekaii at the Well. 
(2 nd S. xii. 347, 377.) — My letter of the 6th No- 
vember brought me an answer from your corre- 
spondent W. L. R. just as I was leaving home to 
proceed hither ; and I have had much pleasure in 
communicating with him personally. At the 
same time it is proper that I should say a few 
words in " N". & Q." for the general information 
of your readers. 

My wife and I arrived here yesterday, " at the 
time of the evening, even the time when women 
go out to draw water," and we met a number of 
" damsels " with their " pitchers " so employed. 
This morning we have been to the " well of 
water," which is (as I anticipated) without the 
city " on the way from Damascus, through which 
city Eliezer would naturally have passed on his 
| way from the Land of Canaan. 

The weather forced us to return to Damascus 
this afternoon, so that we have no time to note 
the particulars of the costume of the females. 
But we intend returning in a few days, when we 
trust the weather will allow my wife to take pho- 
tographs of the place and its inhabitants. Mean- 
while, I may remark, that we did not see any of 
the females, old or young, with veils. 

Charles Beke. 

Harran, in Parian Aram, 
2lst Dec. 1861. 

Old MS. : Pandects (2 nd S. xii. 418.) — Will 
your correspondent, who so kindly replied to my 
Query, be good enough to give me more full par- 
ticulars with regard to the Pandects, either through 
your columns or by sending a note for me to your 
office. Chessborough Harberton. 



96 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 r d S. L Feb. 1, '62. 



Knaves' Acre (2 nd S. xii. 191, 273, 445 ; 3 rd 
S. i. 58.) — Stukeley says, " When the Romans be- 
came masters here, they built a temple of their 
own form to Diana, where now St. Paul's stands ; 
they placed it in the open space then the forum : 
but the British temple appropriate to the city, was 
upon the open rising ground to the west, where 
now is Knaves' Acre." (Itin. Curios., cent II. 
M The Brill," p. 14.) This was written in) Octo- 
ber, 1758. Now in the St. James's Chronicle of 
May 23, 1761, is the following announcement: — " 

" The projected .exhibition of the Brokers and Sign- 
painters of Knaves' Acre, Harp Alley, &c, is only post- 
poned, till a room spacious enough can be provided, as 
the collection will be very numerous." 

Harp Alley, formerly called Harper Alley, lead- 
ing from Farringdon Street to Shoe Lane, stands 
not only west of St. Paul's, bat on rising ground, 
and appears to be the site alluded to by Stukeley. 
It is within a stone's throw of the printing office 
whence the curious Notes and Queries of your cor- 
respondents take flight, and wing their way " from 
Indus to the Pole." In days of yore, according to 
Stukeley, the Roman temple stood on the eastern 
b.ank, and the British temple on the western 
bank of the River of Wells. Before the Act 
of Parliament passed for removing the signs 
and other obstructions in the streets of London, 
there was a market in Harp Alley for signs ready 
prepared. (Edwards's Anecdotes of Painting, 4to, 
1808, p. 118.) There was another Harp Alley in 
Little Knight-Rider Street, Doctors' Commons 
(New Remarks of London, 1732, p. 67) ; but the 
one in Shoe Lane best agrees with Stukeley's ac- 
count. J. Ye o WELL. 

Thomas Craskell (2 nd S. x. 449.) — 

[We are indebted to the courtesy of the Cornwall Chro- 
nicle, published at Montego Bay, Jamaica, Dec. 18, 1861, 
for the following reply to a Query in "N. &Q." of Dec. 8, 
I860.— Ed. "N. & Q.] 

To the Editor of the Cornwall Chronicle. 

Kingston, Jamaica, Dec. 1st, 1861. 
Sir, — As I perceive by your impression of this 
morning, that information is sought concerning 
the late Thomas Craskell, I beg to state that my 
wife Susan Lucas is a daughter of Thomas Cras- 
kell the son, from whom much information might 
be obtained, that is unlikely will be given by any 
other person. 

I am, Sir, yours obediently, 

Augustus Lucas. 
22, Harbour Street and Matthew Lane. 

Mr. Turbulent (3 rd S. i. 31.)— 

" Mr. Turbulent's real designation was Rev. Charles 
Giffardier, he was French reader to the Queen and Prin- 
cesses. His name correctly written was, we believe, De 
Guiffardiere. He had a prebendall stall at Salisbury, and 
was Vicar of Newington and Rector of Berkhampstead." 

See the review of Mad. D'Arblay's Diary and 
Letters in the Quarterly, ISTo. cxxxix. This review 



is only on the three first volumes. Can any of 
your readers inform me where a review of the 
whole work, published in 7 vols., is to be found ; 
and who was "Mr. Fairly," who plays such a con- 
spicuous part in Mad. D'A.'s Diary of her court 
life ? E. B. R. 

Flight of Wild Geese and Cranes (2 nd S. 
xii. 500.) — The countrywoman's belief, that the 
flight of flocks of wild geese is " always in the 
form of letters or figures," shows how tenacious 
of life are all popular superstitions. The ancients 
had the idea respecting the flight of wild geese 
equally with that of cranes — which it closely re- 
sembles — as appears from Plutarch, iElian, Cicero, 
and others. Of the latter birds, Jerome says : 
" unam sequuntur, ordine literato " (Epist. 4, ad 
Rust. Monac.) ; and Aldrovandus, who has col- 
lected {Ornithology remarks to the same effect 
from many writers, assures us that Palamedes, in 
the time of the Trojan war, is said to have in- 
vented several letters of the alphabet from ob- 
servations of their flight. Martial alludes to this 
in Xeniis (Grues, lxxv.) : — 

" Turbabis versus, nec litera'tota volabit, 
Unam perdideris si Palamedis avem." J 

Cassiodorus, as GafFarel remarks {Curios. In- 
audita, cap. xii.) goes still further, and roundly 
asserts that Mercury devised all the letters in 
imitation of the figures formed by flocks (?) of 
these birds. These figures appear to depend on 
the force and direction of the wind, and most 
frequently correspond with the Greek letters 7 
and A; sometimes, however, these birds form a 
half circle ; and at others, when attacked by birds 
of prey, a perfect circle. We may, I take it, 
safely conclude with the old writer that the let- 
ters, which cranes and wild geese "make in their 
flying, show us only the diversity of the winds, or 
else the manner of ordering themselves in battle." 

Delta. 

Topography in Ireland (2 nd S. xii. 474.) — 
" Co. Kingstown " and "co. Queenstown" became 
the King's and Queen's Counties in the reign of 
Philip and Mary. 

" Co. Uriell," recle Oriel, is the County Louth. 

" Kilmacrenan wher O'Donnel is made," is the 
name of a place in the co. Donegal, in which 
O'Donnell was made or inaugurated king of his 
clan. 

Your correspondent, Mr. C. Harberton, is re- 
quested to give some particulars about his curious 
map. Is it in MS., or engraved ? 

Herbert Hore. 

Conservative Club. 

Foilles de Gletuers (2 nd S. xii. 347.) — It 
is difficult to speak positively without seeing the 
context, and without knowing in what dialect the 
words occur; but I should think that "leaves of 
sword-grass " would probably be the right trans- 



-3 rd S. I. Feb. 1, '62. ] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



97 



lation, gletuers being apparently a corruption of 
gladiolus. Lumen. 

" Retributive Justice " (2 nd S. xii. 379.) — 
Mr. James Crossley is in error in stating Mr. 
Joseph Aston to have been editor of the Rochdale 
Pilot, which paper is of recent date. The paper 
edited by Mr. Aston was entitled the Rochdale 
Recorder, of which only sixty-five numbers were 
issued (January, 1827, to March, 1828). J. B. 

William Oldys : "Bend sinister" (3 rd S. i. 
2.) ' — Allowing the illegitimacy of Oldys, is the 
writer of the interesting article upon him correct 
in saying that " there can be little doubt that the 
bend sinister ought properly to have figured in 
the arms of the future Norroy" ? I believe the 
baston, or baton, which is the fourth part of the 
bend running from the sinister chief to the dexter 
base, was alone borne as the mark of illegitimacy. 

J. DORAN. 

Danbt of Kirkby Knowle, or New Building 
(2 nd S. xii. 290, 404.) Eboracum might have 
added, that New Building (not Buildings), near 
Thirsk, is a most curious old house, well worthy 
the attention of archaeologists ; containing a re- 
puted subterranean passage, a newel staircase, 
and a very interesting and perfect specimen of a 
secret chamber or hiding place. Whether the 
present owner permits visitors to see it, I cannot 
say. It is, I believe, let as a farm ; but its anti- 
quity and peculiarities, and the magnificent view 
from it, make it well worth a visit. P. P. 

As I take the monthly parts, and not the weekly 
numbers of " N. & Q.," and have besides been for 
some time from home, I have not till recently 
seen the obliging communications of K. P. D. E. 
and Eboracum. With the information contained 
in the letter of the former I was already ac- 
quainted, except the statement that the Danby 
pedigree went back to two generations before the 
Conquest : the pedigrees in Burke's Commoners 
and Whittaker's Richmondshi?*e taking it to but 
one generation. Would K. P. D. E. kindly in- 
form me as to the generation before " John, Lord 
of Great and Little Danby," &c. ? 

My best acknowledgments are due to Ebo- 
racum for giving me the connecting link between 
the Danbys of Leake and those of Kirby Knowle. 
The Leake pedigree of 1665 goes no further back 
than the preceding Visitation ; which, so far as I 
know, has never been printed. But, I presume, 
Eboracum' s Robert Danby may have been the 
father of the Thomas with whom it commences. 
Grainge calls the Danby, who bought New Build- 
ing, James ; and states that he came from York. 
Probably Edmund Danby, who also had a house 
at Kirby Knowle, was another brother ; and from 
this latter I have a strong conviction the poor 



shoemaker'is descended, who was unable to esta- 
blish his claim to the property, though one would 
have imagined he might have traced back in the 
parish registers for two hundred years. I should 
much like to hear the history of his claim ; and, 
also, who were the executors of the late Mrs. 
Dalton of New Building; if Eboracum could 
oblige me with the information ? 

A Yorksiiireman. 

Newtons or Whitby (2 nd S. xii. 237, 352, 444; 
3 rd S. i. 17.) — Where Sir David Brewster was 
wrong, was the styling Sir Richard Newton of 
Newton " the last Baronet of the family," whereas 
by R. R.'s own showing, he was a Knight. " The 
last baronet of the family," with which Sir Isaac 
was connected, was, as I stated in my former note 
on this subject, Sir Michael Newton, 4th and last 
Bart, of Barr's Court, co. Gloucester, who was 
K.B. and chief mourner at Sir Isaac's funeral. 
There is some ground for assuming a kindred be- 
tween this family and the philosopher, but I can- 
not see how he could have been connected with 
the East Lothian Newtons, of which the Sir 
Richard, mentioned by R. R., was the last male 
representative. S. T. 

Sir Godfrey Kneller's Autograph (2 nd S. 
xii. 434, 526.) — It is a well-known fact that many 
autograph letters of celebrated characters have 
been fabricated within the last few years, and I 
believe this system has been further carried out 
in autograph signatures on the title-poges and 
fly-leaves of old books, deeds, &c. In some cases 
the deception has been limited to the alteration 
of certain letters, the insertion of commas, &c. 

The autograph signature mentioned by Dr. 
Nelligan — " Godfrey Kneller, Nuckle. His 
Book, May 4th, 1720," is assuredly that of God- 
frey Kneller Huckle, the nephew and godson ot 
the celebrated painter. The comma has been 
cunningly inserted after Kneller, for obvious 
reasons, and the H in Huckle (unless misread by 
your correspondent) altered into N, for some 
reason not quite so apparent. The will of Sir 
Godfrey Kneller was proved Dec. 6, 1723. He 
bequeathed to his wife 500Z. a-year, his house and 
furniture at Whitton and Great Queen Street, 
and other property, during her widowhood ; and 
after her decease to his godson Godfrey Kneller 
Huckle, with an injunction to take the name and 
arms of Kneller, which he did by act of parlia- 
ment in 1731. Many of Sir Godfrey's letters, in- 
cluding several to his nephew, passed into un- 
hands some years since. They contain valuable 
matter as to the state of the art at the perio;l 
when they were written, and it is my intention to 
print them, with other documents relative to the 
Knellers, when I obtain the permission of the 
present representative of the family. Huckle was 
somewhat of a book-collector. I have his auto- 



98 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[>d S. I. Feb. 1, '62. 



graph on the fly-leaf of more than one volume in 
my library. Edward E. Rimbault. 

Saints on Milan Cathedral (2 nd S. xii. 368.) 
— It is hard to understand what guide-book your 
correspondent Nanfant can have consulted on 
this subject without finding information. I have 
looked at three, and they all refer to it. The 
Modern Traveller, quoting Wood's Letters of an 
Architect, gives the number of statues outside the 
cathedral of Milan at 4400. Forster's Reise- 
liandbuch fur Italien, the best guide-book for Italy 
that I know, says that the number of such statues 
Las been stated at 4500. Murray's Handbook to 
North Italy states, probably with more exactness, 
that 4500 will be required to fill all the niches 
and pedestals, and that of these only 3000 are as 
yet fixed. T. R. S. 

Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (3 rd S. i. 30.) — The 
words quoted by Abhba are written on a slip of 
paper inserted between the leaves of the volume. 
They are signed E. H., and are not in the hand- 
writing of Dr. Barrett. It is very desirable that 
the correspondents of t; JST. & Q." should be ex- 
ceedingly cautious not to increase the circulation 
of incorrect statements, or to ask unnecessary 
questions, when the sources of accurate informa- 
tion are so easily accessible. If Abhba had only 
looked into the index of so well-known a publica- 
tion as Boswell's Life of Johnson (London, 1833), 
under the head of "Dublin University," he would, 
by the words " grant a diploma to Johnson," be 
referred to vol. ii. p. 288, and found there that 
the degree was conferred in 1765, and that his 
letter of acknowledgment is there inserted at full 
length. 'AXievs. 
Dublin. 

Beattie's Poems (3 rd S. i. 35.) — Mr. Gibb, 
in describing his own copy of Beattie, 1760, has 
given a correct one of mine of 1761 ; indeed since 
mooting the question in " 1ST. & Q." I have had an 
opportunity of carefully comparing the editions, 
Lond. 1760, and Aberd. 1761, and am now per- 
fectly satisfied that they are one and the same, 
with, in the case of the latter, a new title. 

I have, however, carried my inquiry a little 
farther, and would now unhesitatingly pronounce 
the London imprint of 1760 false ; and my con- 
viction, founded upon comparing it with other 
works from the Aberdeen press, that the book 
was in reality printed by Francis Douglas, and 
not by And. Miller, London. I arrive at this 
conclusion by applying Mr. Gibb's test of the 
clumsy b, and find it runs through the Aberdeen 
books, and that the ornaments in the so-called 
London edition are found in the Whole Duty of 
Man, republished by Douglas in 1759. 

Moreover, Beattie was, if I mistake not, but 
little known beyond his own locality in 1760, 



which renders it highly improbable that he could 
have had any dealings with the London bibliopole, 
or that he had any literary friend in the south 
who would take upon himself the responsibility of 
launching his then obscure muse upon the critics 
of the metropolis. J. O. 

The English Language (2 nd S. xii. 347, 422.) 
— The language in which books are written in 
our days is so essentially different from what it 
was a century ago, that it is difficult to enter into 
the views of Lord Mansfield with respect to Hume 
and Robertson. In the progress of the change 
that has taken place, the language of Hume and 
Robertson has been absorbed into the general 
style of our literature, and we are not aware of 
the peculiarities which distinguish it from the lan- 
guage of more purely English writers. But I 
think that on a careful examination, it will be 
found that our earlier writers use a style ap- 
proaching more nearly to spoken language. I do 
not mean merely the language of conversation, 
but language such as the author would use if he 
had to express himself by word of mouth. This 
language would necessarily vary with the subject, 
rising — as the occasion might require — from al- 
most a mere colloquial style to something ap- 
proaching more or less nearly to the rhetorical. 
Look at Raleigh, Barrow, Bolingbroke, and com- 
pare* them with Hume and Robertson. In the 
three English writers you find the outpouring of 
the soul of the man. In Hume, and still more in 
Robertson, we are always conscious that the au- 
thor is writing a book. This may, perhaps, be in 
part attributable to the cause assigned by Dr. 
Carlyle, that to the Scottish writers English was, 
to a certain extent, an acquired language. But it 
is a melancholy thing to look at the current lite- 
rature of the day, and to see how completely a 
mere written style, — the like of which no human 
being ever spoke, — has superseded the natural 
spoken style of our language. People attribute 
the tameness of modern writing to the want of 
Anglo-Saxon words. No accumulation of Anglo- 
Saxon words will ever give life to a purely con- 
ventional structure of language. What is worst 
of all, this canker has begun to eat into the very 
core even of our spoken language. I could name 
among the statesmen of the day more than one 
whose style of eloquence is to speak like a book. 
One great reason of this is, that instead of aiming 
to produce an effect upon the minds of those whom 
they are supposed to be addressing, the object 
upon which their energies are really bent, is to 
elaborate a string of sentences for the purpose of 
being readily taken down in short-hand, so as to 
turn out well in the columns of the next day's 
newspapers. This is a more pernicious habit even 
than that of reading a written oration. 

Meletes. 



3'* S. I. Feb. 1, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



99 



Chaucer's "Tabard" Inn and Fire of Soutii- 
wark (2 nd S. xii. 325, 373.) — There seems to be 
some doubt as to the destruction of this cele- 
brated hostelry by the great fire of 1676. It may 
have perished in a conflagration that occurred nine 
years earlier, and to which a reference is made in 
the following extract from a private letter of the 
date July 27, 1667 : — 

"I suppose you may have heard by this time of that 
dreadful 1 and desperate fire in the borough of Southwarke 
not farre from the Spurr Inn; wherein divers persons 
were burnt and spoyled, about 40 familyes disteaded of 
their habitations, and some that now have beene twice 
burnt out of their houses quite undone, that had a con- 
siderable meancs of a livelyhood before : there are evi- 
dences enough of its being set on fire, but whither the 
chiefe actors bee taken or no, or what wilbee the effect 
wee cannot say " 

How was the " Spurr " Inn situated in relation 
to the "Tabard"? W. S. 

Heraldic (2 nd S. xii. 10. 138 ; 3 rd S. i. 38.) — 
May not the arms first mentioned by W. S., viz. 
" az., 3 covered cups or," be those of Argenton, 
an extinct Dorsetshire family, and probably a 
branch of the old baronial family of Argentine, of 
Horseheath, co. Cambridge, whose arms, however, 
appear to have been "gules, 3 covered cups arg." 
The heiress of the Dorset branch married into the 
family of Williams of Herringstone, who quarter 
the arms of Argenton ; and a rhyming epitaph on 
one of the family (Mary, wife of Lewis Argenton, 
and relict of Robert Tbornhull), on a brass plate 
in the east wall of the chancel of Woolland Church, 
Dorset, is given at length in Hutchins's History of 
Dorset. Henry W. S. Taylor. 

Heraldic (3 nd S. i. 30.) — The arms referred 
to by Hermentrude are no doubt those of Ro- 
bertson (of Membland Hall, Devon), impaling 
Atkinson. {Vide Burke's Landed Gentry, vol. ii. 
1127), and should be described as follows: — 
" Gules, 3 wolves heads erased, arg., armed and 
langued az." for Robertson ; impaling " Gules an 
eagle displayed with 2 heads arg. (perhaps, or) on 
a chief of the last 3 estoiles of the 1st, for Atkinson. 
Crest. " A dexter arm and hand erect, holding a 
regal crown all ppr." Motto. " Virtutis Gloria 
Merces." Henry W. S. Taylor. 

Southampton. 

Burial in a sitting Posture (2 nd S. ix. 44, 
513 ; x. 159, 396 ; 3 rd S. i. 38.) — In the Natural 
History Review for January, 1862, pp. 53-71, is a 
very interesting article by M. Lartet on the dis- 
covery of human and other remains in a cavern 
on the mountain Fajoles, near Aurignac (Haute 
Garonne). The main object of the writer is to 
throw some light on the question of the co-exist- 
ence of Man with the great Fossil Mammals; but 
in describing the interior of the cavern, and the 
probable position in which the bodies had been 
deposited (they had been removed before he 



visited the place), which, for certain reasons, he 
considers to have been " a sitting or crouching 
posture," Mons. Lartet speaks of it as "that which 
is well known to have been adopted in many of 
the sepulchres of primitive times ; " and in a note 
at the same page (58), says : — 

" This attitude of the body, bent upon itself, has been 
noticed in most of the primordial sepultures of the north 
and centre of Europe, and it has been also observed in 
the foundations of Babylon. Diodorus Siculus informs 
us that it was practised by the Troglodytes, a pastoral 
people of Ethiopia, In more recent times it is seen in 
use among various peoples in America, and some of the 
South Sea Islands." 

In an account of the Ancient Lake Habitations 
of Switzerland by Mr. J. Lubbock, F.R.S., in the 
same number of the Natural History Review, the 
writer says (p. 41) : — 

" In tombs of the Stone Age, the corpse appears to 
have been almost always, if not always, buried in a sit- 
ting posture, with the knees brought up under the chin, 
and the hands crossed over the breast. This attitude 
occurs also in many Asiatic, African, and American 
tombs." 

For the prevalence of the same custom in Den- 
mark, Mr. Lubbock refers to Worsaac's Antiqui- 
ties (p. 89, English edit.), and states, on the au- 
thority of Mr. Bateman's recently published Ten 
Years' Diggings in Celtic and Saxon Gravehills, 
that "the same position was, to say the least of it, 
very common in early British tombs." 

So much in reply to Exul's Query as to*the 
prevalence of the custom. The arguments of M. 
Lartet in the paper alluded to above, both archa3- 
ological and palajontological, if sound, carry it 
back to a very remote period of antiquity. Its 
object may have been, as he suggests, to "realise, 
according to some archaeologists, the symbolic 
thought of restoring to the earth — our common 
mother — the body of the man who had ceased to 
live, in the same posture that it had before his 
birth, in the bosom of his individual mother." 

Mr. Lubbock also (p. 41) informs us, on 
the authority of M. Troyon, Sur les Habitations 
Lacustres, that the same custom prevailed among 
the Brazilian aborigines, quoting from a work by 
Andre Thevet, published in 1575 (of which, how- 
ever, he has omitted to give us the title), the fol- 
lowing words, which seem to point to the same 
origin : — 

" Quand done leurs parents sont morts, ils les courbent 

dansun bloc et monceau, tout ainsi que lea 

enfants sont au ventre de la mere puis ainsi envelop; 
lie's et garrottes de corde, ils les mettent dans une grande 
vase de terre." 

Q. 

Tarnished Silver Coins (3 rd S. L 31.) — 
Dirty silver may be cleaned without polishing if, 
by soaking it in a saturated solution of carbonate 
of soda (common soda) until the crust is softened, 
which, if thick, will take several days, and then 



100 



NOTES AND QXJEKIES. 



[3 r <* S. I. Feb. 1, '62. 



gently washing it with soap and a soft flannel in 
warm water. S. M. O. 

Take two ounces of whiting, one ounce of bi- 
carbonate of potassa, and half a pint of distilled 
water; place these materials together with the 
coins into a copper saucepan, then boil them for 
half an hour ; now take out one of the coins, and 
clean away the superfluous whiting, &c, with a 
hare's foot. If this example proves satisfactory, 
the whole of the coins are "done," but if not, give 
them another half hour in the boiling menstruum. 
It is important to use a hare's foot in prefer- 
ence to any other frictional. 

G. W. Septimus Piesse. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Essays, Ethnological and Linguistic. By the late James 
Kennedy, Esq., LL.B., formerly Her Majesty's Britannic 
Judge at the Havannah. Edited by C. M." Kennedy, B.A. 
(Williams & Norgate.) 

The Essays contained in this volume, so creditable to 
the learning and ingenuity of the late Mr. Kennedy, were 
intended to form an introductory volume to two large 
works, the one on the origin and character of the Basque 
Language and People, the other relative to the know- 
ledge of America possessed by the Ancients. They are 
eight in number, and we shall best do justice to the au- 
thor by briefly enumerating the subjects of them. They 
are^L On the Ancient Languages of France and Spain. 
II. On the Ethnology and Civilisation of the Ancient 
Britons. HI. Suggestions respecting the Nationality and 
Language of the Ancient Etruscans. IV. Ethnological 
Notices of the Philippine Islands. V. & VI. On the pro- 
bable Origin of the American Indians, especially the 
Ma3 7 as, the Caribs, the Arrawaks, and the Mosquitos. 

VII. Hints on the formation of a new English Dictionarj r . 

VIII. On the supposed Lost Tribes of Israel. Two 
Supplementary Notes respecting the Basques, and Traces 
of Phoenician Civilisation in Central America, conclude 
the work. 

Books Received : — 

Australia ; its Rise, Progress, and Present Condition. 
By William Westgarth, Esq. With Map. (Adam & 
C. Black.) { 

A very useful little volume, consisting of the articles 
" Australasia " and " Australia " from the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, revised and re-written, so as to bring down 
to the present time every possible information respecting 
this important part of our empire. 

The Historical Finger-Post ; or, Hand-Boohs of Terms, 
Phrases, Epithets, Cognomens, 8fc. By Edward Shelton. 
(Lockwood & Co.) 

One of those useful manuals of condensed information 
which have of late years been called for by the increas- 
ing number of readers, who are unable to search out for 
themselves the knowledge which such books so readily 
supply. 

The History of the City of Exeter. By the Rev. George 
Oliver, D.D. With a short Memoir of the Author, and an 
Appendix of Documents and Illustrations. (Roberts : Exe- 
ter.) 

We desire to call the attention of our Devonian friends 



to this posthumous work of the late amiable and accom- 
plished author of the Lives of the Bishops of Exeter. 

The Book of Days. A Miscellany of Popular Antiqui- 
ties in Connection with the Calendar. Part I. (W. & R. 
Chambers.) 

What Hone so happily conceived, and so well carried 
out, is here attempted in a more enlarged and compre- 
hensive form. If we say tbat the work equals its prede- 
cessor in interest, we do it no more than justice ; and we 
can scarcely say less, seeing how freely its editor, in its 
compilation, has availed himself of the pages of Notes 
and Queries. 

Medals of the British Army, and How they were Won. 
By Thomas Carter. Parts XIII. and XIV. (Groom- 
bridge & Sons.) 

In this new section of Mr. Carter's interesting work, 
he furnishes us with the history of the Indian War 
Medals. " The Indian Mutiny Medal," and " The Seringa- 
patani Medal," 1799, form the subject of the present 
parts. 



We regret to announce the death, on Monday last, of 
a courteous gentleman and most accomplished scholar, to 
whom the readers of " N. & Q." have been frequently 
indebted— the Rev. Edward Craven Hawtrey, D.D., 
Provost of Eton. Dr. Hawtrey was in his seventy- 
second year. The obituary of the present week also con- 
tains the name of the venerable author of An Introduction 
to the Critical Study of the Holy Scriptures, and many 
other important works — the Rev. Thomas Hartwell 
Horne; who died on the 27th instant, in the eighty- 
second year of his age. 

A proposition from Mr. Riley, the editor of the Liber 
Albus, for the arrangement of the Records of the City of 
London, and the publication of the more important 
Documents, is now under the consideration of the munici- 
pal authorities. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &c, of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentleman by whom they are required, and whose name and ad- 
dress are given for that purpose: — 
Syriac and Arabic Scriptures and Lexicons. 

Wanted by Edw. A. Tiilett, Carrow Abbey, Norwich. 



Our Foreign Con respondents. In the feiv words which we addressed 
to our Readers on the'ith January, at the commencement of our Third 
Series, we stated that " correspondence now reaches us from all parts of 
the world." The present number confirms this statement in a vera strik- 
ing manner, for in it will be found, commimications of interest from 
Zeijst,in Holland: Pisa, in Tuscany; Mhow, Bombay ; from Capetown, 
South Africa ; Harran, in Padan Aram; and from Montcgo Bay, 
Jamaica. 

G. W. M. will find the lin e — 

" Fortuna non mutat genus," 
in Horace, Ode iv. lib. iv. 

Leicester's Jesting Player forms the subject of a Paper by Mr. 
Bruce in the \st vol. of the Shakspeare Society's Papers, and is referred 
to in the article, "Was Shakspeare ever a Soldier? " in "N. & Q." 2nd S. 
vii.pp. 330, 351. 

F. Fitz-Henry. We have a letter for this correspondent. WJiere can \ 
toe forward it? 

W. I. S. H. The lines on " Woman's Will " occur on the pillar 
erected on the Mount in the Dane- John Field, Canterbury. See "N. & 
Q." 1st S. iii. 285. 

_ " Notes and Queries " is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
issued in Monthly Parts. The Subscription for Stamped Copies for 
Six Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (including the Half- 
yearly Index) is lis. id., which may be paid by Post Office Order in 
favour o/Messrs. Bell and Daldy, 186, Fleet Street, E.C.; to whom 
all Communications for thk Editor should be addressed. 



NOTES and QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 
for 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC, 

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Saturday, February 8, 1862. 



f Price Fourpf-nce. 

I Stamped Edition, Sd. 



THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, No. CCXXI., is 
published THIS DAY. 

Contents : 
RAILWAY CONTROL. 
THE PRINCESS CHARLOTTE. 
POPULAR EDUCATION -THE NEW CODE. 
ICELAND -THE CHANGE OF FAITH. 
THE LATE PRINCE CONSORT. 
SPAIN AS IT IS. 
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Now ready, in 8vo, price Is. 6d. sewed, 

A BRIEF MEMOIR OF LORD MACAULAY, 
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the Very Rev. the Dean of St. Paul's. With a Portrait 
engraved from Richmond's Picture. 

%* This Memoir, with the Portrait, is published sepa- 
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London: LONGMAN, GREEN, & CO. 14, Ludgate Hill, 



AN ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF THE 
INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION 

Will be issued with the Art-Journal for 1862 (commencing on April 1), 
each part of which will consist of twenty-four illustrated pages, and 
contain about one hundred and twenty engravings. A r o extra charge 
will be made for the Art- Journal containing such Illustrated Cata- 
logue. Nor will any payment be required for the introduction— with 
Critical and Explanatory Notices — of any object of Art engraved. 

THE ART-JOURNAL 

For February contains the second of a Series of Selected Pictures : — 
" THE SWING," engraved in line by E. Goodall, after a Paintinc 

by F. Goodall, A.R.A. Also, 
"BRIGHTON CHAIN PIER," engraved byR. Wallis, after J. M. 

W. Turner, R.A., 
and various Articles, extensively illustrated by Wood Engraviugs of 
the highest attainable merit. 

London : JAMES S. VIRTUE. 

3rd S. No. 6.] 



Published this Day, price One Shilling, to be continued Monthly, illus- 
trated with full-page Plates in Colours and Tints, together with 
Woodcuts printed with the Text, No. I. of 

rpHE INTELLECTUAL OBSERVER 

X Review of Natural History, Microscopic Research, and Recreative 
Science. 

Contents. 

The Work of the Year. By Shirley Ilibberd, F.R.H.S. 
Prime Movers. By J. W. M Gaulcy. 

On Flukes. By T. Spencer Cobbuld, M.D., F.L.S. With a Co- 
loured Plate. 

The Roman Cemetery of Uriconium. By Thomas Wright, M. A., 

F.S.A. With Illustrations. 
The Skipper, Skopster, or Saury. By Jonathan Couch, F.L.S. With 

an Illustration. 

A Rotifer New to Britain. By Phillip Henry Gosse, F.R.S. With 
a Tinted Plate. 

Notes on the Preceding Taper. By Henry J. Slack, F.G.S. With 
Illustrations. 

Ancient and Modern Finger Rings. By II. Noel Humphreys. 

W ith Illustrations. 
The Earth in the Comet's Tail. By the Rev. T. W. Webb, F.R.A.S. 

With an Illustration. 
Jottings on Copper. (Percy's Metallurgy.) 

The Transit of Mercury. By the Hon. Mrs. Ward. With Illus- 
trations. 
Proceedings of Learned Societies. 
Notes and Memoranda, &c. 

GROOMBRIDGE & SONS, 5, Paternoster Row, London. 

Third edition, making Seventieth Thousand, is now ready of 
THE JANUARY PART OF 

pOOD WORDS, Sixpence, Monthly, Illustrated. 

VX Edited by Norman MacLeou, D.D., and illustrated by Milluis, 
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The January Part contr.ins the Opening Chapters of Mistress and 
Maid, a Household Story (to be continued throughout the year). By 
the Author of "John Halifax, Gentleman." Illustrated by J. E. 
Mill a is. 

It also contains contributions by 



The Countess dc Gosparin, Author 
of " The Near aud Heavenly 
Horizons." 

The Rev. William Arnot. 

Isa Craig, and others. 



Sir David B - ewster. 
Archbishop Whately. 
Norman MacLeod, D.D., Editor. 
A. K. H. B., Author of " The Re- 
creations of a Country Parson." 
Dora Grccnwcll, 

Professor C. Piazzi Smith, Astro- 
nomer Royal for Scotland. ' 

Contents of the February Part. 

1 . Moments in Life. By the Editor. 

2. Days and Nights in Greenland. ByDavid Walker, M.D., F.R.G.S., 

F.L.S. With Four Illustrations by the Author. 

3. The Worse the Better. By the Rev. Hugh btowell Brown. 

4. Old Customs snd Old Folic. By the Countess de Gasparin, Author 

of '■ The Near and Heavenly Horizons." Illustrated by J. D. 
Watson. 

5. The Battle of Gilboa, By the Author of " Kelavane." Illustrated 

by John Tcnnicl. 

C. The Blessings of'thosc who W r eep. By the late la v. Edward Irving. 

7. Gifts.— A Parable from Nature. By Mrs. Gatty. 

8. Mistress and Maid. Chaps. III. and IV. By the Author of " John 

Halifax, Gentleman." Illustrated by J. E. Millais. 

9. My Photographic Album. By Ann Warreader. Illustrated by 

T. B. DalzieJ (from a Photograph). 
10. The Uses of the Moon. By Principal Latch. 
1 '. The Newspaper. By M. B. 

12. The Carrier Tigcon. By Dora Grccnwcll. Illustrated by T. 

Morten. 

13. At Home in the Scriptures. By Rev. William Arnot. 

Edinburgh: STRAnAN & CO. 
London: GROOMBRIDGE & SONS; and all Book sellers. 



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[8'd S. I. Feb. 8, '62. 



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A NEWLY DISCOVERED WORK BY JOHN VALDESSO. 
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ALFABETO CHRISTIANO, BY JUAN DE 
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NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



101 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBR UAR Y 8, 1862. 



CONTENTS. — No. G. 

NOTES : — Tnrgot, ( hatterton, and the Rowley Poems, 101 

— The Registers of the Stationers' Company, 104— Let- 
ters of Archbishop Leighton, 106 — Mysteries, 107 

Minor Notes: — Sir John Davies and Robert Montgomery 

— Misapplication of Terms — Autobiography of Miss Cor- 
nelia Knight: Errata— Lottery — Missing or Dislocated 
Documents - Lengthened Tenure of a Living — Bonefire 
and Ronlire, 108. 

QUERIES : — " Adestc Fideles " — Arms in Noble's " Crom- 
well Family "— Arnenian Society — Raldvvin Family: Sir 
Clement Fnnihmn — Sir Francis Bryan — Engraved Heads 

— Family of Dowson of Chester — Jacob Fletcher — Greek 
Orator — Ikon — Jones of Dingcstow— Passage in Cicero — 
Rutland : County or Shire P — Satin Bank Note — Shakes- 
peare Family Pedigree — Shoe nailed to Mast — West 
Street Chapel, 109. 

Queries with Answers : — " How many Beans make 
Five? " — Christening Bowls — The Modern British Coin- 
age — " England's Black Tribunall " — " Champagne to the 
mast head " — Barometers first made — Gray's " Elegy " 
parodied, 111. 

REPLIES : — Albert University: Order of Merit, &c, 113 — 
Isabella and Elizabeth, lb. — Aristotle "Do Pegiminc 
Principum," 114 — Trial of Spencer Cowper — Fridays, 
Saints' Davs and Fast Days — Jakins — Husbandman 

— Metric Prose — Coins inserted in Tankards — Paulus 
Dolscius: Psalter in Greek Verse — Xavier and Indian 
Missions — The Queen's Pennant — Sir Humphry Davy 

— Topography of Ireland — Otho Vamius, " Emblemata 
Horatiana - Solicitors' Bills — Crony — Learned Dane 
on Unicorns — Jefferson Davis — Sunday Newspapers — 
Col. Thomas Winslow, &c, 115. 

Notes on Books. 



$ntr£. 

TURGOT, CHATTERTON, AND THE ROWLEY 
POEMS. 

Perhaps there is no provincial town in England, 
the history of which has been so trifled with, as 
that of Bristol. To Thomas Rowley, who is repre- 
sented as a priest residing here in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, has been ascribed the authorship of numerous 
manuscripts containing narratives relating to the 
old town, which long passed as genuine, but are 
now regarded as the inventions of that unfortu- 
nate genius, Thomas Chatterton. Among other 
fictions contained in these papers, mention is made 
of Turgot, a monkish historian, whom Mr. Bar- 
rett tells us, " is said to be a Bristol man ; " * and 
whom, too, Jacob Bryant says, " was assuredly of 
this place" (Bristol). " Turgotle born of Saxonne 
Parents ynn Bristoive Towne." "j" The following 
remarks are submitted to the reader, with a view 
to show the incorrectness of such statements : — 

No one who has investigated the subject will 
deny that Turgot was a real character ; yet Mr. 
Barrett, who tells us that he " is said to be a Bristol 
man," makes no effort to ascertain that fact ; nor 
does he give any memoir of him in his " Biogra- 
phical Account of Eminent Bristol Men," which 
he has appended to his History of Bristol. Upon 

* History and Antiquities of the City of Bristol, p. 81. 
f Observations upon the Poems of Thomas Rowley, p. 



his presumed testimony he has depended for much 
of his account of transactions in Bristol during 
the reigns of William the Conqueror, William 
Rufus, and part of that of Henry I., at which 
time Turgot was actually living. A list of his 
works lias been carefully preserved, but in it we 
fail to find one that does not treat almost exclu- 
sively of persons and places belonging to the 
north of England, where he resided almost from 
his boyhood. He wrote a life of Margaret, Queen 
of Malcolm III., at the request of her daughter 
Maud, wife of King Henry I. of England. Hec- 
tor Boethius and Peter Bale attribute also the 
authorship of The History of the Kings of Scot- 
land, The Chronicles of Durham, The Life of 
King Malcolm III., and the Annals of his own 
Time to Turgot. The History of the Church of 
Durham, likewise, which passes as the work of 
Simeon of Durham, has been shown by the learned 
Selden, in his masterly preface to the Decern 
Scriptores, to have really been written by Turgot 
— Simeon having unjustly taken the honour to 
himself. 

The statement of Mr. Barrett that Turgot was a 
Bristol man, was not only reiterated by writers in 
his time, but it has been repeated in our own in 
the volume of the Proceedings of the Archaeologi- 
cal Institute for 1851, where, at p. 119, the error is 
again recorded; and the copyist says that "Tur- 
got is one of the principal historians and writers, 
who has treated on the antiquities of Bristol." 
He then adds, in a note at the foot of the page, 
that " Some have called in question the au- 
thenticity of Turgot's history : he is cited in the 
belief that certain ancient papers fell into Chat- 
terton's hands which were worked up in his His- 
tory." (Whose History, Chatterton's ?) Yet, as 
the writer subsequently quotes both Turgot and 
Rowley as authorities, without remark of any kind 
to show that he had the slightest suspicion that 
their statements were mere inventions, we natu- 
rally infer that he believes in the integrity of the 
writings ascribed to them ; and that Rowley, the 
creation of Chatterton, was a veritable personage, 
clothed in flesh and blood like ourselves. In this 
way the fabrications of the boy-bard, incorporated 
by Mr. Barrett in his volume, are continually re- 
peated without examination, to the regret of every 
lover of genuine investigation, and every inquirer 
after truth. 

Although many persons may doubt that Turgot 
was a Bristolian by birth, though stated to be so 
by Mr. Barrett; or that he was at all connected 
with Bristol as asserted by Mr. Bryant, I am not 
aware that any author questions the genuineness of 
his acknowledged writings, as remarked by the 
writer in the volume of Proceedings referred to. 
He was, as we shall presently see, a man of consi- 
derable note, and he is everywhere spoken of with 
great respect; but as the claim which has been 



102 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[3 rd S. I. Feb. 8, '62. 



set up for Bristol to be regarded as the place of 
his nativity, appears to rest entirely upon the 
veracity of the manuscripts presented to our local 
historian by Chatterton, it partakes of the general 
suspicion which attaches to all the papers given to 
Mr. Barrett by that gifted genius, and claiming 
Rowley for their author ; and it must be received 
accordingly with a considerable amount of doubt 
and hesitancy. 

In tracing the family of Turgot, we find the 
Scottish genealogists, whilst proving its settle- 
ment in that country at a very early period, also 
very particularly asserting the Anglo-Saxon parent- 
age of the subject of this inquiry himself. They 
maintain that this Scottish branch of the family, 
was not only " of the highest antiquity, but very 
illustrious ; for it claimed descent from Togut, a 
Danish prince, who lived a thousand years before 
the Christian era." They also state that at the 
time of the Crusades some members of this family 
migrated into Normandy, one of whom founded 
the hospital of Conde-sur-Noireau in France, in 
the year 1281 ; and from this off-shoot descended 
(it is believed) the celebrated French statesman 
Anne Robert James Turgot, born at Paris, May 
10th, 1727. 

The family of Turgot^ was then evidently of 
northern extraction; — this ascertained, the next 
point is to find out, if possible, where the particu- 
lar individual member of it, who is said by Mr. 
Barrett to have been a Bristol man, was actually 
born. Simeon of Durham, who was contempo- 
rary with Turgot, without referring at all to the 
place of his birth, says that he came " a remotis 
Anglim partibus" an expression which Mr. Bryant, 
in his zeal for the authenticity of the Rowley 
poems, interprets to mean Bristol, where he says 
Turgot was a monk : this, however, is undoubtedly 
an error, as we shall presently see. As one branch 
of the family settled at an early period in Nor- 
mandy, so we have reason to believe that another 
part of it located themselves in Lincolnshire, 
where it is said they were not only highly respect- 
able, but even noble ; and in this county, though 
we know not exactly at what place, I have no 
doubt that Turgot was born ; for when but a 
youth, says Simeon of Durham, he was delivered 
by the people of Lindsey to William the Conqueror, 
as one of their hostages for securing the peace of 
some of the western provinces, a fact which may 
have influenced the judgment of Mr. Bryant in 
asserting his Bristol paternity — he supposing that 
the vest of England was intended by this expres- 
sion. 

When delivered as a hostage to the Conqueror, 
young Turgot was confined in the castle of Lin- 
coln, which was situated in that part of the 
county designated Lindsey, which is the most im- 
portant of the three districts into which Lincoln- 
shire is divided ; the two others being called 



Holland and Kerstevan, and both lying to the 
west of it : hence Lindsey supplied hostages for 
securing the peace of itself as well as of these 
western provinces. Had Mr. Bryant noticed this 
little circumstance, the opinion he expressed relat- 
ing to Turgot's birth-place might have been a 
very different one; but he seems, like many other 
writers, to have caught at every thing likely to 
support a favourite theory, rather than investigate 
facts^which might overturn what he was anxious 
to believe himself, and to induce others to believe 
also. 

We [may then, I think, fairly conclude that 
Turgot was born somewhere in the county of 
Lincoln. From Lincoln Castle he contrived to 
escape into Norway ; but the ship which carried 
him there also conveyed some of the Conqueror's 
adherents, who had been despatched thither to 
treat with Olave, then king of that country. Al- 
though discovered by the Normans before the 
vessel arrived at its destination, Turgot had so 
gained the favour of the sailors that they pro- 
tected him from the malice of his fellow passen- 
gers, who, though hostile, were not suffered to 
harm him. On landing in Norway he was pre- 
sented to the king, and he so won upon the mon- 
arch and his people, that after remaining for some 
years at court, he left that country to return 
home, 'laden with presents ; but in a storm which 
overtook, and wrecked the ship on the coast of 
Northumberland, he lost the whole of the wealth 
he had accumulated. From that moment he re- 
solved to devote himself to the service of the 
church ; and he accordingly took the vows of a 
monk ; not, as Mr. Bryant says, in the west, but 
in the north of England. From Northumberland, 
where he was shipwrecked, he travelled to Dur- 
ham ; " and applying to Walter, bishop of that 
see, declared his resolution to forsake the world, 
and become a monk." In this determination he 
was encouraged by the good prelate, who com- 
mitted him to the care of Aldwin, the first prior 
of Durham, then at Jarrow. From that monas- 
tery he went to Melrose ; from thence to Were- 
mouth, where, says his biographer, Simeon of 
Durham, the ceremony of his induction into the 
monastery at Durham was performed about the 
year 1074 by Aldwin the prior, who had before 
been the prior of the monastery at Winchcombe, 
in Gloucestershire. Here, says Simeon, Aldwin 
bestowed on Turgot the monastic habit — "ibi, 
Aldwinus Turgota monachicum habitum tradi- 
dit." 

On the death of Aldwin in 1087, Turgot was 
unanimously chosen prior of Durham ; and we 
learn from Roger de Hoveden, that in 1093, the 
new church there was commenced, Malcolm King 
of Scotland, William the bishop, and Turgot the 
prior, laying the first stones. Shortly after his 
election to the office just named, having esta- 



3'd S. I. Fep.. 8, '02.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



103 



blished himself in the good opinion of the bishop, 
he was appointed archdeacon of the diocese, which 
situation he held with that of prior of Durham. 
Under his able management the revenues of the 
monastery were greatly augmented, large addi- 
tions were made to its privileges, and many im- 
provements in the structure itself were the result 
of his prudent government. During the twenty 
years he held the office of prior, he frequently 
visited the various places included in his archdea- 
conry, and often preached to attentive audiences, 
lie was a sincere admirer of St. Cuthbert, whose 
relics were greatly venerated by him, and also by 
his early friend and predecessor in office, Prior 
Aldwin ; and it is not unlikely that this circum- 
stance, together with his own personal virtues and 
accomplishments, induced the king in 1107 to 
solicit his acceptance of the archbishopric of St. 
Andrews, which he did, but his consecration was 
for many months delayed. Here he remained for 
the space of eight years, and as his great worth 
was particularly known both to the king and his 
Queen Margaret, the sister of Edgar Atheling, 
who, like Turgot, indulged an unconquerable aver- 
sion to the Anglo-Normans, he was appointed 
confessor to the latter. Some dissensions, how- 
ever, between him and the king occurring soon 
afterwards, so disquieted the latter days of the 
archbishop, that he was desirous of journeying to 
Home to crave the advice of Pope Pascal in the 
matter. But his strength being unequal to the 
task, he retired to Durham, for which place he 
ever entertained a great regard, stopping on his 
way at Weremouth, where he performed mass. 
On arriving at the former scene of his labours, he 
was seized with a slow fever, which, in the course 
of two months, terminated his valuable life. 
Here, says Simeon of Durham, he died in the year 
1115; and Leland tells us he was buried there 
with Aldwin and Walcher, who were both priors 
of Durham, and that the tomb which contained 
their ashes remained in his time. 

Although we are not informed of the age attained 
by Turgot when he died, it can be ascertained 
with tolerable accuracy. By the expression his 
biographer uses, that when a hostage to William 
I. he was "hut/i youth" we shall not greatly err if 
we regard his age in 10GG as not exceeding twenty 
years; and as he lived until 1115, he had not 
quite attained to threescore years and ten. He 
was undoubtedly a man of ability, and one of the 
most distinguished literary characters of the age 
in which he lived. To him is ascribed the author- 
ship of the Battle of Hastings, a poem which was 
given to Mr. Barrett by Chattcrton with the fol- 
lowing title : — 

" Battle of Hastings, wrote by Turgott the Monk, a 
Saxon, in the tenth century, and translated b}' Thomas 
lioulie, parish preeste of St." John's in the City of Bristol, 
iu the year MG5." 



Of this poem Mr. War ton says : — 

"I no longer argue that the Buttle of Hastings is a 
forgery, because Chattcrton produced the first part as his 
own, and afterwards a second as the work of Rowley 

It is rather unfortunate, too, for the date given 
to this poem, that Turgot could not have been 
even bom until about the first half of the century 
which followed that mentioned, had passed away. 
If his birth took place in the tenth century, as 
stated above, he would have attained an age truly 
patriarchal; and been the author of the poem in 
question, many years before the battle of Hastings 
was fought, or the combatants themselves had 
existed ! 

From the circumstance, as already stated, that 
Aldwin, Prior of Durham, had previously belonged 
to the abbey at Winchcombe in Gloucestershire, 
Mr. Bryant has concluded, without a tittle of evi- 
dence, that an acquaintance had existed between 
him and Turgot, when he supposes they resided 
respectively at Winchcombe and Bristol ; and we 
are informed that on Turgot removing to Dur- 
ham, he there found, not only Aldwin, but another 
monastic brother from Winchcombe, named llein- 
frid. These circumstances, which are merely pre- 
sumed, are nevertheless sufficient, in the estimation 
of Mr. Bryant, to account for the people of Bristol 
being spoken of with so much distinction in the 
writings which are claimed by himself and Mr. 
Barrett to the productions of Turgot.* 

The fact that Turgot was not at all connected 
with Bristol is sufficiently apparent; and that 
some place in Lincolnshire gave him birth. From 
thence we have traced him to Durham, where, 
and at places still further north, he spent the rest 
of his life. Nothing has been adduced of any 
authority whatever to show that he was in any 
way connected with Bristol, or any other place in 
the West of England. In the north he appears 
to have spent nearly the whole of his life; and 
there too he died, and was buried. Everything 
that relates to him appears to be narrated by his 
biographer, Simeon of Durham, with a consider- 
able amount of detail ; but not one word do we 
find recorded of his having at any time journeyed 
at all towards this part of the country ; and it is 
an unworthy occupation for any writer to reiterate 
the statements made by others, which a little 
patient research would show to be entirely devoid 
of truth. 

Mr. Bryant" thinks that the favourable manner 
in which he presumes Turgot in the paper ("done 
from the Saxon ynto Englyshe" by Rowley), 
speaks of Bristol and its vicinity, " accounts "for 
the title assumed by Chattcrton of Dnnelmus 
Bristoliensis, which (he says) he would never have 
taken had it not been for a prior signature of 
Turgot of Dunhelm, which he had seen upon a 



* Bryant's Observations, pp. 226, 246, 248, 572. 



104 



NOTES AND QUERIES. r>» s. i. fkb. 8, »62. 



manuscript." * This opinion is, however, any- 
thing but satisfactory, and I think, that without 
travelling so far to ascertain Chatterton's au- 
thority for the name, it will be found in Camden's 
Britannia, a book well known to antiquaries, and 
with which we have every reason to believe that 
unfortunate youth was well acquainted ; for, 
strange to say, an old edition of this very work 
was in the office library of Mr. Lambert, to whom 
Chatterton was apprenticed ; and which, having 
much leisure, and a great liking for antiqua- 
rian pursuits, he no doubt frequently perused. 
At p. 934 of that work (Bishop Gibson's 2nd edi- 
tion), speaking to some facts relating to the his- 
tory of Durham, the writer says: " Simeon I)u- 
nelmensis, or rather Abbot Turgot, tells us " — 
and then he goes on to relate particulars which it 
is not necessary to transcribe. Here it will be 
seen at a glance, that the very name (shortened 
by a syllable) assumed by Chatterton, Dunelmensis, 
to which he added Bristoliensis ; and that of the 
historian Turgot, to whom are ascribed the manu- 
scripts in question, actually occur in the same 
passage, and in such close proximity, as to leave 
no doubt in my own mind as to the origin of the 
title or signature Chatterton made use of, or from 
whence he derived his knowledge of the fact that 
Turgot was an annalist or historian. 

Having thus shown that Mr. Barrett and ail 
other writers who assert that Turgot was a Bris- 
tol man are in error, it is not difficult to deter- 
mine the character of the manuscripts which are 
said by our local historian and his copyists to have 
been " done from the Saxon ynto Englyshe by T. 
Rowlie ; " for it is now all but universally be- 
lieved in the literary world, that the real author 
was the gifted but unfortunate Chatterton. Mr. 
Bryant has laboured hard, though not very suc- 
cessfully, to prove that Turgot really was the 
writer of the poems ascribed to him ; " but he 
makes so much to rest upon mere speculation and 
hypothesis, that we are not safe in coming to any 
such conclusion." George Pbyce. 

Bristol City Library. 



THE REGISTERS OF THE STATIONERS' 
COMPANY. 

(Continued from 3 rd S. i. p. 46.) 

xv Maij [1591]. — Andrewe White. Entred 
unto him, &c. The wonderfull vyctorie obteyned 
by the Centuryon of London againste fyite Spanishe 
gallies, the iiij th of April, beinge Ester daye, 
1591 vj d . 

Andrewe White. Entred unto him, &c. a bal- 
lad of the same vyctorie vj d . 

[The tract first entered, is now before us, consisting 
only of a few p ages : it is entitled The Valiant and most 

* Observations, pp. 222, 573. 



laudable fight performed in the Straights by the Centurion of 
London, against Jive Spanish Gallies. Who is safely re- 
turned this present Moneth of May. Anno D. 1591. There 
is a woodcut of a ship on the title-page, so large that no 
room was left for the imprint : at the end we read — 
"Present at this fight Maister John Hawes, Marchant, 
and sundry other of good account." The result was most 
extraordinary, if we are to believe implicitly the state- 
ment of Hawes ; for he says that the Centurion had only 
forty-eight men and bo} T s on board, while each of the gal- 
leys that assailed her had 500 sailors and soldiers. The 
ballad, as far as we are aware, has not survived, and we 
the more regret its loss as an early naval effusion.] 

xvi Maij. — Abell Jeffes. Entred unto him, 
&c. A ballad entituled, A pleasant songe of Twoo 
stamering Lovers, which plainely dothe unto your 
sight bewray e their pleasaunt meetinge on St. Valen- 
tine's daie vj d . 

[The humour probably consisted in the ridiculous 
blunders of the stammering lovers. We may conjecture 
that, on the 16th May, it was a reprint of what had ap- 
peared on or near Valentine's Day, 1591.] 

Quinto Junij. — John Wolf. Entred for his 
copie, The Masque of the League of the Span- 
yard.es discovered, Sfc. to be printed in English vj d . 

[Probably a translation from the French. Robert 
Greene's Spanish Masquerado had been published two 
years earlier, and was clearly a different production; 
which was never reprinted, and never deserved it.] 

10 Junij. — Richard Jones. Entred for his 
copie, &c. A christall glasse for christian women, 
Conteyninge an excellent discow^se of the godly life 
and Xpian death of Mrs. Katherine Stubbes, Sfc. 

vj d . 

[She was the wife of Philip Stubbes, the celebrated 
puritanical author of The Anatomy of Abuses, the first 
edition of which came out in May 1583 ; and its popu- 
larity was so great, that it was republished with various 
additions and alterations in August of the same year: 
it had been entered by Jones on March 1st, 1588. (See 
Extr. from the Stat. Reg., published by the Shakspeare 
Soc, vol. ii. p. 178). The early impressions of this Life 
of his wife seem to have been innumerable ; but so many 
of them were destroyed by the thumbs of readers, that 
we have never been able to meet with a copy of it 
older than 1640. It contains an inflated encomium on 
Mrs. Stubbes' piety, virtue, and resignation.] 

xxiij 0 Junij.— Thorns Orwyn. Graunted unto 
him, by the consent of Edward Marshe,theis copies 
insuinge, which did belonge to Thomas Marshe 
deceased, viz. : 

In 8vo, in Englishe. 
The manage of wyt and wisdome. 
Keepinge of Goshawke. 
Myrror of Madnes. 
Tullies Old age. 
Institution of a gentleman. 
Flowers of Terence. 
Idle Inventions. 
Heywoode s woorhes. 
Watchword for wilfull women, 
Booke of Chesse plaie. 
Skelton's woorhes. 



3 r * S. I. Feb. 8, '62.] 



105 



mile's Dreames. 
Nobilitie of D. Humfrey. 
Tom tell trotlie. 
Sipiroris dreames. 

In folio. 
Distruction of Troy, in meter. 
Palace of Pleasure, 1 part. 
Palace of Pleasure, 2 part. 
Tragicall Discourses. 
Herodotus in English. 
Ovid de tristibus in English. 
Seneca, his Tragedies. 
Digges Tectonicon. 
Digges Prognostication. 
Leaden Goddes. 

Mirror of Magistrates, 1 pt. and last pt. 

Schoole of Shootinge. 

Churchy ardes Chippes. 

Spider and the flic. 

Horace Epistles. 

Horace Sators. 

Pageant of Popes. 

Funeralls of K. E. the 6. 

Historie of Italic 

The ly ve of liber alitie. 

Watson's Amyntas xiij s iiij d . 

[This, it will be admitted, is a very curious enumera- 
tion of productions, certainly at that time in print, but 
many of them now lost. Perhaps the most remark- 
able is the very first — The Marriage of Wit and Wis- 
dom; which drama was printed by the Shakspeare 
Society, in 1846, from a MS. in the possession of Sir Ed- 
ward Dering, Bart. At the time Mr. Halliwell wrote 
the Introduction to it, he was not aware of the existence 
of the above memorandum ; and when the Rev. Mr. Dyce 
asserted, that " no such drama as The Marriage of Wit 
and Wisdom ever existed," he was evidently too bold and 
hasty — faults with which he is not usually chargeable. 
The list of the other pieces is only a selection of the most 
popular, for the rest consist chiefly of old divinity : a few 
notes upon some of those mentioned above may be ac- 
ceptable. ILi/ivood's Works, clearly means John Hey- 
wood, whose Spider and Fly is separately distinguished 
as a folio below : this is clearly a mistake which is also 
committed as to the rest, for all that are now known are 
in quarto, and so the enumeration ought probably to have 
been headed. We know no book at all like The Nobility 
of D\_uke~\ Humfrey. Tom tell trothe was a popular sa- 
tirical song ; Sipiron's Dreams ought most likely to be 
" Scipio's Dream" — Somnium Scipionis. Distruction 
of Troy was probably Peele's poem ; Tragical Dis- 
courses must have been Turberville's Tales; Herodotus in 
English, consisted onlj* of the two first books by B. R. 
Ovid de Tristilms was by Churchyard. Leaden Gods was 
Bateman's Golden Booheof Leaden Gods, 1577, our earliest 
mythology. School of Shooting was Ascham's Toxophilus. 
Horace Epistles and Sators were, doubtless, by Drant. 
The Funerals of King Edward the VI. was by Baldwin. 
The History of Italy was that of W. Thomas ; but with 
The Line of Liberality we have no acquaintance; and 
Watson's Amyntas was printed by Henry (not Edward) 
Marsh, ex assignatione Thoma: Marsh, in 1585. All these 
we here see assigned by Edward Marsh, the son of 
Thomas Marsh, then dead, to Thomas Orwyu.] 

xix July. — Abell Jeffes. Received of him for 



printings a ballad shewinge the treasons of George 
Bysley, alias Parsey, and Mountford, Seminarye 
prestes, who suffered in Eletestreete the firste of 
Julye, 1591 vj d . 

22 July. — Andrewe White. Entred unto him 
for his copie, A ballad entytuled The happie over- 
throwe of the Prince of Parma his powers before 
Knodtsen burge sconce, the xxij of July, 1591 vj d . 

[This ballad in the copy that has come down to us 
has no imprint, and no name of Andrew White as the 
publisher. We apprehend, from the appearance of the 
type, that it is not so old a3 the event it celebrates by 
twenty or thirty years. It opens then spiritedly : — 
" Huzza, my lads, huzza}' ! 

What cheer, my mates, what cheer? 
The Spaniardes have lost the day, 
As you shall quickly heare. 
The Prince of Palmer and all his men, 
Have lost the Sconce. What then ? What then ? " 
And so the burden is continued, each stanza containing 
something in answer to the previous question, "What 
then ? What then ? " ] 

23 Julij. — Edward White. Entred unto him 
a ballad of the noble departinge of the right 
honorable the Erie of Essex, lieutenant-generall 
of her ma tcs forces in Fraunce, and all his gallant 
companie vj d . 

[Perhaps by George Peele; but more probably by 
Thomas Deloney, who seldom allowed any important 
event to escape the vigilance of his pen. He was a 
weaver by trade, and used to compose, not like Sir 
Richard Blackmore, to " the rumbling of hia chariot 
wheels," but to the rattling of his shuttle : he was known 
as " the ballading silk-weaver."] 

26 Julij. — Rich. Jones. Entred unto him for 
his copy, under thandes of the B. of London and 
Mr. Watkins, a booke intituled the Huntinge of 
Cupid, wrytten by George Peele, M r of Artes of 
Oxford yj d . 

Provyded alwayes that yf y* be hurtfull to any 
other copye before lycensed, then this to be voyde. 

[No other copy of this work has ever been heard of 
but that from which Drummond of Hawthornden made 
extracts, which extracts are preserved among the MS. of 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland ; but the book it- 
self has never turned up. There is little doubt that it 
was printed ; but it was probably suppressed, or with- 
drawn from circulation, in consequence of the singular 
proviso above quoted, of which nobody seems to have 
taken notice. See the Rev. Mr. Dyce's Peele's Worhs, 
vol. i. xxi, and vol. ii. p. 259.] 

xxviij 0 die Julij. — Robert Bourne. Entred 
unto him, &c. The life, arraynmcnt, Judgement and 
Execution of William Hachet yj d . 

[This, according to Stow (p. 1265) was the very day of 
Racket's execution ; so that, if the tract were printed 
I when it was brought to Stationers' Hall, it must have 
been written and put in type in anticipation of the event. 
The gibbet was erected near the Cross in Cheapside, and 
the fanatic's gesticulations and rhapsodies were such, 
and so violent, that the executioner and others " had 
much ado to get him up the ladder."] 

13 Augusti. — Tho. Nelson. Entred for his 
copie a ballad of a new northerne dialogue be- 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3rd S> I. f EB . 8> * 62 . 



twene Nail Sone, and the Warriner, and howe 
Reynold Peares gott faire Nannye to his Love vj d . 

[It is not easy to understand what was meant by 
" Nail Sone " : had it anything to do with the name of 
Nel-son, the publisher of the ballad? " Northern," as we 
have had occasion before to observe, was then used to 
designate any thing merely rustic] 

14 August!. — Gregory Seton. Entred for his 
copie, &c. a book in English entituled Salustius da 
Bartas, his weeks or Seven dayes woork . . vj d . 

[We apprehend that this registration applies to Syl- 
vester and his translation of Bu Bartas ; but it is never- 
theless quite certain that Sir P. Sidney had rendered at 
least a part of it into English before his death. The date 
of the earliest appearance of S3'lvester's version does not 
seem to have been ascertained ; but we have seen a copy 
of The First Day of the World's Creation, dated as late as 
1596. Sylvester began the publication of his poetry as 
early as 1590,] 

26 Augusti. — Jo. Danter. Entred for him, 
&c. A pleasant newe ballad called the Maydens 
Choyce vj J . 

[This publication is not to be confounded with The 
Maiden's Dreame, a production by Robert Greene ; of the 
existence of which the Rev. Mr. Dyce was not aware 
when he published his two volumes of Greene's Works. 
We shall have to speak of The Maiden's Dreame somewhat 
more at large hereafter, und«r date of 6th Dec. 1591. We 
know nothing of any such piece as The Mayden's Choyce, 
to which the entry relates; but we apprehend that it 
must have been merely a broadside.] 

J. Payne Colliek. 



LETTERS OF ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON. 

I am one of your many readers who have 
welcomed Eirionnach's contributions on the 
" Life and Writings of Archbishop Leighton," 
and am heartily glad to hear that a carefully 
edited collection of his works is at last likely to 
appear. I have taken so much interest in the 
venerable author, as to have collated my modern 
copy (Pearson's edition) line by line with the first 
editions of Leighton's Works, and can add my 
testimony to the innumerable alterations which 
have been effected in the original text, by the 
caprice or ignorance of editors, or by an ill-judged 
desire to modernise their author's style. I once 
read through the writings of St. Bernard, chiefly 
in order to form a judgment as to the extent of 
Leighton's indebtedness to him. And should I 
have chanced to verify a quotation, the where- 
abouts of which has escaped your correspondent, 
I should count it a privilege to communicate the 
reference. 

From my parcel of Leightoniana, I have ven- 
tured to take out, and forward to you for inser- 
tion, if you think fit in your valuable periodical, 
fifteen hitherto unpublished letters of the Arch- 



bishop. The three first were written by him 
when a youth at school at Edinburgh, and were 
copied by me from the originals in the State Paper 
Office, they having been seized among his father's 
papers, on his arrest, Feb. 17, 1629. The re- 
mainder (mostly undated) belong to the period 
of his episcopate, and were copied from the 
originals in the British Museum. 

C. F. Secretan. 

10, Besborough Gardens, Westminster. 

I. 

Sir, — I received a letter of your's about the 
latter end of Aprill, wherein you inform me of a 
letter of mine that you have received ; but I sent 
three or foure letters since that one, with a letter 
of James Cathekinges (?), another to you, with a 
letter enclosed to my brother, and on(e) to my 
mother as you bid me. In some one of these I in- 
formed you about my uncle. I thought strange to 
heare my aunt was at London, being sorry for 
her sickness, yet glad that she was with you. I 
pray you to remember my duty to her, -desiring 
her to pray for me, which is also my request to 
all my freindes. The buissness that fell out with 
me, which I cannot without sorrow relate that 
such a thing should have fallen out, yet having 
some hope to repe good out of it as you exhort 
me — it, I say, was thus. There was a fight be- 
tweene our classe and the semies which made 
the provost to restraine us from the play a good 
while ; the boyes upon that made some verses, one 
or two in every classe, mocking the provost's 
red nose. I having heard (?) my lord Borundell 
and the rowe of th [torn away] speaking about 
these verses which the boyes had made, spoke 
a thing in prose concerning his nose, not out of 
spite for wanting the play, neither having taken 
notice of his nose, but out of their report, for I 
never saw (him) before but once, neither thought 
I him to be a man of great state. This I spoke 
of his name, and presently upon their request 
turned it into a verse thus : 

That which his name importes is falsely sayd [his 

name is Okenhead] 
That of the oken wood his head is made, 
For why, if it had been composed so, 
Plis flaming nose had fir'd it long ago. 

The Verses of Apology not only for myself but 
for the rest you have in that paper. I hope the 
Lord shall bring good out of it to me. As for the 
Primare and the regents, to say the trueth, they 
thought it not so hainous a thing as I myself did 
justly thinke it. Pray for me as I know you doo, 
that the Lord may keepe me from like fals ; if I 
have either Christianity or morality, it will not 
suffer me to forget you, but as I am able to re- 
member you still to God, and to endeavour that 
my wayes grieve not God and (to) you my deare 
parents, the desire of my heart is to be as litle 



3^ s. I. Feb. 8, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



107 



chargeable as may be. Now desiring the Lord to 
l^eepe you, I rest, ever endeavouring to be, 
Your obedient Son, 

Robert Leighton. 

Edenbrough, May 6, 1628. 

I pray you to remember my aunt (?), duty to 
my mother, love to my brethren and sisters. Re- 
member my duty to all my freindes. 

To his kind and loving father Mr. Alexander Leighton, 
Dr. of medicine, at his house on the top of Pudle hill 
beyond the black friars gate, near the King's ward- 
robe. 

These. 

London. 

Endorsed in the father's hand. 
"If this Parliament have not a happy conclu- 
sion, the sin is yo rs . I am free of it." 

ii. 

Loving Mother, — I have much wondered that 
this long time I have never heard from you, es- 
pecially so many occasions intervening, but yet it 
stopped me not to write yet again (as is my duety), 
and so much the more because I had so good an 
occasion. I received a letter from my father, 
which, although it was but briefe, yet it per- 
spicuously made manifest unto me the danger that 
he would in al likelihood incurr of the booke which 
he hath bin printing. God frustrate the pur- 
pose of wicked men. He sent some of the bookes* 
hither, which are like to bring those that medled 
with them in some danger, butt I hope God shall 
appease the matter and limite the power of wicked 
men, who, if they could doe according to their 
desire against God's children, would make havock 
of them in a sudden. The Lord stirr us up to 
whom this matter belonges, to pray to God to de- 
fend and kecpe his children and his cause, least 
the wicked getting too much sway cry out where 
is their God become. If trouble come, there is 
no cause of sinking under it, but a comfortable 
thing it is to suffer for the cause of God, and the 
greater the crosse be, if it be for righteousness, 
the greater comfort it may afford, and the greater 
honour will it be to goe patiently through with it, 
for if it be an honour and blessedness to be re- 
viled for Christ's sake, it is a far greater honour 
to be persecuted for his sake. Exhort my brother 
walke with God, and pray for me, that the same 
thing may be my case. Thus committing you to 
God, I rest 

Your obedient Son, 

R. Leighton. 

Edbrsr, March 12, 1629. 

Pray remember me to my brethren and sisters, 
My duty to my Aunt and al my freindes. I write 
not to my father because I have not heard whether 
he be come home yet or not. I directed the letter 

* Zion's Pica against the Prclacic, for which he was 
now in prison. 



as to my father, that it might be the better knownc 
where to deliver it. 

I writt for sundry things long since, for which 
I will not now sollicit you ; send them at your 
owne leasure any time before May. 

To his loving father Mr. Alex r Leighton, Dr. of Physike, 
at his house on the top of pudle bill, near blackfriars 
gate, over against the King's wardrobe. 

These. 

London. 

Endorsed, — in Laud's handwriting, 
" March 2, 1629. (Style Rom.) Rob. Leighton, 
the Bonn's Letter to his mother from Eden- 
borough." 

in. 

Loving Mother, — The cause of my delaying to 
write unto you, having twise received letters 
from you was this. You writt unto me concerning 
some things that you had sent, and I differred 
writing till I thought to have received them, but 
not having heard any thing as yet of their coming, 
I thought good to write a line or two, having oc- 
casion. Mr. Wood hath received things from Mr. 
Morhead since then, with which he thought to 
have gotten my thinges, but he hath received his 
own and not mine. I informe you breifly of this, 
but I more desire to heare something of my 
father's affaires. I have not so much as seene 
any of his bookes yet, though there be some of 
them heere. I pray with the first occasion write 
to me what he hath done ; as yet my part is in 
the mean while to recommend it to God. Re- 
member j my duety to my aunt, my love to my 
brother,, James. I blesse God for the thing I 
heare of him, though I come short of it my- 
selfe, pray him to pray for me, that God uphold 
me, and let not Satan take advantage either 
by objecting liberty before me or ill example. 
Remember me to Elizabeth, Elisha, and my young 
brother and sister. Remember me to M rs . Frcese. 

Pardon my most rude forme of writing in re- 
gard of the past and ye time of night wherein I 
writt this letter. 

Your obed. Son, 

R. Leighton. 

Edbrg. May 20, 1629. 

To his loving father Mr. Alex r Leighton, D r of Physicke, 
at his house on the top of pudle hill, near blackfriars 
gate, over against the Kinge's wardrobe. 

These. 

London. 

Endorsed. " Maij 20, 1 629. Rob. Leighton's 
letter to his mother, fro' Edenboroughe." 

(To be continued} 



MYSTERIES. 
The account given by Bishop Percy of the 
origin of the term " mysteries," as applied to the 



103 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[8'd S. I. Feb. 8, '62. 



religious dramas of the middle ages, is well known, 
and has long been received as correct. 

" On the most solemn festivals," says he, " they were 
wont to represent in the churches, the lives and miracles 
of the saints, or some of the important stories of scrip- 
ture. And as the most mysterious subjects were fre- 
quently chosen, such as the Incarnation, Passion, and 
Resurrection of Christ, &c, these exhibitions acquired 
the general name of Mysteries." 

The following considerations seem to point to 
another derivation of the word : — 

Shakspeare has made Timon of Athens speak of 
" manners, mysteries, and trades; " while in Spen- 
ser's Mother Hubberds Tale, occur the lines : — > 
" Shame light on him, that through so false illusion, 

Doth turn the name of Souldiers to abusion ; 

And that which is the noblest mysterie, 

Brings to reproach and common infamie." 

To which Todd adds the explanation : " Mys- 
terie, profession, trade, or calling." 

Mysterie, in this sense is obviously connected 
with mister, a word of frequent occurrence in our 
earlier poets, and defined by Richardson as " the 
art or business with which any one supports him- 
self." [Probably derived from mysterium, "because 
every art or craft, however mean, has its own 
secrets, which it discloses only to the initiated." 
The term mister or mysterie was frequently ap- 
plied, as in the above quotation from Shakspeare, 
to the great corporations or guilds. May we not 
readily suppose that from these corporations it 
passed to the plays they exhibited, just as we now 
talk of the British poets, meaning their writings ; 
or of reading Dickens,' a when we mean reading his 
novels ? 

Percy's derivation has probably obtained such 
currency, because it was the only one. It is not 
in itself highly probable, as one or two facts will 
show. In none of the hundred references to the 
mysteries or miracle-plays which are to be found 
in our old writers, are they spoken of as mysteri- 
ous. Nor were the " most mysterious subjects 
frequently chosen." Lists of the subjects of some 
of these ancient plays, which are still extant, prove 
that those parts of scripture history were usually 
selected which afforded most scope for material 
representation and dramatic effect. Even when 
the mysteries of religion were introduced, they 
were introduced in as visible a form as possible. 

L. C. MlALL. 



Sir John Davies and Robert Montgomery. 
— In Macaulay's essay on Montgomery's poems 
is the following well-known passage : — 

" We would not be understood, however, to say that 
Mr. Robert Montgomery cannot make similitudes for 
himself. A very few lines further on we find one which 
has every mark of originality, and on which, we will be 
bound, none of the poets whom he has plundered will 
ever think of making reprisals : — j 



* The soul, aspiring, pants its source to mount, 
As streams meander level with their fount.' 
" We take this to be on the whole the worst similitude 
in the world. In the first place, no stream meanders, or 
can possibly meander level with its fount. In the next 
place, if streams did meander level with their founts, no 
two motions can be less like each other than that of 
meandering level and that of mounting upwards." 

Has it ever been suggested that the similitude 
in question, so far from being original, is stolen, 
and "marred in the stealing," from Sir John 
Davies's Immortality of the Soul (about a.d. 1600)? 
In that fine poem, the author, adducing proofs of 
the immortality of the soul from its own constitu- 
tion, urges that its divine origin is shown by its 
constant aspiration after perfection, for that things 
have a natural tendency to rise to the level of 
their source : — 

" Againe, how can shee (i. e. the soul) but immortall bee, 
When with the motions of both will and wit 
She still aspireth to eternitie, 
And never rests till shee attaine to it ? 

" Water in conduit-pipes can rise no higher 
Than the well-head from whence it first doth spring: 
Then since to eternall God she doth aspire, 
Shee cannot be but an eternall thing." 

It seems scarcely possible that Montgomery had 
not these lines in memory when he wrote that re- 
nowned distich, which he made the " worst simili- 
tude in the world " by his careless and common- 
place language. Alfred Ainger. 

Alrewas, Lichfield. 

Misapplication of Terms. — A lady being 
asked how she liked a discourse delivered by the 
Hon. and Rev. John North, said that " he was a 
handsome man, and had pretty doctrine." (North's 
Life.) I once heard the italicised term applied 
by a male tourist to the Falls of Niagara. 

D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

Autobiography of Miss Cornelia Knight : 
Errata. — As this work has reached a third 
edition, with several errata uncorrected, I send 
the following : — At p. 78 of vol. ii. (3rd edition), 
Lord St. Vincent comes to London to " consult 
Clive and Sir Edward Home." These names 
should be "Cline" and "Sir Everard Home." 
Clive for Cline occurs, passim. P. 105, " The 
National Guards had nosegays on their bouquets": 
evidently "bayonets." P. 116, Lord Petre is 
twice called "Petrie." P. 154, at Paris in 1826, 
Madlle. Delphine Gay is made to recite a poem 
on "The triumphal Entry of King Alfred": 
query, "Henry"? P. 130, Pistrucci, the well- 
known medallist, is called Pestrucci ; but this may 
be a mere error of the press. Jaydee. 

Lottery. — The following early notice of a 
lottery is taken from the Wells corporate Records, 
under date 15th Oct., 10th Elizabeth: — 

" At this Convoc'on the M ? r and his brethrene w'the 
the condiscent of all the burgesses, hath fully agreed 



3 rd S. I. Feb. 8, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



109 



that ev'y occupacon w'thin the Towne aforesayde shall 
make their lotts for the Lottery accordynge, as well to 
the Queene's Ma'ty's p'clamacon as to her p'vy L'res as- 
signed in that behalf." 

In a. 

Missing, or dislocated Documents. — The 
papers in the State Paper Office, or as it was then 
called the " Paper Office," do not appear to have 
been so sedulously preserved formerly as in the 
present day. Cromwell, notwithstanding all that 
has been hurled upon him by his enemies as to 
the reckless destruction of muniments by his sol- 
diery, cannot bear the culpability of a careless 
disregard of public documents during the brief 
period of his power. No better or more careful 
series of papers can be found than those of the 
Council of State during the Interregnum. Whether 
in the period anterior to the Protectorate, or dur- 
ing the first few years of the then troublous times, 
papers began to be lent out indiscriminately to in- 
dividuals, is not certain ; but it appears evident 
by the following order that the Council of State 
deemed it expedient to place their veto upon such 
a laxity of public trust. The practice referred 
to below is not at all unlikely to account for 
missing or lost papers : 

" Monday, y e 2 of February, 1651. 
« That M r Randolph, keeper of the Paper Office in 
Whitehall, bee required to call for such papers as have 
beene by him lent out of the Paper Office to any person 
to bee returned backe againe into the office, and that for 
the future hee doe n'ot give out any papers but by order 
of the Parlam*, or Councell, or Comittee of the Councell 
for forreigne affaires ; and that he doe w th all convenient 
speed make an inventory of all such papers and write- 
ings as are in his custody, and tender the same to the 
Councell." 

Ithuriel. 

Lengthened Tenure of a Living. — My great 
grand uncle the Rev. John Higgon, was presented 
to the living of Landowror, in Carmarthenshire, by 
Sir John Philipps, Bart., of Picton Castle, in 1761. 
Mr. Higgon held the living until the period of his 
death in 1813, at the age of 93. The living was 
then given by Lord Milford, son of Sir John 
Philipps, to the Rev. Thomas Martin, who still 
holds it. The right of presentation, therefore, has 
only been exercised once in a century. 

John Pavin Phillips. 

Haverfordwest. 

Bonefire and Bonfire. — I am quite aware 
that in the English language Zwifire becomes bone- 
fire by exuberance of spelling only, and by no 
connection of fact or etymology. But this seems 
true of the English language only. The Irish 
language has the word (in a native form) bone- 
fire, and uses it also for fom-fire. Conor O'Sul- 
livan (a seditious bard of the early part of the 
last century), in a poem foretelling an outbreak of 
bis countrymen, encourages them to make the 



following amongst other preparations for the happy 
event : 

" Deantar cnaimh-theinnte, agus seid stoc na pibe," &c. 
This being interpreted means, 

" Let bone-Hves be made and the bagpipe blow," &c. 
The curious reader will find the entire poem in 
Mr. John O'Daly's Poets and Poetry of Munster 
at p. 256 of the first volume. H. C. C 



^ttertetf. 

"Adeste Fideles." — I have just read the 
following account regarding this hymn : — 

" The Adeste Fideles, although really a composition by 
an Englishman named John Reading (who also wrote 
Dulce Domuin), obtained the name of 'The Portuguese 
Hymn,' from its having been heard by the Duke of 
Leeds at the Portuguese Chapel, who imagined it to be 
peculiar to the service in Portugal. Being a Director of 
the Ancient Concerts, his Gx'ace introduced the melody 
there ; and it speedily became popular, under the title 
he had given it." 

The above account was written by a daughter 
of the late Vincent Noveilo, who was organist at 
the Portuguese Chapel, it should therefore be of 
authority. But is it the generally received 
theory ? Notia. 

Arms in Noble's " Cromwell Family." — In 
Noble's Memoirs of the Cromwell Family there is 
an engraving representing the arms of the Crom- 
wells at Hinchinbrooke House, among which is 
the coat of Cromwell impaling, quarterly, 1st and 
4th az., 3 acorns (slipped and leaved) or ; '2nd and 
3rd arg., a bull's head couped sa. armed or. Over 
all on an inescutcheon arg., a lion rampant re- 
guardant vert, crowned. This coat is stated {Proofs 
and Illustrations, vol. i. p. 317) to be the arms of 
Sir Henry Cromwell, impaling those of his wife, 
Joan Warren *, with a coat of pretence for Trelake 
alias Davy. If this were so, the arms of Davy 
would have been borne quarterly by Joan, and 
not in pretence. It appears, however, from Prest- 
wich, that the arms of Warren, as borne on one of 
the banner-rolls at the state funeral of the Protec- 
tor, were or, a chevron between 3 eagles' heads erased 
sable.f Whilst Stowe (Survey, ed. 1633, p. 581), 
and also Heylin, in his Arms of the Lord Mayors, 
describes the arms of Sir R. Warren as az., on a 
chev. engrailed between 3 lozenges or, as many 
griffins' heads erased of the field ; on a chief 
cheeky of the 3rd and gules, a greyhound courant 
collared or, which has much the appearance of 

* Joan, daughter and heir of Sir Ralph Warren, Knt., 
Lord Mayor of London in 1531!, and part of 1543, by 
Joan, daughter and coheiress of John Trelake, abas Davy 
of Cornwall. 

f Prestwich's Jiespnblica, p. 186; Burke's Armoury 
gives to Warren of London, or, a chev. between 3 griffins' 
heads erased sa., which coat was (dsn at Hinchinbrooke, and 
is engraved on the same plate in Noble. 



110 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3** S. I. Feb. 8, '62. 



the " Henry-tke-Eighth " modification of the coat 
mentioned by Prestwich. Now I cannot help 
thinking that the impalement in question is a 
foreign coat, and I should at once have assigned 
it to Palavicini, an Italian family connected with 
the Cromwells, had not Blome in his Britannia 
engraved the arms of Paravicin (as he calls it) as 
" a pelican, colours unknown." * 

As, therefore, it is clear that Noble was in error 
in assigning the coat to Warren, the question 
arises — to whom did it belong? And I hope, 
through the medium of " N - . & Q." to solve this 
question, which is one of no mean importance to 
me personally, and is, I venture to think, one of 
some little interest to the genealogical world. 

H. S.G. 

Pedmore. 

Arnenian Society. — Can any of your readers 
inform me where a list of the members of the 
Arnenian Society, of the latter part of the last 
century, can be seen. Are any still living ? 

S. II. Angier. 

15, Hyde Park Gate, South. 

Baldwin Family : Sir Clement Farnham. — 
I am exceedingly indebted to your correspon- 
dent W. P. for his lucid answer to my Query re- 
specting the office of Comptroller of the Works, 
as held by my ancestor Thomas Baldwyn. I 
should be very glad to receive any information 
respecting any other members of the old Hert- 
fordshire family of Baldwyn, or Baldwin, of which 
the said Thomas was a member. A cousin of his, 
Catharine Baldwyn, married Sir Clement Ffarn- 
ham, or Farnham, Knt., as appears from some old 
Chancery pleadings in my possession. Is any- 
thing known of this Sir Clement, and why he 
received the honour of knighthood? Is there 
any other old family of Baldwin existing at the- 
present time, and in what county, and what are 
the arms borne by its members ? 

F. C. F. 

Sir Francis Bryan. — Is anything known of 
the parentage of Sir Francis Bryan, who was 
knighted by the Earl of Surrey in Brittany in 
1522, and died in 1550, Marshal of Ireland, after 
having married for his second wife Joan Countess 
Dowager of Ormonde ? His arms and standard 
will be found in the Excerpta Historica, p. 338, 
from the MS. I. 2, in the College of Arms ; and 
the former were, Argent, three piles wavy meeting 
in base vert, within a bordure engrailed azure 
bezantee. This coat is attributed to " Bryan, of 
Bedfordshire," in Burke's General Armory, but 
the name does not occur under that county in 
Sims's Index to the Heralds' Visitations. A bor- 
dure engrailed was a difference sometimes, but 



* Noble, ii. 214; Berry (Ency. Herald.) gives the arms 
of Paravisini, " gu,, a goose arg." 



not always, indicative of illegitimate descent. Sir 
Francis Bryan was orator at Rome in 1529, am- 
bassador in France in the same year, and to the 
emperor in 1543. As early as 1526 he was cup- 
bearer to Henry VIII., and master of the noble 
youths termed the King's henchmen : and the 
following interesting testimony to his qualifica- 
tions for the latter office is given by Roger As- 
cham : " Some men being never so old, and spent 
by years, will still be full of youthful conditions : 
as was Sir Francis Bryan, and evermore would 
have been." ( The Scholemaster, Second Book.) 
As a poet, Sir Francis Bryan has been noticed by 
Mr. J. Payne Collier, in the Archceologia, vol. 
xxvi., and by Mr. Robert Bell in the English 
Poets (Surrey and others), 1854, p. 231. The 
latter terms him " nephew to Lord Berners, the 
translator of Froissart." How was that ? It does 
not appear in the account of the Berners family 
in Banks's Dormant and Extinct Baronage, 1808, 
ii. 50. John Gough Nichols. 

Engraved Heads. — I have the six engravings 
by Thomas Frye (Hatton Garden, 1760), which 
are thus mentioned by Edwards in his Anecdotes 
of Painters : — 

" Of his (Frye's) mezzotinto productions, there are six 
heads as large as life: one of them is the portrait of the 
artist himself." 

The head referred to is distinguishable by the 
word ipse, but the? others (four male and one 
female) are without inscription. I shall feel much 
obliged to any 'one who can inform me whether 
these are portraits, and if so, of whom ? 

Charles Wyltb, 

Family of Dowson of Chester. — In a MS. 
by Randle Holme, in the British Museum, among 
several coats of arms, chiefly of Cheshire gentry, 
occurs a sketch of the following, headed "Dowson 
of Chester": Argent, two pales sable; over ail 
a chevron gules ; on a canton of the last, five 
bezants. There is no note or pedigree attached. 
Can any Cheshire or Lancashire antiquary oblige 
me with information respecting this family of 
Dowson ? The name occurs, in connexion with 
the parish of Woodchurch, in 1641, when John 
and Symon Dowson were living there. J. 

Jacob Fletcher. — In Smithers's History of 
Liverpool, published about 1824, there is a Cata- 
logue of Liverpool authors. In that list I found 
the name Jacob Fletcher, author of several dra- 
matic pieces. Can any Liverpool correspondent 
give any account of the author, the tftles and 
dates of his works, &c. &c. Zeta. 

Greek Orator. — I heard it said the other 
day that a Greek orator once began "a speech" 
with a phrase that is a precise equivalent to those 
well-worn English words : " Unaccustomed as I 
am to public speaking." I have been at some 



3 rd S. I. Feb. 8, '02.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Ill 



trouble to verify this statement, and have failed. 
Will some of your readers help me? K. P. D. E. 

Ikon. — I shall be glad of the etymology of 
this vocable, which is found a3 a termination of 
many local names in Switzerland : as Attikon, 
Bubieon, Danikon, Dietikon, Effretikon, Eschli- 
kon, Islikon, Niinikon, Nebikon, Oberlikon, Vfdf- 
likon, Russikon, Schmerikon, Wetzikon or Wezi- 
kon. Is it from ecke, a corner, or from wic ? or 
whence ? R. S. Ciiarnock. 

Jones of Dingestow. — In 35 Elizabeth, the 
arms — Azure, 3 talbots' heads erased, argent — 
were confirmed to Walter Jones, Esq., of Dinges- 
tow, Monmouthshire, as the arms of his ancestors. 
Will anyone oblige by some earlier account of 
this bearing, and the family who used it ? II. W. 

Passage in Cicero. — Von Raumer, in his 
Fulcistina (p. 22), quotes a saying of Cicero's 
(without reference) to the effect, that the God of 
the Jews must have been an insignificant deity, 
as he had confined his people to so small a coun- 
try. I have been unable to discover this quota- 
tion, and shall be grateful to anyone who can 
point it out. G. 

Rutland: County oh Shire? — Is the latter 
incorrect ? And if so, why ? Is it true that 
formerly Rutland had no sheriff, and would that 
have any bearing on the question ? What, if any, 
is the difference between a county or shire? 

Eliot Montauhan. 

Aberystwith. 

Satin Bank Note. — I have a pretended bank 
no.te, partly printed on, and partly woven into, a 
piece of bluish-white satin ribbon of the requisite 
width : — 

" Bank, No. 

179S 

I promise to pay to or Bearer, 

on demand, the Sum of Onis 

London, the day of 1798. 

For the Gov. and Comp. of the 

Bank of E-n-and," 

is printed, all but the word One, which is 
woven ; and also a still larger One, which is 
woven in pink, and corresponds in situation with 
the large black and white number on a bank 
note. " Winchester St. 17th March," is in writ- 
ing on the upper part, of the note. Is this a squib, 
or what ? A good many must have been woven 
to make it worth while to do so. P. P. 

Shakespeare Family Pedtgree. — I have 'a 
pedigree of the family of the Shakespearcs by 
John Jordan, of Stratford, 1706, engraved on a 
4to page. What book does it belong to ? It has 
been published since Jordan's time, as it is brought 
down to 1818. Sennoke. 

Shoe nailed to Mast. — 

" Having beat up successfully the windward passage, 



we stretched to the northward ; and falling in with a 
westerly wind, in eight weeks arrived in soundings, and 
in ten days after made the Lizard. It is impossible to 
express the joy I felt at the sight of English ground! 
Don Kodrigo was not unmoved, and Strap shed tears of 
gladness. The sailors profited by our satisfaction: the 
shoe that was nailed to the mast being quite filled with 
our liberality." — Roderick Iiundom, chap, lxvii. 

Query, Does this custom of the shoe survive on 
ship-board, and on such occasions still ? 

Quivis. 

West Street Chapel. — It would be a great 
favour if any one would tell me, either through 
" N. & Q." or privately, where I may find an 
account of West Street Chapel, St. Giles's-in-the- 
Fields. I want the history of it previous to 1743, 
when it was rented by John Wesley. In large 
histories of the parish and of London, no mention 
is made of this old building. It. W. Dibdin. 

62, Torrington Square, W. C. 



"How many Beans make Five?" — I have 
heard this expression made use of by several per- 
sons, and I believe it is used in various counties 
more or less. Some explain it as "being up to 
a thing or two " ; some as " the man of the 
world." Can you explain its origin and meaning ? 

A. Moulton. 

[The phrase in full is, "He knows how many beans 
make five; " that is, as our correspondent suggests, he is 
"up to a thing or two." Perhaps we may obtain a 
clearer view of the true import of this expression, by 
comparing it with that other saying, "He knows how 
many go to the dozen," i. e. in buying a dozen he knows 
how man}' he ought to have "in." For instance, the 
huckster in Old London, who bought loaves of the 
baker to sell again from door to door, knew that for every 
twelve loaves he paid for he was entitled to thirteen, 
which was therefore called a "baker's dozen," the odd 
one being the retailer's profit. In like manner with regard 
to the phrase, " lie knows how many beans make live." 
Suppose him to buy a load or wey, which is five quarters : 
he knows what is the extra allowance usual in the trade 
— say a sack over — and takes care to get it. Either he 
must have this regular allowance, or he will not take the 
beans. He is not going to be put off with a bare five 
quarters and nothing more. In this sense, "He knows 
how many beans make five" will mean "He is not 
easily taken in ; he knows what he is about when he 
makes a purchase." 

A classical explanation, however, has been offered. 
The Greeks occasionally used beans in voting for candi- 
dates at elections. Suppose there are fa-e vacancies, and 
many competitors. The man who best knows how the 
votes (or beans) are likely to go, is the best able to name 
the five successful candidates. He is the man, also, who 
can best calculate " how many beans " are requisite, to 
set the five at the head of the poll. This then is the in- 
dividual who knows" how many beans will make five." 

This explanation may be deemed a little far-fetched. 
In the Italian language, however, Java (a bean) some- 
times stands for wienie, that is, nil, a mere nothing. 
"Tutto c fava," "It's all nothing." In this sense the 



112 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3rd S. I. Feb. 8, '62. 



query, "How many beans make five?" would become 
"How many «o^A<s make five? " — one of those posing 
questions with which wiseacres delight to dumfound and 
puzzle noisy little boys, like " How many stars will fill 
a sack? " &c] 

Christening Bowls. — A recent number of 
" N". & Q." contained some particulars upon Apos- 
tle-spoons. Can any reader supply information 
upon the kindred subject of christening bowls ? 

L. L. D. 

[We find more frequent allusions in old writers to 
apostles' spoons than to bowls as presents. In fact, ac- 
cording to Howe's edition of Stow's Chronicle, 1631, p. 
1039, before the reign of James I., at baptisms the spon- 
sors used to give christening shirts, with little bands or 
cuffs, wrought with silk or blue thread ; but afterwards 
they gave spoons, cups, &c. Shakspeare, who was god- 
father to one of Ben Jonson's children, gave " a douzen 
of Latten spoons." In the Comforts of Wooing, p. 163 
(quoted by Brand), " The godmother hearing when the 
child was to be coated, brings it a gilt coral, a silver 
spoon, and porringer, and a brave new tankard of the 
same metal." According to Shipman (Gossips, 1666), 
the custom of making presents at baptisms declined in 
the time of the Commonwealth : — 

" Formerly, when they us'd to trowl 
Gilt bowls of sack, they gave the bowl 
Two spoons at least — an use ill kept — 
'Tis well if now our own be left." 
Pepys, however, observed the custom : — " Nov. 26, 1667. 
At my goldsmith's, bought a basin for my wife to give 
the Parson's child, to which the other day she was god- 
mother. It cost me 10/. 14s. besides graving, which I 
do with the cypher of the name, Daniel Mills."] 

The Modern British Coinage. — What is 
the date of the present system of English coinage, 
as divided into pounds, shillings, and pence ? 

L. L. D. 

[Henry VII. 1489, issued the double ryal, or sovereign 
of 20s., accompanied by the double sovereign of 40s. In 
1544, Henry VIII. struck sovereigns of the former value 
of 20s., and half-sovereigns in proportion. In 1817, 
sovereigns and half-sovereigns of 20s. and 10s. each, were 
again coined, and the guineas and half-guineas were gra- 
dually withdrawn from circulation. — The settling was a 
denomination of money in Saxon times. The testoon, or 
shilling, was first coined by Henry VII. in 1503, — In 
point of antiquity the penny is the oldest of the three. 
Before half-pence were coined, it was an integer, a silver 
piece, and had been such for ages. It first appears as a 
silver coin in the laws of Ina, King of the West Saxons, 
who began his reign in 688. Provincial coins and trades- 
men's tokens were superseded by an issue of lawful cop- 
per pennies on June 26, 1797. Consult Ruding's Annals 
of Coinage, 4to, 1840, passim.] 

"England's Black Tribunall." — Can you 
inform me as to the value of a curious work, 
which I discovered the other day among some 
very old family books ? It is entitled England's 
Black Tribunall, and consists of two parts; the 
first, containing a full account of the trial and 
execution of King Charles L, with a portrait of 
that monarch, and an elegy on his death, com- 
mencing — 

" Come, come, let's mourn : all eyes that see this day, 
Melt into showers, and weep yourselves away," &c. 



The second, the several dying speeches of the 
nobility and gentry who suffered death for their 
loyalty to their sovereign. At the bottom of the 
title-page is written, " London : Printed for J. 
Play ford, 1660." I should like to know the real 
author of the lines in question, which are very 
original and curious. H. C. F. (Herts.) 

[This work has all the appearance of being the com- 
pilation of J. Playford, the bookseller, and "The Eli- 
gie"one of those fly-sheets so numerous just after the 
murder of the king. At p. 51 of the third edition, cor- 
rected and enlarged (Lond. 8vo, 1680), instead of the 
letter written by King Charles to his son the Prince 
from Newport, Nov. 29, 1648, which is omitted, there are 
inserted "His Majestie's Prayers in the time of his Re- 
straint," immediately before " The Eligie." At the end 
of this work will be found " The manner of the execution 
of the reverend Dr. John HeAvyt, on the scaffold, on 
Tuesday, 8th June, 1658, with his Speech before his 
death. Also, Dr. John Hewit's Letter to Dr. Wilde on 
Monday, June 7, 1658, being the day before he suffered 
death, 'and read by Dr. Wilde at his Funerall." This 
work only fetched 5s. at the Roxburghe sale. The edi- 
tion of 1671 is an abridgment, and does not contain Part 
II.] 

"Champagne to the masthead." — What is 
the meaning or origin of this phrase which one 
often hears in reference to a plentiful fsupply of 
the wine at table ? S. 

Edinburgh. 

[We have heard the expressions " Swimming in cham- 
pagne," and "We drank champagne enough to float a 
ship." But we suspect that like champagne itself, the 
phrase "Champagne to the mast head" has not come 
into common use. It may probably be regarded as an 
extension or exaggeration of the expressions which we 
have cited.] 

Barometers first made. — In North's Life it 
is stated that barometers were first made and sold 
by one Jones, a noted clockmaker in the Inner 
Temple Gate, at the instance of the Lord Keeper 
Guildford. Is this the generally received opinion ? 

D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

[The Mr. Jones above referred to may possibly have 
been the first Englishman to construct a Torricellian 
'tube, as the barometer was originally called, after its in- 
ventor, Evangelista Torricelli, the illustrious mathemati- 
cian and philosopher of Italy; who, between the years 
1641 and 1647, discovered the method of ascertaining the 
weight of the atmosphere by a proportionate column of 
quicksilver.] 

Gray's " Elegy " parodied. — Where can I 
find in print a parody upon Gray's Elegy in a 
Country Churchyard, written, I believe, by Mr. 
Duncombe, under the title of An Evening Con- 
templation in a College ? I have an impression of 
having seen it, many years ago, in some collection 
of poems, which must have been printed, I think, 
after the original Elegy appeared in Dodsley's 
Collection, 1755, and some time before the close 
of that century. H. E. 

[" An Evening Contemplation in a College " is printed, 
without any author's name, in the 2nd vol. of The Reposi- 



3 ri S. I. Feb. 8, 'G2.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



113 



tory; a Select Collection of Fugitive Pieces of Wit and 
Humour in Prose and Verse (2nd ed. 1783, pp. 71-76.) 
In the same volume will, be found Gray's beautiful ode, 
and three other parodies or imitations of it; namely, 
"An Elegy written in Covcnt Garden," " The Nunnery; 
an Elegy," and "An Elegy written in Westminster Hall 
during the Long Vacation."] 



ALBERT UNIVERSITY; ORDER OF MERIT, ETC. 
(3 rd S. i. 87.) 
Few, I think, will have read the suggestions 
lately thrown out respecting a memorial for the 
late Prince Consort, without hoping that the pro- 
posed memorial may take the form of a Univer- 
sity in English Literature, Science, and Art ; or 
else some such an Order of Merit as the one re- 
ferred to by your correspondent Mr. J. W. 
Bryans, The nation has long felt both these 
wants. The London University has done a little 
towards encouraging science by establishing its 
bachelor's and doctor's degrees in that branch of 
learning. Yet this has been but little. Owing 
to the necessity of first matriculating in arts, 
many who could pass in all the scientific subjects 
are prevented from presenting themselves as can- 
didates. 

The suggestion respecting an Albert Cross, or 
some Order of Merit, is worthy of serious consider- 
ation. " They manage these things better in 
France"; and though we may have sneered at 
the way in which our Gallic neighbours fill the 
ranks of their Legion of Honour, we have felt 
that a similar distinction would be a very good 
thing amongst ourselves. Mr. Thackeray, in one 
of his witty " Roundabout Papers," treats us to 
an amusing disquisition on what might have been 
if the proposed order of Minerva had ever come 
into existence. And though we cannot repress a 
smile at Sir Alexis Soyer and Sir Thomas Sayers, 
we are obliged to confess that there could be no 
nobler and better memorial to the great and good j 
Prince than the two suggested, if fully and fairly j 
carried out. 

The difficulty, of course, is to get the matter | 
properly taken up. We have honours enough i 
already existing for our fortunate lawyers, states- 
men, and military officers. What we want is j 
some distinction so valuable that our highest lite- 
rary and scientific men might be proud to bear 
it, with lower grades, which would prove an at- 
traction to the cleverer members of the struggling 
middle classes, and which as rewards of merit 
they might hope to obtain. 

Your Magazine is hardly the place for dis- 
cussing this subject; yet should the latter of 
these suggestions be ever adopted, it will be no 
small honour, amongst its other successes, that 
the idea was first brought forward in the pages of 
"N.&Q." H. 13. 



ISABELLA AND ELIZABETH. 
(2 nd S. xii. 364, 444, 464, 522, 3 rd S. i. 59.) 

If, as Mr. Buckton and F. C. H. assert, the 
name Isabella was first used in Europe in Spain or 
Portugal, may it not have been borrowed from the 
Moors? This idea suggested itself to me as soon 
as I had read Mr. Buckton's article, in which he 
disposes of the question in a somewhat summary 
and arbitrary manner ; and I therefore at once 
wrote to Mr. Catafago (who is a native of Syria) 
and asked him, without mentioning, or even allud- 
ing to, the name Jezebel, whether there was in 
Arabic any equivalent for our name Isabella, and 
if so, whether such equivalent was of recent intro- 
duction, or of ancient date. I give the first few 
lines of his reply verbatim : " In answer to your 
letter I must state that we have the name Isabella 

in Arabic, which is Jbj^ (Izbal*). This name 

is very old, and it is mentioned in the Bible, 
1 Kings xxi. 5." I have since seen Mr. Catafago, 
and he assures me that this name Izbal is still 
used as a woman's name in Syria and Egypt, al- 
though it is by no means so common as Mary, 
Martha, or Elizabeth, which last is in Arabic 

CuULJI (Elisabat).f 

It is therefore clear that those Syrians and 
Egyptians who are acquainted with any European 
language in which Isabella (in one or other of its 
forms) is made use of, regard it as the equivalent 
of their name Izbal, which is used in the Arabic 

version of the Old Testament to express ?3t*N 
(Izebel\), and which has probably not been bor- 
rowed from the Hebrew, but been preserved, in 
southern Syria (Palestine) at least, since the days 
of the woman who rendered it infamous. If, there- 
fore, the name is still used in Arabic, it is no doubt 
because it is, so to say, a household name, and not 
because the Syrians or others wished, from any 
admiration of that woman, to perpetual e her name. 
In the same way we still use Henry and Mary, al- 
though these names were borne by two sovereigns 
whom mcst of us do not revere. 

But, some one may say, even if the Moors car- 
ried the name with them into Spain and Portugal 
(as* they naturally must have done), is it likely 
that the Christians would adopt the name of one 
they so abhorred[? I reply that, if they did adopt 
it, they probably did so unwittingly. The Portu- 
guese write Jezebel, Jczabel, which I suppose they 
would pronounce Yezabel, whilst their equivalent 
for Elizabeth is Isabel. In the same way, there- 
fore, that in England the name Jezebel seems but 
to few (in consequence of the difference in pro- 
nunciation) to have any connection with Isabel, so 
in Portugal there must, I think, be many who do 

* Pronounced Izbdhl. f Pronounced Eleessahbuht. 
\ Pronounced Eezevcl, and = our Jezebel, 



114 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. 1. Feb. 8, '62. 



not dream of any connection between their two 
names, Jezabel and Isabel. When, therefore, the 
inhabitants of the Spanish Peninsula heard from 
the Moors the name Izbdl, is it improbable that 
they would not recognise in it a name which they 
were in the habit of calling Jezabel? 

In conclusion, that the Portuguese use Isabel as 
the equivalent of Elizabeth is, as I said before, 
no proof that the two names are of common origin. 
Izbal* resembles Elizabeth very nearly as much 
as Isabel does, and if (as Mr. Buckton asserts) the 
Portuguese found it natural to curtail Elisabeth 
(or Elisabe^) into Isabel, they surely would not 
be unlikely to adopt as an abbreviation of Elisa- 
beth a name (Izbdl or Isabel) which they found 
ready made for them. 

According to my theory then, Elizabeth (or 
Elisabeta, as the name, did it exist, would pro- 
bably be written in Span, or Port.) and Isabel 
(derived from Izbal or Izebel) ran on for a time 
together as distinct names, but ultimately coalesced, 
the latter being in the first instance used indiffer- 
ently with the former — as soon, namely, as it was 
perceived to form a convenient abbreviation for it 
— and ultimately superseding it altogether. 

F. Chance. 

Elisa, Phoenician. 
Elissa, Greek. 

Elisabe, Syriac and Hebrew. 
Elisabet, Greek. 
Elisabctha, Italian and French. 
Elisabella, Italian. 
El rejected, Isabella, Portuguese. 
Thus the identity of Isabel and 'Elisabeth is 
clear as day to Polyglottus. 

ARISTOTLE "DE EEGIMINE PRINCIPUM." 
(3 rd S. i. 56.) 

Being far away from books and papers of every 
kind, I can only give from memory a few results 
of an investigation I made last July on reading 



* Izbdl is very Arabic in form. It differs from the He- 
brew (Izebel) in the absence of the middle vowel and in 
the prolongation of the final syllable. These character- 
istic differences would naturally vanish on the introduc- 
tion of the word into Span, or Port., and Izbdl would, by 
the obliteration of its Arabian features, readily become 
Izabel or Isabel. But the Portuguese or Spaniards might 
even have borrowed the name Isabel from the Jews, whose 

pronunciation of Izebel (or Eezevel) would appear 

to them very different from their own of Jezabel. 

t My opinion is that the form first used in Portugal 
would be Elisabeth (after the Vulg.) and not Elisabe 
(after the Hebr. which would be less known), so that if 
Isabel has been derived from this source, the final th must 
have been changed into an 7, and not merely an I added 
at the end, as Mr. Buckton says. 



the note about Fordun's citation from the above 
work. It affords one of the many proofs how very 
much we still want a reference book on the lite- 
rature of the Middle Ages ; not a compilation 
from compilations, but'a work based on an actual 
examination of the books themselves. 

I searched through the old catalogue of MSS. 
(Oxon. 1697, 2 vols, folio), and those of the Cot- 
tonian, Harleian, Sloane, Old Royal, and Addi- 
tional MSS. in the Museum, and any others that 
came to hand, especially M. Paulin Paris's Cata- 
logue of French MSS. in the Imperial Library ; 
and these, together with Wenricb's work cited by 
Sir George Lewis, and Fluegel's invaluable edition 
of Hajji Khalfa's Lexicon Bibliographicum of Ara- 
bic literature, and the'ordinary books of reference, 
supplied almost as much as could be obtained with- 
out looking at every known copy of the work 
itself. All within reach at Cambridge, however, 
I did examine. 

The result appeared to be that all the versions 
in the modern languages of western Europe were 
made directly or indirectly (e. g. the English is 
from the French) from the Latin. In the Latin 
there are some discrepancies in the prefatory 
matter, but most copies agree in having a dedi- 
cation, in which we are told that the translation 
was made from an Arabic copy found in the East 
by one Philippus, who styles himself clericus, at 
the suggestion of Guido de Valentia, Bishop. of 
Tripoli, to whom it is dedicated. These circum- 
stances, interpreted by the fact that M. Paulin 
Paris mentions a Latin copy at Paris, probably 
(judging from the paper and writing) written in 
the East in the thirteenth century, would lead us 
to suppose Guido to have been a Latin Bishop of 
Tripoli in Syria during the crusading period. I 
was unable to find a list of such bishops (though 
I dare say such is to be had), and Antonio and 
other Spanish authorities, though they mention 
Philippus, give no more information than we had 
before. So that here at least there is room for 
confirmation. 

Further : the Latin copies seem to agree in 
having a preface, from which we learn that the 
Arabic version was made from the Syriac (Chal- 
dee as it is termed), and that from the Greek, at 
the desire of his sovereign, by Joannes films 
Patricii, who found the Greek original in the 
adytum of some heathen temple (of iEsculapius, I 
if I remember rightly) and translated it into | 
Syriac and thence afterwards into Arabic. On 
searching Hajji Khalfa for translations of Aris- [ 
totle I found that Jahja ibn Batrik was one of 
the leading literati at the court of Al Mamun, i 
the son of Harun Al Rashid, and that he trans- 
lated many of Aristotle's works, and what may be 
this very work, the Kitab al Riyaset, is mentioned j 
among them. The Syriac seems to have perished ; 
and no doubt the Hebrew and Persian versions ' 



3'* S. I. Feb. 8, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



115 



which now exist, were made from the Arabic. 
But here arises a question which none but an 
Arabic scholar can solve, and I fear we have not 
many now who would think this worth the trouble, 
as nothing but a patient examination of the various 
copies can help us. The Arabic title would do as 
well for the Politics as for the De Eegimine 
Principum ; and what means have we of distin- 
guishing these ? The matter is still further com- 
plicated by the existence of another Arabic version 
made not more than three hundred years ago — 
of which of the two treatises I will not under- 
take to say. The only clue I can suggest is to 
examine the Arabic copies now existing, and to 
determine which contain the original of the Latin 
De Itegimine, so popular with our ancestors, and 
which the original of the vetus translatio of Aris- 
totle's Politics, current in the middle ages, and 
commented on by Waller Burley the English 
philosopher. I cannot help thinking that if this 
were done, we might get some clue to the Greek 
original of the De Regimine, which now seems so 
hopelessly beyond our reach. At first sight there 
is no ground for doubting the account of Jahja 
ibn Batrik, that he found the Greek and trans- 
lated it ; and though modern scholars, Fabricius 
and others, express no doubt of the spuriousness 
of the treatise, it is generally rather taken for 
granted than discussed. I did not know of Jour- 
dain's work when I was on the subject, so he may 
have gone into the question, These remarks will 
at least serve to show that it is no easy matter to 
get at the truth on these points. 

Henry Bradshaw. 

Bournemouth. 



Trial of Spencer Cowper (3 rd S. i. 91.) — 
With reference to this question and answer in last 
I N. & Q " about the triul of Spencer Cowper, it 
is hardly possible that the writers should not be 
aware of the full account of it in Lord Macaulay's 
posthumous volume. But as they have not men- 
tioned it I do so, as no doubt those who wish to be 
acquainted with it will get a livelier idea of it from 
filacaulay than from the journal reports. 

Lyttelton. 

Althorp, 3rd Feb. 1862. 

Fridays, Saints' Days, and Fast Days (2 nd S. 
xii. 4G3.) — It is said by E. P. C. that a Saint's 
clay on a Friday is a fast; but he adduces this as I 
a logical argument — am I not right in believing ' 
that practically it is not to be so kept? 

I would also ask, if an Ember day is a Saint's 
day, should we not observe it as a festival ? In 
the S. P. C. K. Churchman s Almanack for the pre- 
sent year such events are marked as fasts. The 
Society has given me no defence of its having so 
mentioned these days in answer to my enquiries 
on the subject. A Saint's day (S. Matthew's) and 
an Ember day occurred on September 21st (it will j 



be so also on S. Thomas's day), but these, I be- 
lieve, should not be called fast-days. J. F. S. 

Jakins (3 rd S. i. 68.)— In reply to W. V.'s 
Query, I beg to suggest that the word " Jakins," 
or " Jaehins," is nothing more than the diminutive 
of " Jaques," equal to our "James," Little James; 
and we trace to the same source the words Jack, 
Jakes, Jex, by an easy transition. 

I should very much doubt the connection be- 
tween the above and the name of one of the pillars 
of Solomon's Temple, as two different languages 
and totally different periods show no application. 

Joun Nurse Chadwick. 

King's Lynn. 

If W. V. will take Gesenius in the one hand, 
and Burke's Armory in the other, he will find 
amongst hundreds of Hebrew names, the follow- 
ing modern synonyms : — 



Coniah 




- Conej', Coyne}'. 


Cush - 




- Cosh (Devon). 


Cuth - 




- Cutt, Cutta. 


Dannah 




- Danier-s. 


Deker - 




- Decker. 


Dilean 




- Dillon. 


Dishon 




- Dyson. 


Eden - 




- Eden, Iden. 


Ekron - 




- Ekring-ton. 


Eldaah 




- Elder. 


Elah - 




- Heler-s. 


Eleasah 




- Eliseaux (Normandy). 


Eliada 




Elidur ) /tit i x 
" Elidyrj( Wales > 


Elika - 




- EUerker (Yorkshire). 


Ha ura n 




- Heron. 


Hoi on 




- Holland, &c. 


Httr - 




- Ure. 


Isaac - 




- Isaac (Devon, temp. Hen. III. 
Matilda, daughter of Robt. 






Bruce, -wife of Thomas do 
Isaac). 






Jaehan 




- Juchen. 


Jachin 




- Jakin-s. 



s for son, ton for town. 

Senex. 



Husbandman (3 rd S. i. 30.) — The husband- 
man tills the ground; the yeoman owns it. The 
yeoman who tills his own land is husbandman as 
well as yeoman. The yeoman is the landed pro- 
prietor, who does not possess the right of gentry. 
Yeoman is rather the designation of rank ; hus- 
bandman of occupation. W. C. 

Metric Prose (2» d S. xii. 515.)— With all 
deference to Mr. Keigiitley, whose name is^ as- 
sociated with some of the pleasantest recollections 
of my childhood, I would suggest that there is 
abundance of ''metric prose prose metrical 
through accident, and not by design, in the pages 
of " N. & Q." A very little alteration will reduce 
two articles in the number of " N. & Q.," to which, 
in this note, I refer, into very fairly regular metre. 
Without alteration they run thus : — 

" By metric prose, I mean continuous prose, 
But composed of metric lines of five 



116 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3' d S. I, Feb. 8, '62. 



Feet, which, however, are not restricted to two. 
Of this Chaucer 

Was the inventor, and in it he composed 
Two of his tales, writing them continuously, 
Probably to save paper, while his other prose 
Pieces are mere ordinary prose," &e, &c. 



" The interesting repl}' of Pkofessor De Morgan 
On this subject suggests the inquiry whether, 
Though a calculus could not be founded on all 
Possible moves at chess, it would be 
Impracticable to frame 

A calculus founded on all the true moves," &c. &c. 

w. c. 

Coins inserted in Tankards (3 rd S. i. 50.) — 
I have a glass tankard nine inches in height with 
a coin of George III., 1787, inserted. It is a shil- 
ling^), quite fresh and bright. E. M. 

I have a small glass tankard enclosing a two- 
penny piece of George I. The reverse was evi- 
dently worn before its insertion in the glass. 

John S. Burn. 

Henley. 

I can offer no opinion as to the coins inserted 
in glass tankards being a sign of the date, or 
otherwise. I only wish to mention that many 
years ago I possessed a glass cup of this kind with 
a sixpence of William and Mary inclosed. The 
cup got broken, and I took out the coin ; I had it 
by me for years, and perhaps have it still. The 
coin was bright and not worn, but of the pattern 
of the glass cup I have no distinct recollection. 

F. C. H. 

J. C. J. imagines that about a century and a 
half ago it was the fashion to insert coins in tan- 
kards. I have a handsome glass tankard with a 
sixpence confined, but moveable, in the bottom, 
which bears date the year of my birth, 1787. I 
have seen many, say five or six specimens, some 
with small gold and some with silver coins. My 
opinion is, that it was a fashion from sixty to one 
hundred years ago, but not earlier. 

George Offor. 

Hackney. 

Patjlus Dolscitjs : Psalter in Greek Verse 
(3 rd S. i. 68.)— The author was a native of Plauen, 
where he was born in 1526. He studied at Wit- 
tenberg under Melanchthon, who obtained for him 
a place as Master of the Gymnasium, at Halle. 
He studied medicine at Padua, and took a degree 
there, after which he returned to Halle, where he 
died in 1589, after being inspector of churches, 
schools, &c, and a burgomaster. He wrote a 
Greek version of the Augsburg Confession, and 
the Psalms in Greek elegiacs ; the former, pub- 
lished in 1559, and the latter in 1555; both at 
Basel. His Greek verses have sometimes been 
ascribed to Melanchthon, and Masch's Le Long 
says this was the case with the volume E. A. D. 
enquires about. The dedication explains the 



origin and aim of the book, which is admitted to 
be a rarity. Masch refers to Le Long, pp. 703 
and 857; Baumgarten, Nachrichten von Merkw. 
Buck. 7, 101 ; and J. A. Fabricius, Biblioth. Graca, 
7, 668. A notice of Dolscius is in the Nouvelle 
Biographie Generate, &c. B. H. C. 

He was born at Plauen, in Germany, in 1526, 
and died at Halle, March 9, 1589. He studied at 
the University of Wittemberg, and there formed 
an intimacy with Melanchthon, and zealously sym- 
pathized with his labours in promoting the cause 
of the Reformation. He took a medical degree, 
and adopted medicine as a profession. He wrote 
Greek with great facility. Besides the Psalms of 
David, he translated into that language the Augs- 
burg Confession of Faith. For the above in- 
formation I am indebted to the Nouvelle Bio- 
graphie Generate of Dr. Hoefer. 'AAiets. 

Dublin. 

Xavier and Indian Missions (3 rd S. i. 90.) — 
I think I may almost say that Salutaris Lux Evan- 
gelii toti orbi per Divinam Gratiam Exoriens, &c, 
by J. A. Fabricius, gives all the information that 
can be desired as to ancient missions and mission- 
ary literature. Hamburg, 4to, 1731. 

Books on Jesuit missions abound, as the pre- 
ceding will show. See too Bayer's Historia Ori- 
entalis; Assemani's Bibliotheca Orientalis; D'Her- 
belot's Bibliotheque, the edition in four vols., the 
last vol. ; Missionary Gazetteer, by Ch as. Williams, 
London, 1828 ; Cyclopaedia of Christian Missions, 
Griffin, London, 1860; Sketches of Christianity in 
North India, by M.Wilkinson, London, 1844; 
Handbook of Bengal Missions, by Rev. J. Long, 
London, 1848. Some of the societies have pub- 
lished their own histories. But perhaps the Rev. 
Jas. Hough's works on Christianity in India, would 
fully answer your correspondent's requirements 
for Protestant missions. I would particularly 
urge the first book I named as a key to the old 
literature upon the subject. B. H. C. 

If Mr. Paton will refer to the notice prefixed 
to the " Life of St. Francis Xavier," in the Lives 
of Saints by the Rev. Alban Butler, he will find 
there a copious list of histories of the life and 
labours of the saint. It is also there mentioned 
from what sources his life was chiefly compiled 
by F. Bouhours, which was translated by Dryden 
and published in 1688. 

With respect to other Jesuit missions in India, 
very interesting accounts are given in the cele- 
brated Lettres E'difiantes et Curieuses, vols. x. to 
xv., both inclusive, embracing the period from 
1693 to 1705. I presume that the inquirer is 
familiar with the more recent, Nouvelles Lettres 
edifiantes des Missions de la Chine et des Indes 
Orientates, in 5 vols. Paris, 1818, and the Annates 
de la Propagation de la Foi, which have been 
regularly published for several years. F. C. H. 



3"» S. I. Feb. 8, 'G2.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



117 



The Queen's Pennant (2 nd S. xii. 473.) — It 
is not at all probable that the " Trent " had the 
pennant flying at the time Mason and Slidell were 
forcibly taken possession of, and the British colours 
outraged by the " San Jacinto"; my reason for 
saying so is that I never saw one of the steamers 
belonging to the Royal (West India) Mail Com- 
pany with it hoisted, although both mails and mail 
agent may have been on board. 

The only line of mail steam packets that hoist 
the pennant, is that from Southampton to Lisbon, 
belonging to the Peninsular and Oriental Steam 
Navigation Company. These vessels also have 
what I understand to be the Admiralty ensign ; it 
has an anchor and crown on the red ground, in 
which it differs from the usual merchant ensign. 
I have heard that this distinction from all other 
mail packets is allowed in consequence of the Pen- 
insular contract being the oldest one in existence 
for steam vessels, and all made since have a clause 
inserted, by which the vessels are not to hoist 
either the pennant or Admiralty ensign. How far 
this is correct I leave for other correspondents to 
decide, but at any rate the subject is worthy of 
ventilation. Haughmond. 

Southampton. 

Sir Humphry Davy (3 rd S. I 51.) — The fol- 
lowing may afford some satisfaction to the Query 
of Anti-Pooh-Pooii. It is a copy of an auto- 
graph letter, in my possession, of Sir H. Davy. 
I am ignorant of the gentleman's name to whom 
it was addressed. 

f 23, Grosvenor Street. 
" Sir, January 13, 1816. 

" I Lave received the letter you did me the honour to 
address me. I fear the scheme of lighting the coal- 
mines by gas will not be practicable, as the miners re- 
quire lights which can be easily moved, and the places of 
which are often changed. I have, however, sent your 
letter to the Editor of the Philosophical Magazine, as I 
think every ingenious hint that leads to discussion should 
be published. He possibly may insert it in his next num- 
ber, unless he should hear from you in the course of a 
day or two, that 3 r ou do not wish it to be published. 
. . . ." . . . . I am much obliged to you for your 
communication, and 1 hope } T ou will not forbid the pub- 
lication of it. 

<; I am, Sir, your obed 1 humble ServS 
" H. Davy." 
Alfred John Strix. 

Exeter. 

Topography of Ireland (2 nd S. xii. 474.) — 
Your correspondent, who has been examining an 
old map of Ireland, should have his Queries 
answered without much difficulty. I will explain 
those having reference to the north of Ireland, 
leaving the others for some correspondent in the 
localities named. 

Uriel is the ancient name of the county of 
Louth. 

The county of Knockfergus, or Carrickfergus, 



so far from having gone anywhere, is still in exist- 
ence as it was when the old map was made. It is 
properly styled the county of the town of Carrick- 
fergus ; has its own sheriff and other officers, its 
fixed boundaries, and long established privileges, 
and is an entirely separate jurisdiction from the 
county of Antrim in the centre of which it lies. 
The history of the very ancient town of Carrick- 
fergus, including that of its county, has been 
written by the late Mr. Samuel M c Skimin, of 
which two editions have been published ; and it is 
one of the very few good works of antiquarian 
and topographical character of which Ireland can 
boast. Indeed, seeing that some works of this 
class are of very small value, with little claims to 
original research or the display of sound judg- 
ment — though, perhaps, produced under the ad- 
vantages of competence and learned leisure, the 
command of documents scarcely obtainable thirty 
years ago even by influential persons, and all but 
inaccessible to those in opposite circumstances — 
this work of M c Skimin's, destitute of course of 
documentary treasures discovered since his time, 
but as far a3 it goes so original, painstaking, and 
trustworthy, must be pronounced a production 
of extraordinary ability : the slender education, 
the position in life, the incompatible occupation 
and other disadvantages of the writer (with 
whom I was well acquainted), being taken into ac- 
count. 

Kilmacrenan is a parish and barony in the 
county of Donegal, the ancient territory of 
O'Donnel. The phrase, the meaning of which is 
inquired for, describes the spot on which was 
inaugurated or made the O'Donnel, on becoming 
chief or head of his tribe. Religious and other 
imposing rites accompanied this ceremony, some- 
thing like those attending the crowning of kings 
of greater pretensions. The situation was one 
rendered venerable from its long application to 
the purpose ; but chosen, it is to be presumed, in 
the first instance from its peculiarity, its security, 
central situation, or local beauty. In this instance 
I believe there is a Doune still pointed out near 
the village of Kilmacrenan, as the spot where 
they made the O'Donnel. 

In return for this note, will some contributor 
deep in philology tell me the root of the word 
Doune ? G. B. 

Glenravel House, County of Antrim. 

Otho ViENius, "Emblemata Horatiana" (3 rd 
S. i. 53.) — Alfred Michiels, in his Rubens et Vecole 
d'Anvers, speaks of the singular mania there was 
in the early part of the reign of Charles I. for 
designing allegories on the most trivial subjects, 
and^in which Van Veen also shared. They were 
engraved upon wood or ccpper ; published with 
letter-press, and called Emblemata. Michiels 
prints the titles of nine of these whimsical books 



118 * NOTES AND QUERIES. 



; [3'd S. I. Feb. 8, '62. 



by Van Veen ; among which is the collection 
above named — Horatii Flacci Emblemata, cum notis 
Latine, Italice, Gallice, et Flandrice, 103 plates. 
In the Appendix, pp. 292-3, to Papers relating to 
Rubens, will be found a letter from Sec. Lord 
Dorchester to his nephew Dudley Carleton, in 
reference to this subject. W. Noel Sainsbury. 

Solicitors' Bills (3 rd S. i. 55.) — Amongst the 
Corporation Records of Henley are some much 
older law bills than those already noticed in " N. 
& Q." I give two, which show that presents were 
made to the counsel beyond their fees : — 

(1531). " Thys be the costes and charges that I dyd 
lay hout at Myssomer, when that Tomas Poto' fet me 
up w l a supina to Westmester : — 

s. d. 

For lying ther viij dayes for myn costes, and 

for my horse mete and hys hyar - - viij 
It'm to Master Gypsan my Torne - - xx 
It'm for a Cope of hys Complaynt - - xij 
It'm to Master Bawden, my Consel - - iij iiij 
It'm to Master Hales for makyng my ansar xx 
It'm payd to Robert Harpar, at Master War- 
den's commandment for xij capones - viij 

Sm - - xxiij viij 

20 H. 8. "Thes p'cell foloynge payd the iiij* day of 
Novembur,, v. : — 

s. d. 

Fyrste by M r Goff, payd to M r Horewood 

for the drafte of the anser of Potter - x 
It'm payd to hys Clarke for wrytyng - iij iiij 
It'm for hys expenses the same tyme - vj viij 
It'm for ij Swannys p'sentyd unto Mast r 
Sachev'ell and my lady his wytf—pce. - xiij iiij 



Sm 



- XXX11J 



The "Master Sacheverell" was Sir Richard, 
the second husband of Lady Hastings, Lady of 
the Manor of Henley. The present of two swans 
may have been an acknowledgement for some 
favour shown by Sir Richard in the suit. About 
1649 the corporation used to make an annual 
present to Sir James Whitelock (then Lord of 
the Manor) of " a boare," or "a brawner;" and to 
his lady two sugar-loaves, price 13s. 7d.* 

John S. Burn. 

Henley. 

Crony (3 rd S. i. 50.) — Worcester, in his Dic- 
tionary of the English Language, 1860, derives 
this term from crone, and says that the two words 
were formerly identical — quoting in support 
thereof the following sentence from Burton : 
" Marry not an old crony or a fool for money." 

D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

" Crone, or Croney, an old and intimate acquaint- 
ance, a confident ; from the Teutonic kronen, to whisper, 
to tell secrets." — Thomson's Etymons of English Words. 

'AAtevs. 

Dublin. 

* See Hist, of Henley, 1861, p. 204. 



Learned Dane on Unicorns (3 rd S. i. 50.) — 
The Danish writer inquired for by F. R. is pro- 
bably Thomas Bartholinus, who printed De Uni~ 
comu Observationes novae, 12rno, Patavii, 1645, 
with plates. There are also treatises on Unicorns 
by Baccius (1598), Fehr (1666), Sachs (1676), 
and Stalpart (1687). Should F. R. desire it, I 
would give him the full titles of their works. 

Jaydee. 

The learned Dane, who wrote a treatise on 
the Unicorn, was Thomas Bartholin ; the most 
learned of a learned family, born at Copenhagen 
in 1619. The second edition of this interesting 
and well-illustrated little book, is before me. Its 
title is as follows : — 

" Thomas Bartholini de Unicornu Observationes nova;. 
Secunda editione, Auctiores et emendatiores, editas a 
Filio Casparo Bartholino. Amstelsedami, apud Henr. 
Wetstenium, clo lo c lxxviii." 

The original edition seems to have been pub- 
lished at Padua in 1645. C. W. Bingham. 

Jefferson Davis (3 rd S. i. 49.) — I have al- 
ways understood that the President of the Con- 
federate States derived his name from Thomas 
Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, and third President of the United States. 

D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

Sunday Newspapers (3 rd S. i. 49.) — The 
practice of distributing religious periodicals gra- 
tuitously among the congregation, as related by 
the Hon. Henry A. Murray in the passage cited 
by K. P. D. E., is not confined to the Presby- 
terians, but is common with the Episcopalians, 
Baptists, and other sects in the United States. 

It should be explained, however, that the papers 
so distributed, are invariably of a purely religious 
character, and are placed in the pews not to be, 
read during divine service, but to be taken home 
for perusal. 

Some persons, arriving early, might prefer 
reading these papers to either sitting listlessly, or 
engaging critically in the dissection of their neigh' 
bours' faults or apparel, but the veriest blue in 
Scotland or elsewhere, could scarcely complain of 
their motives or manners. D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

Col. Thomas Winseow (3 rd S. i. 69.)— The death 
of this officer at the age named by your corre- 
spondent is noticed in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for 1766, and in the Annual Register for the same 
year, but no particulars are given. 

D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

Arthur Shorter (2 nd S. xii. 521, 3 rd S. i. 59.) 
— Of the existence of Arthur Shorter there can 
be no doubt, as the evidence of the fact is in my 
possession, in the handwriting of Sir Erasmus 
Philipps. The Query which I wish to have ans- 



119 



wered is, who was he ? As he is styled by Sir 
Erasmus Philipps in his Diary " Cc-sin Arthur 
Shorter," the probability is that he was brother to 
Lady Walpole and the Marchioness of Hertford. 
I still invite the attention of correspondents of 
" N. & Q." to the following queries : Was Arthur 
Shorter the son of John Shorter of Bybrook, by 
Elizabeth Philipps? If not, whose son was he? 
Was he married, and did he leave any issue ? 
When did he die? and what became of the por- 
trait of Sir Erasmus Philipps, which was painted 
for Mr. Shorter, at his request and expense, and 
was sent tojiim at " the Bath " in 1733 ? 

John Pavin Phillips. 

Haverfordwest. 

Paper Money (3 rd S. i. 89.) — The recent ar- 
ticle under this title brought to my recol- 
lection a curiosity of the sort which I have had 
long in my possession, and which may interest 
some of your readers. It is an American bank 
note for twenty shillings, on very strong coarse 
cream-coloured paper, or by possibility once white. 
Its dimensions are three and a half inches by two 
and three-quarter inches. On the face, inclosed 
by a border, is the following inscription, in a curi- 
ous variety of type : — 

" Twenty Shillings. This indented Bill shall pass cur- 
rent for Twenty Shillings, according to an Act of General 
Assembly of the counties of Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex, 
upon Delaware, passed in the 15 th year of the reign of 
his Maiestv Geo. the 3 d . Dated the I s * day of Jan. 1776. 
XXs." • 

At the upper left-hand corner the royal arms are 
engraved, at the lower right-hand corner is a space 
of size corresponding with engraving, in which are 
three autograph signatures. The number of the 
note is also by the pen, 43415. 

The reverse of the note bears a wheatsheaf, en- 
graved in the centre, surrounded on three sides by 
the words " Twenty Shillings," and beneath " To 
counterfeit is Death. Printed by James Adams, 
1776." M.F. 

Mutilation of Sepulchral Memorials (2 nd 
S. xii. 174.) — In this borough there is a pathway 
just outside the churchyard of Holy Trinity parish, 
which has been literally paved with tombstones 
taken from the adjoining burial ground. 

D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

Liquorice (3 rd S. i. 46.) — The last paragraph 
of Mr. Chance's article probably contains the 
real explanation of the mystery. The semivowels 
frequently interchange; and it has not escaped 
the notice of those astute grammarians — the 
Hindus. A singular instance occurs in the $ata- 
patha-brahmana (written B.C. 1000) ; the defeat 
of a barbarous horde is thus mentioned : — " The 
Asuras, with defective utterance, crying hc'hava, 
he'uiva, were overthrown." Instead of he'xaya, 
he'siaya, " O enemies ! O enemies ! " F. P. 



God's Providence is mine Inheritance (3 rd 
S. i. 51.) — The adoption of this motto by the 
first, or " Great Earl of Cork," as he is generally 
called, is recorded in almost all our Peerages, and 
has become a matter of history. Certainly his 
career sufficiently proved that he did "not trust 
God in vain " ; for it affords one of the most re- 
markable instances on record of temporal pros- 
perity, and of the advancement of a needy adven- 
turer to almost as high and* honourable position 
as it was possible for a subject to attain : himself 
an immensely wealthy carl, with four sons, who 
were also peers, and the fifth the celebrated phi- 
losopher, the Honourable Robert Boyle. 

C. Bingham. 

St. Aulaire (3 rd S. i. 52.) — The following is 
the quatrain inquired for : — 

" La divinite qui s'amuse 
A me demander mon secret, 
Si j'etais Apollon, ne serait point ma Muse; 
Elle serait Thetis, et le jour finirait." 

Biogr. Universelle. 

'AAievs. 

Dublin. 

Buzaglia, OR Buzaglo (3 rd S. i.91.) — The 
answer given to this Query is evidently founded 
on a misapprehension. There can be no doubt 
that the Buzaglia, provided for the Toll-house 
Hall at Great Yarmouth in 1784, was a stove; 
such as is mentioned in the following passage of 
the obituary of the Gentleman s Magazine, vol. lviii. 
p. 562 : — 

" 1788. Aged 72, Mr. Abraham Buzaglo, of Dean 
Street, Soho, inventor of the stove called after his name, 
which he afterwards applied as a cure for the gout, and 
wherein he has been so much exceeded by the late Mr. 
Sharp." 

J. G. N. 

Princess Caroline or Wales at Charlton 
(3 rd S. i. 89.) — The Princess of Wales resided at 
Montague House, Blackheath ; which I presume 
answers the inquiry of D. S. T., although Charl- 
ton is named in the extract he quotes. It was at 
the above house that Sir Walter Scott was pre- 
sented to the Princess in 1806 {Life, by Lockhart, 
vol. ii. p. 100.) Charles Wylie. 

The York Buildings Company (2 nd S. xi. 
291, 359.) — In the recently published Memorials 
of Angus and Mearns (p. 257), the author, allud- 
ing to the " Panmure Library," states : — 

" Since the accession of the present Peer, the library 
has been enriched by the Inventory and Memorandum 
Books of the York Buildings' Company, relating to the. for- 
feited Estates of Panmure, Sovthesk, and Jfarisr/tat, in 
1729, Sfc. in two volumes folio, MS. (from which several 
extracts have been made for the fist time in this work.)" 

Some curious illustrative extracts and notes are 
accordingly giyen in pages 38, 39, 478. 

William Galloway. 

Reverend John Kettlewell (3 rd S. i. 91.) — 
I think there can be no doubt that Mrs. Kettle- 



120 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 r « S. I. Feb. 8, '62. 



well's Christian name was Jane. She is so called 
in the " Life of Kettlewell," compiled from the 
collections of Dr. Hickes and Robert Nelson, and 
prefixed to the edition of KettleweiTs Works, 
published 1719 in two volumes folio {vide p. 41). 
Kettlewell was buried in the parish church of 
Allhallows, Barking, near the Tower of London, 
in the same grave where Archbishop Laud was 
before interred, within the rails of the altar (idem. 
p. 187). I should conclude, from this memoir, that 
Mrs. Kettlewell was still alive at the date of its 
publication. John Maclean. 

Hammersmith. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

A Dictionary of the Bible : comprising Antiquities, Bio- 
graphy, Geography, and Natural History. By various 
Writers. Edited by William Smith, LL.D. Parts I. and 
II. (Murray.) 

Mr. Murray has shown good judgment in re-issuing 
this great storehouse of Biblical knowledge in monthly 
parts. There are a great many clergymen and students 
of Holy Scripture who would be glad to enrich their li- 
braries by this most useful and learned work, to whom 
the present mode of publication will be very convenient. 
The original scheme, which was to give a dictionary of 
the Bible, and not of Theology, has been well carried out ; 
for, while systems of theology and points of controver- 
sial divinity are altogether omitted, the Antiquities, Bio- 
graphv, Geography, and Natural History of the Old and 
New Testaments, and of the Apocrypha, arefully elucidated. 
The List of Contributors is a guarantee for the vast amount 
of special knowledge brought to bear upon the various 
items of this Dictionary, which is certainly not the least 
valuable contribution to available knowledge, for which 
we are indebted to the energy and good judgment of Dr. 
Smith. 

Letters from Borne to Friends in England. By the Rev. 
John W. Burgon, M.A. (Murray.) 

These letters, reprinted with additions and corrections 
from The Guardian, are now made far more readable than 
when they appeared in the pages of a newspaper. Their 
solid worth comes here recommended to us by the adjuncts 
of good print and paper, and plenty of excellent wood- 
cuts. They are historical, antiquarian, anecdotical, and 
controversial ; but the bitterness of controve^ is softened 
down by that spell of reverence, which the Eternal City 
throws over every religious writer. 

Hymns for the Church o f England. (Longman.) 

Another effort to supply the desideratum of an Eng- 
lish hymnal ? The ideal of such a hymnal will only be 
reached when it is characterised throughout by orthodox 
doctrine, and sterling poetry; when every hymn in it 
possesses a unity of subject, an obvious sense, and a cor- 
rect rhyme ; when the hymns appropriate to each sacred 
season, treat the subject of the season from various points 
of view, and in various metres. Are there as many as 
170 English hymns (so many are contained in the vo- 
lume before us) coming up to this ideal ? We fear not. 

Alfabeto Christiano, by Juan de Valdes, from the Italian 
of 1546. By Benjamin B. Wiffen. (Bosworth and Har- 
rison.) 

Only one hundred copies of this work are printed for 
circulation ; and the translation will thus remain almost 



as much a bibliographical curiosity as the original. Yet 
intrinsic interest must needs attach to it, as the work of 
one of the earl}'- Spanish Protestants, the friend of Eras- 
mus, the admired of Nicolas Ferrar, who translated his 
better-known Considerations. The Alfabeto Christiano 
purports to be a dialogue between the Author and Giulia 
Gonzaga, Duchess of Trajetto. It is pietistic in tone, 
and designed to guide its readers in the simplest paths of 
practical religion. 

The Christian Church and Society in 1861. By F. Gui° 
zot. (Richard Bentley.) 

We have here the interesting spectacle of a great mind 
identifying itself with the cause of Christianity ; a pro- 
found statesman, and yet an ardent religionist; a Pro- 
testant, yet advocating the temporal sovereignty of the 
Pope, as a necessary condition of his spiritual indepen- 
dence. He advocates the Napoleonic scheme of an Italian 
Confederacy rather than of a Kingdom of Italy, and owns 
that he sent M. Rossi to Rome, in the reign of Louis 
Philippe, to labour in such a design. 

Ancient Collects and other Prayers ; selected for Devo- 
tional use from various Rituals, with an Appendix on the 
Collects in the Prayer Book. By W. Bright, M.A. Second 
Edition. (J. H. & J. Parker.) 

A most valuable manual; from which the parochial 
clergyman will be able to extract much solid and various 
matter for occasions of devotion. 



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WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
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Sir Cuthbert Sharpe's History of the Rising of the North in 
1569. 

A print from the portrait of the late Wm. Danby, Esq.., of Swinton 
Park, Yorkshire. 

"Wanted by Wm. Danby, Esq., Park House, Exeter. 



Noble's Lives of the Regicides. 2 Vols. 

The Athenaeum from the first number to the end of the year 1835. 
Wanted by Edward Peacock, Esq., the Manor, Bottesford, Brigg. 



flatted its €>axtt$$mxysmt$. 

F. B. The macaronic poem, Pugna Porcorum, which contains about 
300 lines, is printed in Mr. Sandys' Specimens of Macaronic Poetry, 8vo, 
1831. 

Superstition. Thirteen unlucky from " the Last Supper." 

W. W. The History of Shoreditch was v;ritten by Sir Henry Ellis. 

Lumen. Edward Helton's {.not Milton) Travels are noticed in our 
last volume, pp. 88, 456. 

Monsieur Tonson C H. G. is in some measure right. The Farce 

was written by Moncrief, but the capital poem, on which that Farce was 
founded, was icritten by Taylor. 

T. L. M. 

" When Greeks joined Greeks, then was the tug of war," 
is from Lee's Alexander the Great. As to the second Query, see Daily 
Telegraph of Saturday, Feb. 1. 

Monthly Feuilleton of French Literature next iceek, if possible. 

E. D. The possessor of two Sermons by Dr. Thomas Adams, described 
by him in, " N. & Q." 1st S. v. 134, is requested to say where a letter may 
be addressed to him. 

Icianis. Mr. Wright's address is 14, Sydney Street, Brompton. 

Tyne. The work is entitled The Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs. 
-See " 1ST. & Q." 2nd S. vi. 88, 173 , 212, 276. 

"Notes and Queries" is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
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121 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 15, 1862. 



CONTENTS.— No. 7. 
NOTES : — Loiters of Archbishop Leighton, 121 — Sebastian 

Cabot : an Episode in his Life, 125 — Somersetshire Wills : 
. Pettigrew Family, lb. — Armour-clad Ships : the Skull of 

the Elephant, 120. 
Minor Notes : — Spelling Matches — Paper — Judges' 

Seats in Courts of J ustice — Manchester in the Year 1559 

— Visitation of Shropshire — Amusing Blunder — Feni- 
more Cooper on the Bermudas — Jokes on the Scarcity of 
Bullion, 126. 

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cellorship of the University of Cambridge — The Author of 
the " Falls of Clyde " — J. A. Blackwell — Burdon of Easing- 
ton — Canoe —Comets and Epidcmia — Colonel — Defaced 
and Worn Coins — Dodshon of Strauton — Ecclesiastical 
Commission of 1650 — Electioneerers — Literary Anecdotes 
—Br. Mansel's Epigrams — John Pikeryng — "Piromi- 
des" — Robert Rose — Michael Scot's Writings on Astro- 
nomy — Sutton Family — Early Edition of Terence — 
Universal Suffrage — Webb Family — Weeping among the 
Ancients, &c, 12y. 

Queries with Answers: —The Seven-branched Candle- 
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Sayer — Provincial Tokens — Aldermen of London, 132. 

REPLIES:— Lambeth Degrees, 133 — Scripture Paraphrase, 
134 — Miniature Painter : Sillett, 135 — Natoaca, lb. — Salt 
given to Sheep : St. Gregory, Regula Pastoralis — Alchemy 
and Mysticisms — Browning's " Lyrics" — Dr. John Por- 
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thorised Translator of Catullus — Washing Parchment 
and Vellum — Quotation Wanted, &c, 136. 

Monthly Feuilleton on French Books. 



LETTERS OF ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON. 
{Continued from p. 107). 

IV. 

Dec. 17. 

May it please yo r Grace, 
Because I was unwilling to give yo 1 ' Grace any 
farther trouble at parting, I did resolv to peese (?) 
out ye remainder of this year in this station, w h 
being now near upon expiring, I could not think 
of a fitter way to signify my intention than by 
the enclosed, being ye very same individual paper 
yt I presented to yo r Grace while you were 
here. And I think it needless to say any more 
of ye reasons mooving mee to 't, having then 
given yo r Grace a short account of the main of 
them in a paper apart. Onely I crave leave to 
add this, that upon ye most iinpartiale reflexion I 
can make upon ye temper of my mind in this 
matter, I cannot find that it proceeds from any 
pusillanimous impatience, or weariness of the 
troubles of this employment, but rather from a 
great contempt of our unworthy and trifling con- 
tentions, of w h I have little other esteem than of 
a querelle (TAlman, or a drunken scuffle in the 
dark, and doe pity exceedingly to see a poor 
church doing its utmost to destroy both itself and 
religion in furious zeal and endlesse debates about 
ye empty name and shadow of a difference in 
government, and in the meanwhile not having of 



solemn and orderly worship so much as a shadow. 
Besides I have one urgent excuse that grows daily 
truer, for though I keep not bedd much, nor am 
(I thank God) rackt with sharp and tormenting 
diseases, yet I can truely say that I am scarce 
ever free from som one or other of those pains 
and distempers that hang about this litle crazy 
turf of earth I carry, w h makes it an uneasy 
burden to mee, but withall puts me in hopes f* I 
shall shortly drop it into the common heap. 
Meanwhile, my best relief will bee, to spend the 
litle remnant of my time in a private and retir'd 
life in some corner of England, for in ye com- 
munion of that church, by ye help of God, I am 
resolvd to live and die. That w h I seem humbly 
to entreat of y r Grace is ye representation of this 
litle affair to his Ma tic , and that in as favorable 
a manner as may bee, w h shall add very much to 
ye many and great obligements of 

May it please yo r Grace, 
Yo r Grace's 
Most humble Servant, 

K. Leighton. 

[The following is the paper inclosed : — ] 
The true reasons both of my purpose of re- 
tiring from my present charge and of declining a 
greater, are briefly these. 

1. The sense I have of the dreadfull weight of 
whatsoever charge of souls, or any kind of spi- 
rituall inspection over people, but much more 
over ministers ; and withall of my own extream 
unworthinesse and unfitnesse for so high a station 
in the Church. 

2. The continuing divisions and contentions of 
this church, and ye little or no appearance of 
their care for our time. 

3. The earnest desire I have long had of a re- 
tir'd and private life, w h is now much increased 
by sicklinesse and old age drawing on, and ye 
sufficient experience of ye folly and vanity of ye 
world. And in a word, tis rerum humanarum 
fastidium. 

Whatsoever I might add more, I forbear, for I 
confesse after all I could say, I expect little right 
or fair construction from ye world in this matter, 
but rather many various mistakes and miscen- 
sures on all hands. But soe that the relief is, 
that in ye retreat I design, I shall not hear of 
them, or if I do, I shall not feel them. 

v. 

Dunbl. octob. 9. 
Sir,— I met lately with our noble friend through 
whose hand this comes to you, and discoursed 
awhile of our affairs. What concerns my unworthy 
self I am very weary of hearing or speaking so 
much of it, and after all cannot see reason to 
recede from my opinion. My retreat (which I 
think I foresee will bee very quickly unavoidable) 
may be much more decent from my present pos- 



122 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. I. Feb. 15, '62. 



ture, than after a more formall engagement, and 
will expose me lesse to the imputations of one of 
the late pamphleteer's throws at mee of phantas- 
tick inconstancy, though I think he has not hitt 
mee, at least I feel it not, for as to my removes 
hee reckons upp, I am sure there never was lesse 
of any man's own share in any remoof (sic) than 
was in all mine, and as for his other instance of 
being neither pleased with presbyterie nor epis- 
copacy, with the exorbitancies of neither, I con- 
fesse, but if ye thought of their regular conjunction 
could have entered into his head, hee should 
rather have sayd I was pleased with both, for I 
have bin constantly enough of that opinion, that 
they doe much better together than either of 
them does apart, and have in this the consent of 
great multitudes of heads as strong and clear as 
his and his brethren's are hott and cloudy ; but 
this is a digression. Of our higher Vacancies I 
have sayd enough in my former, and possibly too 
much, but that 'tis alwaies attemper'd with abso- 
lute submission to those yt are both so much 
wiser and above mee : but for our vacant parish 
kirks in ye West, I wish it were taken into con- 
sideration, and well resolv'd on, what way of sup- 
plying them will be fittest, in order to ye publick 
peace, w h I conceiv we are mainly to eye in our 
whole buissines. I waited on ye Lords of Coun- 
cil this week, but they have given mee neither 
any new coinand nor advice in this particular, 
w h till I receiv from some y* have power to give 
it I must forbear to attempt any thing, and 
rather let things rest as they bee, than by en- 
deavouring to better them, run the hazard to 
make them worse. I am not doubtfull of yo r ut- 
most assistance in these affairs, both where you 
are and when you return, nor need I any more 
repeated request of ye constant charity of yo r 
prayers for 

Yo r poor brother and servant, 

R. L. 

For Mr. Gilbert Burnet, 
at London. 

VI. 

Lond. Jul. 3 r . 

May it please yo r Grace, 
I am extreamly sorry, if y e putting a close to y e 
buissines y* brought mee hither, when it could not 
well bee differr'd any longer, shall have caus'd in 
yo r Grace any displeasure ag st mee, w h yet I can 
hardly suspect, for this desire of mine (w h I con- 
fesse is y e onely ambitious and passionate desire I 
have of any thing in this world) bee it from weak- 
nesse of understanding, or melancholy humor or 
whatsoever else any may imagine, I am sure there 
is no malice in it to any person or to any party, 
yea y e innocency and sincerity of my heart in this 
matter will, I trust in God, uphold me under all 
y 6 various misconstructions y* can fall upon me. Yea 



even that of craziness of mind, 't is possibly by some 
imputed to, does not move mee, when I consider 
that many great and wise persons have been guilty 
of the same folly, if it be so, some by actual re- 
tiring, others by earnest desires of it, when it 
prov'd impossible for them. But not to amuse yo r 
Grace with these discourses, I submit to y e result 
of this buissines for this time, seeing 'tis now never 
to create any further trouble either to myself or 
any other, and I hope in God I shall goe through 
the remainder of this unpleasant work without 
discontent or impatience, if I may bee but assur'd 
of one thing, and that is, a full and absolute par- 
don from yo r Grace of whatsoever hath bin 
troublesome or offensive to you in this matter, 
and no abatement of yo r good opinion and favour, 
though (I confes) alwaies undeserved in all other 
respects, unles great affection to yo r Grace, yo r 
service may pretend some small degree of accept- 
ance instead of merit. And this shall remain un- 
alterable in mee, while I live, however yo r Grace 
may be pleased henceforward to look upon mee. 
But it would exceedingly encourage mee in my 
return to my laboratory, if a line from yo r hand 
did give mee some hope, at least, of the same 
favourable aspect from y r Grace, as formerly; but 
I crave pardon for this presumption, and however 
my poor prayers, such as they bee, shall not bee 
wanting for yo r Grace's welfare and happiness, nor 
shall I ever cea3e, while I am above ground, to bee. 
May it please yo r Grace, 
Yo r Grace's 

Most humble Servant, 

K. Leighton. 

For my Lord Duke of Lauderdale, 
his Grace. 

VII. 

Edg. Jun. 25. 

May it please yo r Grace, 
T was just upon going out of town when 1 re- 
ceived yo r Grace's letter of y e 18th of June, and 
some few days before I had writt somewhat to yo r 
Gr. touching y e buissines of a national synod, very 
much agreeing with what your Gr. sayes concern- 
ing it ; only I took y e liberty to suggest the fairest 
construction in behalf of the ministers pushing for 
it, and that if any were driving a design in it, it 
was more than I could perceive, and more than 
the generality of themselves doe know of ; and 
there is one particular they have mistaken y* gave 
yo r Gr. account of this affair, if they have affirm' d 
that the motion began at the synod of Glasco, for, 
upon my honest word, there was not one syllable 
spoke of it there in my hearing ; no, not in private, 
far lesse anything propounded towards it in pub- 
lick ; indeed after it was mooted at Edin r y e re- 
port spreading, diverse presbyteries were taken 
with it, and began to discourse of it, and yet none 
of them writt to mee till it was again revived at 
Edinbugh. Only the presbyterie of Glasco sent a 



3'd S. I. Feb. 15, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



123 



letter to y e presbyterie of Edinbugh, wherein there 
was more irregularity than in any other I have 
seen or heard; for they neither acquainted the 
Bp. of Ed r with it at all, nor mee, w" looked the 
liker y c sticking up to a correspondence divided 
from us. But if this had not come to yo r Grace's 
knowledge by other hands, I confes I had never 
sayd anything of it, for being here just y c day be- 
fore it should have been deliver'd, it was brought 
to my hands, and I having opened it (as I thought 
I had good reason to doe), and being much dis- 
pleased with the strain of it kept it upp, and re- 
sol v'd to suppresse it, and to check them y* writt 
it, but not to bring them to any publick censure 
for it; and the rather for y e very reason y fc would 
have moved a vindictive man to publish it, some 
of those y* joined in it being y e persons of the 
whole diocese that have most discovered something 
of unkindness toward me ; yea, I can confidently 
say are the only persons of y e whole, for anything 
I know, that continue so to doe, the rest having 
after the first prejudices and mistakes were blown 
over, liv'd with mee not only in much peace, but 
in great amity and kindnes, and have of late ge- 
nerally exprest more affection to mee than I can 
modestly own y e reporting of. But this I say 
to excuse my suppressing y e very ill advised letter 
those persons sent to Edg. 

The reasons they give y* still presse this motion 
are not y* they think y e dissenters will submit to 
it, but that a full and free hearing may be offered 
them in any way they will accept of it ; or if they 
totally decline it, that will be both a sufficient and 
a very easie defeat, nor do they say themselves need 
a synod in order to their own satisfaction con- 
cerning y e government, seeing they join with' it 
but for regulating of y c church in matters of dis- 
cipline, and for reducing things to as much order 
as may bee for the present attainable ; but to both 
these I answer them, that till there shall be found 
a more convenient time for such a meeting these 
things may be someway provided for in an easier 
and safer way, for I tell them freely that though 
I do not suspect them of any design against the 
present government, w h was the great incen- 
tive in the year 1638, yet I fear unless it were 
very wisely manag'd, and succeeded very happily, 
it might be in hazard rather to disparage the go- 
vernment than likely to add anything to its reput- 
ation ; for seeing them so divided and hotly con- 
testing about y e very motion of a synod it may 
easily be feared, they would be more soe in it, if 
it were granted them ; and with these and other 
considerations I doe really endeavour to al(l)ay 
and cool the minds of such ministers as apply 
themselves to mee about it, and strive to divert 
them from any further attempts or thoughts of it 
for this time, and I am hopeful there shall be no 
more noise about it. Our Primate tells me hee 
hath writt to some of y e northern Bps. of his 



province to meet him shortly at Brechin, but I 
believe it will be but a thin meeting, and as I told 
him, I cannot see what great matter they can doe 
at it; but that I leave to his own better judge- 
ment. If it had been at Edin r it would have pa^t 
with less noise and observation, and I would have 
endeavoured to wait on it, but being now going 
to the most southern corner of the diocese of 
Glasco I cannot possible return so quickly as to 
go to the north. I have stay'd this day in town 
on purpose to speak to some of those lords yo r 
Grace directs me to wait on, and I went in the 
morning to my lord Hatton's lodging, but hee was 
gone abroad, but this afternoon I intend to wait 
on his Lo. and any others of that number I can 
meet with, though I have little or nothing to say 
but what some of them know already. I have 
wearied yo r Gr e . with so long a letter, but y e par- 
ticulars that occasion it to bee so I trust will ex- 
cuse. 

May it please yo r Grace, yo r Grace's 
Most humble servant, 

R. Leighton. 

To my Lord Duke of Lauderdale, 
His Grace. 

VIII. 

May it please yo r Grace, 
I am uncertain whether this shall goe by Mr. 
Burnet's hand or by the post, but when hee meets 
with yo r Grace (as I hope shortly hee shall) he will 
give you a more full account of the present con- 
dition of this Church, and particularly in the west, 
than I can by writing. For y e person I took y e 
liberty to recommend by my last to the vacancy 
of y e Isles, I will say no more nor presse it further, 
yo r Grace will doe in it what you think fit, in due 
time. The damage that is lately befallen the town 
of Glasco, and indeed the whole country round 
about, by the fall of a part of their bridge, I be- 
lieve yo r Grace will have notice of from better 
hands, and will, I doubt not, favour them in the 
procurement of any fit way of assistance towards 
the repairing it that shall be suggested, for it will 
be very expensive, and the town will not be able 
to bear it alone, though they be called richer than 
some other corporations here ; as y e noise of most 
revenues, publick and personal, in common report 
does usually far exceed their just value. But 
there is another particular that concerns them, of 
w h I shall humbly crave leave to offer my thoughts, 
though it is a bussines I could hardly obtain leave 
of myself to intermedle with, if the good and peace 
of that place (which I am now bound particularly 
to tender) 'did not considerably depend upon it : 
'tis the choice of their magistrate for the ensuing 
' year, the usual time being not now far off. And 
! this I must declare upon y e exactest enquiry I can 
! make, that the nomination of y c present Provost 
j gave so great and general satisfaction at first, and 



124 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. i. Feb. 15, »62. 



still does to the far greater part of y c inhabitants, 
that without reflecting on or disparaging any other, 
I cannot but interpose my humble request hee 
may bee continued for this one ensuing year ; for 
I doe certainly know, that were the choice either 
referred to y G town councill or y e body of the 
citizens, it would carry that way and no other, 
and were it in my hands I would most evidently 
clear myself of all appearance of partiall inclin- 
ation, by doing it in that very way of their own 
express consent and vote, having nothing to bias 
mee in the thing, they being all equally civill to 
me, and I equally disinterested in them all, only I 
am sure that if an unacceptable change should be 
made at the time, it would not a little obstruct my 
great design of comforting y e humors and discon- 
tent, and quieting y e minds of that people. But 1 ' 
having sayd this, I doe humbly crave pardon, and 
doe absolutely submit it to your Grace's better 
judgement; nor will I be troublesome with saying 
any more of my former request of liberation either 
from my old charge, or present commission, or 
rather that of all ... . both, but will pattiently wait 
for a favourable answer, as becomes, my Lord, 
Your Grace's most humble Servant, 
R. Leighton. 

To lay lord Commissioner, 
His Grace. 

IX. 

May it please yo r Grace, 
Though I confesse I am as lazy as any other to 
y e buissinesse of writing, yet I would not have 
bin wanting to my duty of acquainting yo r Grace, 
if anything had occurr'd since my last worthy of 
yo r notice within my present circle (for without 
it I medle not) ; nor have I much now to say, 
but that, thanks bee to God, the West Sea is at 
present pretty calm, and wee are in a tolerable 
degree of quiet, and the late meating and con- 
ference with y e dissenting brethren seems to have 
contributed something towards it; so that y e time 
and pains bestow'd that way seem not to bee wholly 
lost, and though they cannot bee charm'd into 
union. ; yet they doe not sting so fiercely as they 
did, nor does the difference between us appear so 
vast, and the gulf between us so great but that there 
may bee some transition, and diverse of them are 
speaking of coming to presbyteries, if they may bee 
excused from Synods ; but it is most among them 
y* are still out, as indeed most concern'd, and 
possibly had y e rest bin treated with in y e same 
posture they would have bin more tractable, but 
we must doe as well as wee can with them as 
they are — de ce qui est fait, le conseil en est 
pris. The main difficulty at present is the fil- 
ling of y e vacancies w b are not a few, and diverse 
of y e people very humorous and hard to please, 
and the too great disregard of that, and the neg- 
ligent indifferent throwing in upon them any 



that came to hand was the great cause of all the 
disquiet that hath arisen in these parts, filling all 
places with almost as much precipitancy as was 
us'd in making them empty. And in this affair I 
am now craving y e advice and assistance of y e 
Lords of Councill, and particularly of those on 
whom I know y or Grace reposes most for this and 
other matters of public concernment, being re- 
sol v'd to do nothing of importance while I con- 
tinue in this station without their good liking and 
concurrence. They prest mee lately to give my 
opinion in a particular y* I confesse I was very 
loth to medle in, being generally averse from 
chusing anything for myself, but more from chus- 
ing employments to other persons or the persons 
for y e employments. It was concerning y e va- 
cancy of y e Isles, but finding them earnest in it, I 
nam'd y e person that is, to my best discerning, y e 
fittest I know in these parts y* will by any means 
bee induced to undertake it : 'tis y° Dean of 
Glasco, whom I find to be of a very calm temper, 
and a discreet intelligent, man, and have all along 
bin very kindly and usefully assisted by him in 
our church affairs since my engaging in 'this ser- 
vice. But when I have sayd anything, if y or Grace, 
or any abler to advise you, think some other per- 
son fitter with all my heart ; I have no partiall 
interest nor stiff opinion in these things, nor would 
not at all have given my opinion in this, unlesse 
it had bin requir'd of mee, yea, drawn from mee ; 
and to the best choyce I' shall always gladliest 
consent, being still for y e french doctor's vote, 
when one Crighton of this nation, stood in com- 
petition with diverse Frenchmen for a vacant 
profession in their schools detur Kpeirrovi. But 
whosoever bee the man, if y e vacant year's revenue 
bee not absolutely dispos'd of already, it could 
not likely bee better bestow'd than upon the in- 
trant, being constantly so small a provision that 
one in that order will have enough to do to live 
decently upon it. For Dunblain, I deliver'd a 
resignation of it under my hand some moneths 
agoe to my lord Kincarn, but now he tells mee hee 
hath not yet sent it upp. All I desire is either 
that it may be dispos'd of, or that I may be re- 
liev'd of y e surcharge of this later employment ; 
for though, when I visit Dunblain (as I lately 
did), I find things in the same condition as for- 
merly, litle or nothing to doe, but after my cus- 
tom to preach amongst them, yet I desire to be 
freed of y e least appearance and imputation of a 
pluralist, how little soever it really signifies if all 
the truth were known. For with y e rents of 
Glasco I have not as yet at all intermedled, and 
for y e other, Mr. Herilock hath commenc'd a suite 
in law against mee to free himself of further pay- 
ing his dues to y e Chappell, and from the arrieres 
w h this five years past hee hath withheld, and it is 
the bigger half of the whole dues of the place. 
However, I believe y or Grace knows somewhat of 



3"* S. I. Feb. 15, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



125 



my unconcemment in these things, and Hee that 
sees within mee and all men, perfectly knows 
how much I would prefer a retreat, and y c poorest 
private life to y° highest church preferment in the 
three Kingdoms ; and one of my dayly petitions 
is, that if it be the good pleasure of God, hee 
would once before I die blesse me with that re- 
treat. But I am sure 'tis high time to retreat 
from giving yo r Grace this trouble, and from pro- 
longing a letter that is already so much longer 
then my usuall size, that I am asham'd of it, and 
will not add a word more but one, that I am sure 
I shall never retract, that I am, my Lord, 

Yo r Grace's most oblig'd and humble Servant, 

K. Leighton. 

For my Lord Commissioner, 
Plis Grace. 

C. F. Secretin. 
{To be continued.') 



SEBASTIAN CABOT. 

AN EPISODE IN HIS LIFE. 

Strype, in his Memorials, vol. ii. p. 190, states 
that — 

The Emperor "desired, that whereas one Sebastian 
Gabote, or Cabote, grand pilot of the Emperors Indias, 
was then in England, for as much as he could not stand 
the king in any great stead, seeing he had but small 
practice in these seas, and was a very necessary man for 
the Kmperor, whose servant he was, and had a pension 
of him, that some order might be taken for his sending 
over in such sort as the Emperor should at better length 
declare unto the king's council. Notwithstanding I sus- 
pect Gabote still abode in England at Bristow (for there 
he lived); having two or three years after set on foot a 
famous voyage hence, as we shall mention in due place." 

Cabot's biographers appear to have been ignor- 
ant of the result of this application, which may 
be found in a letter directed from the council to 
Sir Philip Hoby, under date of Greenwich, 21st 
April, 1550, as follows : — 

" And as for Sebastian Cabot, answere was first made 
to the said Amb dor , that he was not deteined heere by us ; 
but that he himself refused to go either into Spayne or 
to the Kmp or ; and that he being of that mind, and the j 
Kind's suhjecte, no reason nor equitie wolde that he 
shuhle be forced or compelled to go against his will, j 
Upon the w h answere, the s d Amb dor said, that, if this 
were Cabotte's aunswere, then he required, that the said 
Cabot, in the presence of some one whom we coulde ap- 
pointe, might speke w ,h him the s d Amb dor , and declare ' 
unto him this to be his minde and aunswere; whereunto j 
we condescended, and at the last sent the s d Cabot w ,h 
Richard Shelley to the Ambassador, who, as the s d Shel- 
ley hath made report to us, affirmed to the s d Amb dor , 
that he was not minded to go neither into Spayne nor to 
the, Emp or . Nevertheless, having km.wlege "of certein 
thinges verie necessarie for the Emp°« knowlege, he 
was well contented for the good will he bere the Emp° r 
to write his mind unto him, or declare the same here to 
«nie such as shude be appointed to heare him ; wher- 
unto the said Amb dor asked the s d Cabot, in case the 
Kinge's Ma lie or we shulde comand him to go to the 
Erap or , whether then he wolde not do it; whereunto 



Cabot made answere as Shelley reportethe, that if the 
Kinge's Highnes or we did comand him so to do, then he 
knew wel btough what he had to do; but it semeth that 
the Emb dor tooke this aunswere of Cabot to sound as 
j though Cabot had aunswered, that being comaunded by 
the Kinge's Highnes or us, that then he wolde be con- 
tented to go to the Emp or , wherein we reken the s d 
Emb dor to be deceived ; for that the s d Cabot had divers 
times before declared unto us that he was fullie deter- 
mined not to go hens at all." 

This ambiguous reply of Cabot was, no doubt, 
duly conveyed through the diplomatic channel to 
the Emperor, who must have taken the same view 
of it as the Ambassador : for on the 9th of Sept., 
1553, we find him addressing the following letter 
to the Queen Mary of England, desiring that she 
would give permission to Cabot to come to him, 
as he desired to confer with him upon some im ■ 
portant affairs connected with navigation : — 

" Treshaulte tres excellente et trespuissante princesse 
nre treschiere et tresamee bonne seur et cousine. Pour co 
que desirerions comuniquer aucuns affaires concernans la 
sheurete de la nauigation de noz Royauemes et pays 
avec le capitaine Cabote cidevant pilote de noz Roy- 
auemes d'Espaigne et lequel de nre gre et consentement 
s'est puis aucuncs annees passe en Angleterre nous vous 
requerons bien affeetueusement donner conge aud' Cabote 
et luy permectre venir deuers nous pour avec luy comu- 
niquer sur ce que dessus et vous nous ferez en ce tresa- 
greable plesir selon quauons encharge a noz ambassadeura 
deuers vous le vous aceurer plus particulierement. A 
tant treshaulte tresexcellente et trespuissante princesse 
nfe treschiere et tresamee bonne seur et cousine nous 
prions le createur vous avoir en sa tressaincte et digne 
garde. De Mons en Haynnau le ix e de Septembre 1553. 

" Vre bon frere et cousin, 
" Charles. 

\_In dor so"] 

" A tres haulte tres excellente et trespuissante prin- 
cesse nre treschiere et tresamee bonne seur et 
cousine la Royne d'Angleterre." 

Cl. Hopper. 



SOMERSETSHIRE WILLS— PETTIGREW FAMILY. 

The following will of John Walgrow, dated in 
1541, is a specimen of will-making at the Re- 
formation. It is transcribed from an ancient and 
authentic copy. West Charlton is about three 
miles from Somerton, Somerset. 

"Test. Joins Walgrow, Rectoris de West Charlton: — 
In dei nomine, Amen, in the j r ear of owr Lord, 1541, the 
viij day of Aprvll, I John Walgrow, Clarke, hole of 
mynd and memory make thys my testament and last 
wyll, yn forme and man'r followyng: — Fyrst, I bequeth 
my sowle to Almighty God, my body to be bury'd yn 
the church chancell of Charelton Makerell. Item, I be- 
queth to the sayd church xx s for the intent to be pray'd 
for among the brothers and the systers of the sepulture 
lyght of that church. Item, I bequeth to the church of 
Charelton Adam vj s viij d for the intent to be prayed for 
among the brothers and systers ther. Item, I bequeth 
to the mother church of Wells, xij' 1 . Item, I bequeth to 
the church of Otcumb, xiij" iiij d . Item, I bequeth to 
ev'y howssholder of Otcumb aforsayd, rj'ch and pow'r, 
xij 1 ; so that the man and the wyff be at my dyreg and 
mass, excepte sycknys or other necessary thyng let hyt ; 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. I. Feb. 15, '62. 



and the priest shall have xx d for hys labor. Item, I 
bequeth to ev'y hows'r yn Charelton Makerell xij d ; so 
that the man and the wyff be at my dyr3 7 g and beryng, 
excepte sycknys or other necessary thyng let hyt. Item, 
I bequeth to John Knyllar my s'vant all such stuffe as I 
have at Otcumb, w't six silv'r sponys of the best sorte, 
and sixe shepe, at the dely'vrance of myne executor. 
Item, to my god-chyld iiij d . Farther, I wyll that my 
executor immediately vpon my deth shall p'vyde sume 
honest prest to pray for my sowle one year aft. my de- 
p'tyng, yn the same p'yshe. Item, Y wyll also that mas 
and dyryg be kepte ev'y day duryng the monyth after 
my beryng. The resydeu of my goods above not ex- 
p'ssyd nor bequethed, I fully geve, graunt, and bequeth 
to Robert Bithese. my sonne yn lawe, whom I make and 
ordayn my hole executor, that he therof do ordayne and 
dispose hit for my sowle as to hym shal be best semyng 
or exped} 7 ent. Morover, I wyll and ordayn for my 
ov'seer, of thys my last wyll, Thomas Champion, and he 
to have for hys payne and labor so takyng my best salte. 
In witnys wherof I, Sir Robert Corbet, Curat, John Buck- 
land of Harptree, Richard Godgu, S'r Robert Hyll, doth 
put to our namyn the day and yere above wrytyng." 

Should the following curious will (which is 
transcribed from an authentic MS.) meet the eye 
of the talent archaeologist and antiquary, T. J. 
Pettigrew, Esq., he will probably be interested in 
finding that one of his name was a dweller, in 
Somersetshire, upwards of 300 years ago. Whe- 
ther the testator was an ancestor of the present 
learned gentleman I cannot say. 

" Testa* tu Roberti Petigrew de North Cadbery : — In 
dei nomine, Amen ; the yere of our Lord, 1541, the xxx th 
day of Maye, I Robert Petigrew, hole of mynd and mem'ry, 
make my testament and last will, yn forme and man'r 
followyng: — Fyrst, I bequeth my sowle to Almighty 
God, and my body to be burj'd yn the churchyard of 
!North Cadbery. It'm, I bequeth to Seynt Andrew's iiij d . 
It'm, to the brotheres of ow'r lady, xij d . It'm, I bequeth 
to my sonne Richard a cow, a calff, the second best 
brasse pann, ij platters, ij yearyd dysshys of pewter, an 
akar of wheat, an akar of dregge, and an akar of medow. 
Item, to my daughter Alys, dwellyng at Glastonberj', a 
cowe. Item, to my sonne Thorn us, my old oxe. The 
residew of my goods, not bequethed, I geve to Mawde 
my wyffe, whom I make my hole executrix. And I do 
make John Harvy my ov'seer, and he to have for his 
paynes accordyng to conscyens. Thes beyng wy tnys : 
S'r Water Vesy, Curat, John Robyns, and Richard 
Brownyng. 

" Sum Inventa - - £vij xv 9 v d ." 
It should be observed that North Cadbury, of 
which parish Dr. Ralph Cudworth, the learned 
divine, and author of the Intellectual System, was 
once rector, is about five miles from Wincanton 
and eleven from Shepton Mallet, Somerset. Ina. 



ARMOUR-CLAD SHIPS ; THE SKULL OF THE 
ELEPHANT. 

In Civil Engineering, as well as in Naval 
Architecture, no question at the present day has 
excited more profound scientific consideration 
than the power of chambered iron to sustain 
strain and concussion. The two objects to be 
united are resistance and lightness ; and a re- 



markable instance of the combination of both 
is presented by the formation of the cranium in 
the elephant. In that prodigious creature, the 
brain, which weighs only nine or ten pounds, re- 
quires a proportionally small cavity for its recep- 
tion internally ; but as the head has to furnish 
externally a surface sufficient for the attachment 
of the great muscles that sustain the unusual 
weight of the tusks and trunk, this has rendered 
it necessary to increase the surface, in order to 
afford convenient space for their attachment and 
play. To have formed this enlarged area of solid 
bone would have added inconveniently to the 
weight; and the difficulty is overcome by the 
ingenious device of constructing the skull in two 
separate tables, one within the other, the inter- 
vening space being occupied by spandrils and 
bony processes, between which are cells filled 
with air, thus ensuring the lightness of the whole. 
But strength as well as lightness is indispensable ; 
for in the economy of the elephant, his mode of 
life exposes the head to frequent shocks ; inas- 
much as it is the instrument with which he forces 
down trees and encounters other obstacles. 

Delicate as the honeycombed structure of the 
interior is, it is sufficiently firm to resist the forces 
thus applied ; and even to disregard the shock of 
a musket-ball, except in some well known spots. 

Now the question suggests itself, whether there 
is anything in the arrangement of the walls that 
separate the two tables of the elephant's head, 
the adoption of which might be applied with 
similar effect, to secure at once resistance and 
buoyancy in the construction of a gun-boat, a 
steam-ram, or a mailed vessel of war? On a 
superficial glance at the section of an elephant's 
cranium, the bony processes which occupy the 
interstice between the outer and the inner plates 
of the skull would seem to present no systematic 
disposal ; but it is hardly to be presumed that 
for an object so all-important, the position of 
these walls and partitions is altogether fortuitous 
or accidental. 

It would require a comparison of the sections 
of numerous skulls, to determine, in the first 
place, whether in the head of every elephant the 
arrangement of these processes and plates is uni- 
form and identical ? but should the fact prove to 
be so, the inference would [follow that that pecu- 
liar arrangement must be the best for securing 
the utmost possible power of resistance with the 
least possible expenditure of material. The in- 
quiry might be worthy the attention of Professor 
Owen, or some other eminent comparative ana- 
tomist. J. Emerson Tennent. 



JHtmrr &ts\t&* 

Spelling Matches. — In Bell's Weekly Mes- 
senger for 27th January is given an account (ex- 



3"i S. I. Feb. 15, '02.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



127 



tracted from the Philadelphia Presbyterian) of one 
of these matches, which are there styled " of an- 
cient and honourable memory." It appears that — 

"In Spencertown, New York, they had a match on the 
9th ult., in which Webster'3 Pictorial Dictionary was 
contended for. Twenty-eight spellers entered the lists. 
All but two were silenced in an hour and a half. These 
■were two girls, one eleven, and the other fourteen years 
of age. They continued the contest for nearly an hour 
longer, on .words the most difficult to be spelt, till the 
audience became so wrought upon that they proposed to 
buy a second dictionary, and thus end the contest." 

Now it strikes me that such matches would do 
more, and more pleasantly, in forwarding the edu- 
cation of our peasantry, than the periodical visits 
of the Inspector of Schools. If they be known in 
England, will any of your correspondents favour 
me with the rules ? If they be an American in- 
stitution, your Philadelphia correspondent will, I 
trust, send me the laws under which they are con- 
ducted. And I will await his reply. 

Vryan Rheged. 

Paper. — Much as has been said of the innumer- 
able uses to which paper, liberated from the tram- 
mels of taxation, is about to be applied, and 
marvel as we may at embossed shirts and water- 
proof capes (any light boots as yet ?) of this plas- 
tic material, I suspect that the ancients were 
beforehand with us in the adaptation even of 
their rough and ready "papyrus'" to similar pur- 
poses ; since the taunt of Juvenal, in his 4th 
Satire (I. 23), applied to his favourite butt Cris- 
pinus, would appear to indicate that even then 
paper was a covering — meaner than rags ! 

" Hoc tu 

Succinctus patria quondam, Crispine, papyro?" 

Duke, in fact, translates the passage : — - 

M Gave you, Crispinus — you this mighty sum! 

[For a fish dinner, or something of that sort.] 
You that, for want of other rags, did come 
In your own country paper wrapped, to Rome." 

The translator is guilty of anachronism in re- 
garding the raw material of the Roman "papyrus" 
as rags ; but perhaps he looked upon Juvenal as 
a bitter sort of prophet of an age of rags. 

Sholto Macduff. 

Charminstcr, near Dorchester, Dorset. 

Judges' Seats in Courts of Justice. — In my 
retirement from the profession of the law at an 
advanced age, I have devoted a portion of my 
leisure hours in reading the ancient statutes ; 
and much instruction I have gathered in the 
reading of them, and, let me add, amusement 
too — certainly much more than in perusing 
and studying our modern statutes, so repulsive 
with tautology and verbiage. I venture to copy 
the statute, 20 Richard II. ch. iii. a.d. 1396, 
which I think justifies my preference of our an- 
cient acts of Parliament, and will amuse your 
readers. The title of it is : — 



" No Man shall sit upon the Bench with Justices of 
Assize." 

" Item, the King doth will and forbid, that no lord, 
nor other of the county, little or great, shall sit upon the 
bench with the Justices to take Assizes, in their Sessions 
in the counties of England, upon great forfeiture to the 
King; and hath charged his said Justices, that they 
shall not suffer the contrary to be done." 

This act, be it known, is not included in the re- 
cent statute for " the repeal of such acts as are 
not now in use." And yet how many seats of 
our judges in Courts of Assizes are so con- 
structed, that Lords and other men sit on the same 
bench with the judges? In the Preface to the 
40th volume of the Surtees Society publications, 
Depositions from the Castle of York relating to 
Offences committed in the Northern Counties (p. 
ix.) we are told : — 

" that, at the Durham Assizes, the judges were the 
guests of the Prince Palatine, who empowered them to 
act in his behalf. He drove them from his castle to the 
Court in his coach and six, and sat between them on the 
bench for a while in his robes of Parliament." 

On the Prince's departure from the Criminal 
Court, and when the nisi prius judge went into 
his, I have seen Lords and others of the county 
take their seats on each side of the judge in both 
Courts, civil and criminal. I learn from inquiry 
the judges' seats, in courts within several of the 
provinces, are on benches similar to those in 
Durham; but in other Courts of Assize, the 
judges' seats are in alcoves as at York. 

On reading the Preface to the Surtees Society 
publications, I wrote in the margin of my copy 
(p. ix.) : " And this in the face of the statute 
20 Richard II. ch. iii." Fra. Mewburn. 

Larchfield, Darlington. 

Manchester in the Year 1559. — 

"De sacrificis Brytanniie nostra?, quam nunc Angliam 
vocant, horrenda nova. In comitatu Nottinghamiensi 
suam vitam alii finiverunt ferro, alii laqueo, nonnulli 
aqua; multi dederunt se priecipites de summis tedibus, et 
quatuordecim horum generum numerantur. Post regi- 
nam ct Canlinalem Polum, qui infra tres horas una 
obiisse dicuntur, undecim ex episcopis majoribus, sunt 
etiam brevi post tempore moerore, ut creditur, extincti. 
Omnes Manchestrenscs quo.pie gravissima febris sustulit, 
vi.v ut unus in tanta civitutc sit superstes." Joanni Baleo 
Basileaj commoranti Gulielmus Colus. — A Letter ap- 
pended to Bale's Scriptores Brytannia, 1559, p. 229. 

I do not find this great mortality recorded in 
any history of Manchester. 

Bidliothecar. Chetham. 

Visitation of Shropshire. — I think a volume 
lately presented to the Shropshire and North 
Wales Natural History and Antiquarian Society, 
by Mr. George Morris, son of the late Mr. George 
Morris who was, I am told, well known as a local 
genealogist, should not go unrecorded in the pages 
of " N. & Q." On a recent visit to the Shrews- 
bury Museum I had the pleasure of examining it. 
It bears the following title : — 



28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3rd S. I. Feb. 15, '62. 



" Copy of Visitation of Salop by Robert Treswell and 
.ugustine Vincent, deputies to Wm. Camden, Claren- 
ieux, a 0 1623; together with the former Visitations, 
» 1564 and 1584, &c. &c. 

" This volume is a copy of the Visitation of 1623, in the 
hrewsbury Free School Library." 

" This copy was commenced in 1823, and finished in 
525, by George Morris of Shrewsbury." 

The arms and pedigrees are beautifully drawn 
ad written. This is, indeed, a most interesting 
olume. 

Among several other volumes presented by the 
ime gentleman, is a copy of James Easton's I la- 
wn Longevity, 1799, with very numerous addi- 
ons, which would be, I am sure, very interesting 
) those numerous correspondents who have made 
> many enquiries about the same subject. 

G. W. M. 

Amusing Blunder. — In the 3rd volume (p. 
80) of Sir A. Alison's Life of Lord Castlereagh, 
lere is a singular ludicrous slip of the pen, or 
lisprint — for one does not know to which it 
mst be ascribed — that deserves a niche in any 
iture collection of literary curiosities. It occurs 
i the description of the funeral of the Duke of 
Wellington, and the passage runs as follows : — 

"The pall was borne by the Marquises of Anglesea and 
ondonderry, Lord Gough, Lord Combermere, Lord Sea- 
>n, Mr. H. Smith, Sir Charles JSapier, Sir Alexander 
foodford, and Sir Peregrine Pickle ! ! " • 

It it difficult to conceive a more ludicrous ad- 
lixture of fact and fiction, and no less difficult to 
iggest any explanation of its occurrence. Sir 
'eregrine Maitland was meant ; but, however the 
lunder arose, surely never was there a more 
himsical illustration of the law as to " association 
f ideas." — Glasgow Gazette. 

J. J. B. WoRKARD. 

Fenimore Cooper on the Bermudas. — 
" There is the island of Bermuda. England holds it 
>lely as a hostile port to be used against us. I think 
r the peaceful possession of that island our Government 
ould make some sacrifice ; and by way of inducement 
» make that arrangement, you ought to remember that 
venty years hence England will not be able to hold it." — 
ooper's England, vol. ii. p. 306, published 1837. 

The above has amused me, and may amuse your 
iaders. P. P. 

Jokes on the Scarcity of Bullion. — It is 
lid, as illustrative of the scarcity of metallic 
loney in America just now, consequent on the 
ar- difficulties of our American cousins, that Mr. 
iarnum has added to his Museum of Curiosities, 
a American dollar, as one of the rarest things in 
le States. Apropos of this : on turning over a 
arcel of old letters the other evening, I came 
pon a paragraph in one of them which tells how 
jarce bullion was in our own country in the 
lonth of March, 1797, and which embodies as 



good a joke as Mr. Barnum's of this present year 
of grace : — 

" A few days ago," says the writer of a letter from 
Stourbridge to a friend in Paislej^ after stating that 
paper-money had almost superseded gold, "hand-bills 
were circulated in Birmingham to the following purpose: 
— ' To be seen at the Market Place, A Guinea just about 
being carried off to London. As its ever returning is ex- 
tremely improbable, those who wish for a sight of it, are 
desired to repair thither immediately.' " 

James J. Lamb. 

Underwood Cottage, Paisley. 



TOAD-EATER. 

In The Adventures of David Simple (a novel 
written, in 1744, by Sarah Fielding, sister of the 
celebrated Henry Fielding,) the hero of the tale 
asks the meaning of this term, to which the fol- 
lowing answer is given : — 

" It is a metaphor taken from a mountebank's boy's 
eating toads, in order to show his master's skill in ex- 
pelling poison : it is built on a supposition (which J am 
afraid is too generally true), that people who are so un- 
happy as to be in a state of dependence, are forced to do 
the most nauseous things that can be thought ou, to 
please and humour their patrons. And the metaphor 
maj' be carried on _vet further; for most people have so 
much the art of tormenting, that every time the}' have 
made the poor creatures they have in their power ' swal- 
low a toad,' they give them something to expel it again, 
that they may be ready to swallow the next they think 
proper to prepare for them: that is, when they have 
abused and fooled them, as Hamlet says, 'to the top of 
their bent,' they grow soft and good to them again, on 
purpose to have it in their power to plague them the 
more." 

This seems to give the exact meaning of the 
term as now used. The expression also occurs in 
the Works of Mr. Thomas Srovjn, Serious and 
Comical In his " Satire on an ignorant Quack'* 
(vol. i. p. 71), he says : — 

" Be the most scorn'd Jack- pudding of the pack, 
And turn toad-eater to some foreign quack." 

In vol. ii. of Brown's Works, are some letters 
supposed to be written by the dead to the living ; 
and among them is one from "Joseph Haines, of 
merry memory, to his friends at Will's Coffee- 
House, in Covent Garden," dated 21st Dec. 1701. 
It is to be observed, that Joe Haines was a cele- 
brated mountebank and fortune-teller, who used 
to perform on the stage in Smithfield, and died 
4th April, 1701. In this pretended letter he tells 
his friends : — 

" I intend to build a stage, and set up my old trade of 
fortune-telling ; and as I shall have occasion for some 
understrapper to draw teeth for me, or to be my toad- 
eater, upon the stage," &c. 

In a subsequent letter from Joe Haines to his 
friends, he gives them an account of his success in 
his vocation, and says : — 



3rd s. I. Feb. 15, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



129 



" After the mob had been diverted by some legerde- 
main tricks of Apollonius Tyaneus, my conjuror, being 
attended by Dr. Connor, my toad-eater in ordinary, Dr. 
Lobb," &c. 

Perhaps some of the learned contributors to 
your valuable publication will be kind enough to 
inform me whether there is a record or repute of 
any quack or mountebank at Smithfield, South- 
wark, or elsewhere, who had sufficient power or 
influence over his zany, or subordinate, to induce 
him to actually swallow any of these disgusting 
reptiles ? Or was the performance a mere slight- 
of-hand trick ? E. J3. E. 



Earl of Chatham. — Professor De Morgan's 
Paper on the possible as distinguished from the 
actual (2 nd S. xii. 29) puts me in mind of an anec- 
dote that I heard many years ago of the Earl of 
Chatham. In a conference with an admiral, who 
was on the point of sailing in command of a 
squadron, he gave him instructions to do so-and- 
so. The admiral protested that the thing was 
impossible. " Sir," cried Lord Chatham, raising 
himself upon his gouty legs, and brandishing his 
crutches in the air, " I stand upon impossibili- 
ties." 

Who was the admiral ? And on what occasion 
was this said ? Meletes. 

Chancellorship of the University of Cam- 
bridge. — In the University Calendar it is said : — 

" The office of Chancellor is biennial, or tenable for such 
a length of time beyond two years as the tacit consent of 
the University may choose to allow." 

It would seem that originally there was a re- 
gular election or re-election every two years. 
Archbishop Rotheram (Athena? Cantabrigienses, i. 
1) was elected chancellor in 1469, and again in 
1473, 1475, and 1483 ; and Bishop Story (ibid. p. 
5), in 1471. At what time, and why was the bi- 
ennial election discontinued ? M. A. Cantab. 

The Author of the " Falls of Clyde." — 
I have an octavo volume entitled the Falls of 
Clyde, or, the Fairies; a Scottish Dramatic Pasto~ 
ral. It also contains three dissertations : on fairies, 
on the Scottish language, and on pastoral poetry. 

It was published by Creech in Edinburgh, in 
180G. The name of the author is not given ; but 
a friend informs me that it was Black, and that 
he was a tutor in the family of Lord Woodhouselee. 

Can you inform me, through any of your readers, 
what became of Mr. Black ; and if he wrote any 
other work ? 

This drama will repay perusal by anyone who 
understands the humour of the Scottish language. 

Should you be unable to give me the informa- 
tion which I seek, I shall have reference made to 
the Edinburgh Magazine of 1806-7, and shall 
send you the result. L. Z. 



J. A. Blackwell. — There was a tragedy, 
called Rudolf of Varosney, by Mr. J. A. Black- 
well, published in 1842. Can any of your readers 
inform me whether the author was a native of the 
North of Scotland ? Zeta. 

Burdon of Easington. — Information as to 
the descendants of the Burdons vel Burdens of 
Easington would be gladly received. The fol- 
lowing is, I believe, copied from the registers kept 
by the Society of Friends : — 

Amos Burdon vel Burden, son of George Bur- 
don, married at Shotton, 27th March, 1692, to 
Mary Foster, daughter of Robert and Margaret 
Foster, of Hawthorne, in the county palatine of 
Durham, and had three sons and one daughter: 
George Burden, Robert Burden, John Burden, 
— married Mary Mainby, and had two daughters, 
viz.: Mary Burden, married Jas. Verstone ; 
Priscilla Burden, married John Baynes ; — Mary 
Burden. Durham. 

P.S. — I am in doubt as to the correct spelling 
of the name Burden, whether its last vowel should 
be e or o. 

Canoe. — When was this word first introduced 
into the languages of Europe ? 

In the letter of Dr. Chanca, written January, 
1494, describing the second voyage of Columbus 
{Letters of Columbus, Hakluyt Society, London, 
1847), the word is frequently introduced as a 
Spanish word, and not in italics, as Indian words 
are, and explained in the same letter. But at 
that date Columbus had only returned from his 
first voyage nine months, and it is incredible that 
in that short time the word should have been in- 
troduced from the languages of the West Indians, 
and incorporated with the Spanish. 

I am aware of the derivation from canna; but 
I wish to know whether the word canoe (canoa) 
occurs in any writer prior to 1494 ? 

Eden Warwick. 

Birmingham. 

Comets and Epidemia. — I have a work, Illus- 
trations of the Atmospherical Origin, of Epidemic 
Disorders, of Health, SfC by T. Forster, M.B., 
F.L.S., M.A.S., &c. &c, and published at Chelms- 
ford, 1829. In Bohn's edition of Lowndes men- 
tion is made of a Thomas Ignatius Maria Forster, 
and a list of his works is given, among which ap- 
pear two works with a somewhat similar title, but 
in no other way corresponding. Is the work be- 
fore me an unknown or unacknowledged one of 
T. I. M. Forster ? 

This work is one of considerable research, and 
is valuable for its historical references, and very 
much of its matter might be adduced in support 
of the sanitary theories of more recent times. In 
one chapter of the book he supplies a catalogue of 
pestilence since the Christian era, in order to show 
that they were coincident with the appearance of 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. i. Feb. 15, '62. 



comets, or of other astronomical phenomena. The 
catalogue extends from the year 15 a.d. down to 
1829, the year in which the author terminated his 
labours. It is much too lengthy to give entire in 
your columns, as it occupies about forty closely- 
printed octavo pages. It is exceedingly curious, 
and so far as I have been able to test its accuracy 
as to dates is the labour of a careful student. 

It has in all times been a common notion that 
the heavenly bodies, when exhibiting extraor- 
dinary appearances or disturbances, imported 
change, disaster, or calamity. In our own day, 
among the vulgar, every eclipse or comet is re- 
garded as the harbinger of some storm, or inunda- 
tion, or some contagious disease. Even scientific 
men and philosophers have not thought such in- 
quiries unworthy of their pursuit. No body of 
natural facts can ever be useless, if compiled with 
conscientious care. Mr. Forster does not strongly 
insist upon any hypothesis ; he aspires only to 
state facts, and, to use his own expressions, " to 
heap up useful observations, and apply to them 
the powerful engines of comparison and analogy." 

As I have been much interested in this parti- 
cular chapter of the work, I felt inclined to invite 
the attention of the curious to it. At the same 
time I should be glad to know whether my conjec- 
ture as to the author is correct ? * T. B. 

Colonel. — Johnson considers Minshew's deri- 
vation of this military title — " Colonna, Co- 
lumnar exercitus Columen;" and Skinner's " Colo- 
nialism the leader of a Colony" equally plausible ; 
adding, " Colonel is now (a.d. 1755) sounded with 
two distinct syllables, CoXneV Though educated 
under the latest of our lexicographer's contem- 
poraries, it never was my chance to hear the term 
thus elided. 

Milton, in his grave and stately measure, vin- 
dicates its tri-syllabic propriety — 

"Captain, or Colonel, or Knight in arms — " 

and Butler, after his frolicsome fashion, verbalises 
it thus — 

" Then did Sir Knight ahandon dwelling, 
And out he rode a-Colonelling." 

Among the utilities of poetry, none are more 
evident than the verification of accents and quan- 
tities, which her sister, Prose, leaves in their tra- 
ditional uncertainty. 

But, more senili, I am wandering from my pur- 
posed Query. How, and when, did the canine 
letter (the canine syllable too) slip into this honour- 
able title, and phonetically slipslop its gallant 
bearers into Curnel ? Auceps Syllabarum. 

Defaced and Worn Coins. — I am anxious to 
learn if there is any method known of restoring 
the legends and devices on worn coins. Can any 

[* This is one of the acknowledged works of Dr. Thomas 
Forster. Vide « N. & Q." !■* S. ix. 568 ; x. 108. — Ed. ] 



reader of " IT. & Q." assist me ? There is a plan 
mentioned by Sir David Brewster (Letters on 
Natural Magic) of reading inscriptions, by placing 
the coin on a hot iron ; but this method does not 
answer well in my hands. E. G. 

Dodshon of Strauton. — Information as to 
the descendants of the Dodshons of Strauton 
would be gladly received. The following may 
give some clue: Nicholas Dodshon of Strauton 
had — Christopher Dodshon, baptized 4th March, 
1635; was buried 13th January, 1720. He had 
John Dodshon, born 27th March, 1670. He was 
buried 8th August, 1746 ; he married Frances 
. . . . , and had Nicholas Dodshon, married 
to Frances Foster, 20th February, 1731, and had 
one son and four daughters. John Dodshon, born 
8th August, 1736, died unmarried. Sarah Dods- 
hon, born 19th January, 1732, died unmarried. 
Frances Dodshon, born 18th December, 1733, 
married Samuel Bewley, and had Sarah, married 
to John-Arcy Braithwaite.* Deborah Dodshon, 
born 17th October, 1741, married John Dodshon. 
Mary Dodshon, born 3rd March, 1744, married 
Joseph Studholme. * F. J. 

Ecclesiastical Commission of 1650. — Where 
are the records of this Commission to be found ? 

M. W. 

Electioneerers. — Referring to the govern- 
ment of the United States, J. S. Mill, in his work 
on representative government, says : — 

" When the highest dignity in the States i3 to be con- 
ferred by popular election once in every few years, the 
whole intervening time is spent in what is virtually a 
canvass. Presidents, ministers, chiefs of parties, and their 
followers are all electioneerers," &c. 

I wish to inquire whether this is a vulgarism, — 
why the word should not follow the mode adopted 
in <: auctioneer," " pamphleteer ? " And whether 
any, and if so what other words of the like for- 
mation could be used in writing good English ? 

W. S. 

Literary Anecdotes. — In a French work, 
entitled Curiosites Litteraires, which I recently 
picked up, I found the two following anecdotes ; 
which I now send you in an English form : — 

1. " When Dr. Johnson was compiling his celebrated 
Dictionary of the English Language, he wrote to the 
Gentleman's Magazine, asking its readers if any of them 
could furnish him with the etymology of the word Cur- 
mudgeon. The query soon met with a reply, and the 
information received was entered in his work as follows: 
' Curmudgeon, subs., faulty mode of pronouncing cozur 
mCchant — anonymous correspondent.' The sentence was 
soon copied into another English dictionary thus: 4 Cur- 
mudgeon, from the French words cozur (anonymous), and 
mediant (correspondent)." 

2. " Pope, in one of his notes on Shakespeare's play of 
Measure for Measure, mentions that the plot is taken 
from Cinthio's Novels, dec. 8, nov. 5, i. e. 8th decade, 
novel 5th. Warburton, the critic, in his edition of Shake- 

* John-Arcy Braithwaite died at Lancaster. 



S r * S. I. Feb. 15, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



131 



speare, restores the abbreviations thus, December 8, 
vember 5." 

Is there any truth in the above anecdotes ? 

L. H. M. 

Dr. Mansel's Etigrams. — In Rogers's Recol- 
lections, p. 59, occurs the following remark. 
Rogers loquitur : — 

" I wish somebody would collect all the epigrams writ- 
ten by Dr. Mansel (Master of Trin. Col. Oxford, and Bp. 
of Bristol.) Tbey are remarkably neat and clever." 

I have been unable to discover any of these 
productions, and you would confer a benefit by 
giving me some information respecting them. 

John Taylor. 

John Pikeryng. — Can you give me any ac- 
count of the following old play and its author, in 
the British Museum : A neice interlude of Vice, 
conteyninge the Historic of Horestes, with the cruell 
reuengment of his Father's Death, upon his one 
naturell Mother, 4to, 1567 ? The author, John 
Pikeryng. Zeta. 

" Piromides." — Who is the author of a drama 
called Piromides, an Egyptian Tragedy. Dedi- 
cated to the late Eari of Elgin, London, 1839. 

Zeta. 

Robert Rose.— Can any reader of "N. & Q." 
give any biographical particulars relating to 
Robert Rose, "the bard of colour." He was a 
native of the West Indies, author of Recollections 
of the Departed, serio-comic pieces, &c, about 
1839. What are the titles of his other works, 
poetic or dramatic ? Zeta. 

Michael Scot's Writings on Astronomy. — 
The list of the works of Michael Scot, who trans- 
lated several of the writings of Aristotle, contains 
the three following titles : — 

1. " Imagines Astronomicae." 

2. " Astrologorum Dogmata," 1. i. 

3. " De Signis Planetarum." 

Jourdain, who gives the list of Michael Scot's 
works in his Recherches sur les Traductions d'Ari- 
stote, p. 127 (ed. 1843), states that he has no in- 
formation on these three articles. Michael Scot 
was an astronomer and an astrologer ; it does not 
appear whether these works were original, or only 
translations. Can any of your correspondents 
throw light upon the subject ? G. C. Lewis. 

Sutton Family. — Could any of your readers, 
through your interesting columns, give the name 
of the baron who came over to England with tbe 
Conqueror, from whom are descended the family 
of the Suttous ? The Suttons are represented in 
England by Sir John Sutton and Lord John Man- 
ners Sutton ; in France, by General the Count de 
Clouard, whose name is John Sutton, and is the 
finest soldier in France in form. In Spain by 
General Sutton, also bearing the title of Count de 
Clouard ; and in Ireland by my father. Our family 



names are John, Roger, Michael, Caesar, Gilbert, 
Richard, Charles (in Ireland Cormac), Thomas, 
James, and Patrick, in the male line. The female 
family names are, Austace, Eleanor, Bridget, Mary, 
Catharine. Perhaps these may resemble our dis- 
tant kinsmen's names in England. A lizard is 
our crest. Anyone giving in your columns in- 
formation about this matter will greatly oblige 

John P. Sutton. 
P.S. Our branch in Ireland have been cele- 
brated for huge stature. Have small brown eyes, 
and auburn -like hair. Females were always ex- 
ceedingly handsome. 

Early Edition of Terence.— I have an early 
edition of Terence, with notes, &c, of Petrus 
Marsus and Paulus Malleolus. At the end of the 
volume is placed the following conclusion (on 
" foliu cxvi.") : — 

" \ Petri Marsi et Pauli Malleoli in Terentianas 
comcedias adnotationes cu marginariis exornationibus et 
voculorum difficiliu expositionib' sortite sunt fine. Anno 
vii." 

The volume has been slightly mended at the 
beginning ; but not, I think, so as to hide any 
date. 

The only similar book I can find mentioned in 
the ordinary bibliographical works, is a copy in 
the Grenville Library at the British Museum, 
press-mark 9466 (vi. Brunet) ; but this has a 
rather more complete " Index Vocabulorum" than 
my copy, and in other respects looks as if it were 
of a later edition. In both cases the lines of the 
plays are not divided. Can any of the subscribers 
to " N. & Q." assist me in discovering the date or 
place of publication of my copy ? Also, if it is of 
any value or rarity ? 

The copy in the British Museum has a woodcut 
at the commencement of each play — mine has 
not. E. G. 

Universal Suffrage. — 

" Before Henry VI. time, all men had tlieir voice in 
choosing Knights ... In his reign, the 40*. law was 
passed." — Selden's Table Tail;. 

Is there anything in the books to show that the 
poorer class of persons ever generally exercised 
the privilege of voting, or how they received the 
statutes 8th and 10th Henry VI., which deprived 
them of that privilege ? D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

Webb Family. — I should be happy to ex- 
change Notes referring to Webb families with any 
of your correspondents, and also to obtain replies 
to the following Queries : — 

What was the lineage of Major General Webb, 
distinguished in the German and American wars 
of the earlier part of last century ? I presume he 
was son to the Gen. Webb dismissed from the 
service in 1714, for sympathy with the old Pre- 
tender. The family was Gloucestershire. 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. L Feb. 15, '62. 



Is there any connexion between Webb of Kent 
(arms, a fess between three owls), and Webb of 
Lincolnshire (arms, a fess between three fleurs- 
de-lis) ? Neither the Heralds' Visitations of 
Lincoln for 1634, nor 1666, mention any Webbs ; 
yet the arms are given in Berry. 

What became of the Webbs of Bottesham, con- 
cerning whom there are a good many references 
in Sims's Pedigrees ? Thomas Webb of Botte- 
sham entered his marriage and issue at Heralds' 
College in 1619, but the pedigree is not continued 
there; nor is anything said about them in the 
Visitation of 1680. An old alphabet of arms in 
the College, temp. Car. II., assigns to them these 
arms : " Az. on a chief or, three martletts gu. 
Crest, a griffin's head erased or, gorged with 
a crown of the last." 

Benjamin Webb, of St. Martin's Orgar, Lon- 
don, took out his arms in 1766, similar to the 
foregoing, with a bezant in addition ; and a dex- 
ter arm, holding a slip of laurel for crest. His 
pedigree in the College of Arms states, that he 
was the son of Benjamin Webb, citizen and linen- 
draper of London, and grandson of Richard Webb, 
of Bucklebury, Berks. Had this Richard any 
other sons beside Benjamin the linen draper, who 
was buried at Bunhill Fields in 1755 ? As Lucy, 
sister to Sir Wm. Webb, Knt., Mayor, 1591, and 
mother of Archbishop Laud, was of a Berkshire 
family, there may be an affinity between the 
families. Sir Wm. Webb, died 1599, and was 
buried at Bishopsgate, to which parish he left 
bequests. 

In the parish books, both of St. Giles, Cripple- 
gate, and St. Luke, Old Street, there are records 
that "the Lady Berkely and Mr. Webb" gave 
sundry presents to those parishes : date, probably, 
cir. 1760. Who could these parties be ? 

Lastly, there is a discrepancy in the pedigrees 
of Webb of Canford and Oldstock, as given in 
Sir R. C. Hoare's Wilts and in Burke. John 
Webb, who married Mary Brune, being, accord- 
ing to one, brother of the first knight, and accord- 
ing to the other of the first haronet. He is said to 
have had a son, John Webb of Sarnesfield and 
Sutton (Burke says of Clerkenwell), and others. 
Query, Who were these " others" ? 

I would just add, that the earliest notice of the 
name of Webb that has yet come before me, is a 
record of a gravestone in Hitchin churchyard to 
John Web, buried there 1472. 

If you would kindly find a place for this lengthy 
Query, it would much oblige ; as a word or two 
from some friends learned in genealogical matters, 
might save me a vast amount of labour in hunting 
up the history of this tribe. W. W. 

Short Heath, Wolverhampton. 

Weeping among the Ancients. — In the Satu?*- 
day Revieiv of January 4, is an article on " The 
Art of Weeping," which some would call stoical, 



others cynical. " W. & Q." is not the place for 
discussing the question, but I wish to ask, whether 
any one has noticed, and endeavoured to account 
for, the abundant weeping among the ancients ? 
Tears of modern heroes are scarcely ever described 
by poets, or recorded by historians. W. B. J. 

Curious Devonshire Custom. — 

" The Devonshire people have some original customs 

amongst them In the shops, wherever I 

made purchases amounting to, and over, one pound, I 
was invariably asked to walk to the upper end of the 
shop, where was placed a chair on a nice piece of carpet. 
The shopman would leave me there a moment, and return- 
ing with a neat small tray in his hand, he would present 
me with a glass of wine and a slice of plum cake." — 
Quakerism, or the Story of my Life, pp. 248-9. 

Will some one tell me if the custom is still 
practised ? I have never met with it in Devon- 
shire myself, though I have frequently made pur- 
chases in the shops of its different towns. 

G. W. M. 

Drama. — Who are the authors of Julia, or 
the Fatal Return, a Pathetic Drama, 1822 ; The 
Innocent Usurper, a Drama, 1822 ? . Zeta. 



The Seven-branched Candlestick. — The 
following passage occurs in the 17th chapter of 
Mr. Nathaniel Hawthorne's Romance of Monte 
JBeni : — 

" They turned their faces cityward, and treading over 
the broad flagstones of the old Roman pavement, passed 
through the Arch of Titus. The moon shone brightly 
enough within it to show the seven-branched Jewish 
candlestick, cut in the marble of the interior. The ori- 
ginal of that awful trophy lies buried, at this moment, 
in the yellow mud of the Tiber; and, could its gold of 
Ophir again be brought to light, it would be the most 
precious relic of past ages in the estimation both of Jew 
and Gentile." 

I am anxious to know what authority there i& 
for the statement, that the seven-branched can- 
dlestick of the Jewish Temple was lost in the 
Tiber. A Lord or a Manor. 

[After the triumph [of Titus] the candlestick was de- 
posited in the Temple of Peace, and according to one 
story fell into the Tiber from the Milvian bridge during 
the flight of Maxentius from Constantino, Oct. 28, 312: 
a d. ; but it probably was among the spoils transferred, 
at the end of 4u0 years, from Rome to Carthage by Gen- 
seric, a.d. 455 (Gibbon, iii. 2&1). It was recovered by 
Belisarius, once more carried in triumph to Constanti- 
nople, and then respectfully deposited in the Christian 
church of Jerusalem (Id. iv. 24) A.D. 533. It has never 
been heard of since. — Smith's Diet, of the Bible.'} 

u Tottenham tn his Boots." — Who was, or is, 
Tottenham ? A few years since a lady saw, among 
other pictures in Dublin, one described as " Tot- 
tenham in his boots." She is desirous of know- 
ing who Tottenham was, or is ? Amicus. 

[Charles Tottenham, of Tottenham Green, co. Wex- 
ford, was elected one of the members for the borough of 



3'd S. I. Feb. 15, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



133 



New Ross in 1727, which he continued to represent until 
his death in 1758. He was facetiously known as "Tot- 
tenham in his Boots" from the following circumstance. 
Braving the inconveniences of a severe attack of gout 
and bad weather, he rode post from the county of Wex- 
ford, urul arrived in his boots at the House of Commons 
on College Green, Dublin, at a critical moment. The 
question, whether any redundancy in the Irish trea- 
sury should there continue, or be sent into England, was 
in "agitation. Mr. Tottenham gave the casting vote in 
favour of his country; and in memory of his patriotic 
conduct, an excellent likeness of him in his travelling 
dress, and in the attitude of ascending the steps of the 
Parliament House, was painted by Stevens in 1749, and 
engraved by Andrew Miller of Dublin. The painting is 
now in the possession of the Marquis of Ely.] 

Vice -Admiral James Sayer. — I shall be much 
obliged for any information respecting the place 
of birth, services, &c, of Vice- Admiral James 
Sayer, who died in Oct. 1776, and lies buried in 
the parish church of St.^Paul's, Deptford. 

ESTEFORT. 

[James Sayer was the son of John Sayer, Esq., and 
Katherine his wife, one of the daughters and co-heirs of 
Rear -Admiral Robert Hughes. On the 22nd of March, 
1745-6, James Sayer was promoted to be Captain of the 
Richmond frigate. In the war of 1739, he had the thanks 
of the Assembly of Barbadoes for his disinterested con- 
duct in the protection of their trade ; and he first planted 
the British standard in the island of Tobago. In the 
war of 175G, he led the attacks, both at the taking of 
Senegal and Goree ; and was Commander-in-Chief off the 
French coast at Belle Isle, at the time of making the 
peace in 1763. On the 31st March, 1775, he was pro- 
moted to be Rear-Admiral of the Red ; on the 3rd Feb. 
1776, to be Vice of the Blue ; and on the 28th April, 1777, 
Vice-Admiral of the White. He died on the 29th Oct. 
1776, aged fifty-six years. Arms: Quarterly 1 and 4; 
G. a chevron between three seapies arg. — Sayer. 2 and 
3 az. a lion ramp. O. — Hughes. Consult Lysons's Environs 
of London, iv. 389, and Charnock's Biog. Navalis, v. 504.] 

Provincial Tokens. — In what works can I 
find an account of the tokens that have been issued 
in the different towns of Devonshire and Corn- 
wall, as I have looked in vain in the county his- 
tories ? G. P. P. 

[Consult Win. Boyne's Tokens issued in the Seventeenth 
Century in England, JFales, and Ireland, 8vo, Lond. 1858 ; 
James Condor's Provincial Coins, Tokens, and Medalets, 
issued in Great Britain, Ireland, and the Colonies, 2 vols. 
4to, 1798-9; and Sharp's Catalogue of Sir George Cket- 
wynd's Collection.'] 

Aldermen of London. — Can any of the 
readers of " N. & Q." kindly tell me in what book 
I can find a correct List of the Aldermen of 
London daring the seventeenth century ? 

H. W. C. 

[A List of the Aldermen of the several wards of the 
City of London, with the date of their election, from 1700 
to the present time, will be found in the Corporation 
Pocket Book, an annual privately printed. Before that 
date, application for any particulars must be made to the 
Town Clerk, F. Woodthorpe, Esq., who has in his cus- 
tody the records of the Corporation.] 



LAMBETH DEGREES. 
(2 nd S. xii. 436, 529 ; 3 rd S. i. 36.) 

As much doubt, if not ignorance, prevails upon 
this subject even amongst the best- informed per- 
sons, a few words of information may not be un- 
acceptable in answer to your several querists, the 
result of my inquiries upon the point in question, 
viz. the authority under which the Archbishop of 
Canterbury is empowered to grant degrees. 

I have before me a copy of the Letters of 
Creation of the Degree of Doctor of Laws, by 
his Grace the present Archbishop of Canterbury. 
They commence by stating that his Grace is, by 
the authority of Parliament, lawfully empowered, 
for the purposes therein written, and are addressed 
to R. M. I. of the Middle Temple, London, and 
of the Island of Antigua, Barrister-at-Law ; and 
recites that, in schools regularly instituted, a 
laudable usage and custom hath long prevailed 
that they who have with proficiency and applause 
exerted themselves in the study of any liberal 
science, should be graced with some eminent de- 
gree of dignity. And whereas, the Archbishops 
of Canterbury, enabled by the public authority of 
the law, do enjoy, and long have enjoyed, the 
power of conferring degrees and titles of honour 
upon well-deserving men, as by an authentic 
Book of Taxations of Faculties confirmed by au- 
thority of Parliament doth more fully appear, — the 
dignity of " Doctor of Laws " is then granted by 
the Archbishop " so far as in him lies, and the laws 
of this realm do allow" ; and the said R. M. I. is 
created an actual Doctor of Laws, and admitted 
into the number of Doctors of Laws of the realm, 
certain prescribed oaths being first taken by the 
said R. M. I. before the said Archbishop or the 
Master of the Faculties. 

And then follows this proviso : — 

" Provided always that these Presents do not avail 
(the said R. M. I.) anything unless duly confirmed by the 
Queen's Letters Patent." 

The letters are given under the seal of the 
Office of Faculties at Doctors' Commons, the 16th 
November, 1850. 

It would seem that the confirmation of the act 
of the Archbishop is required by his own proviso 
in the grant of the degree, and probably by the 
requirement of the authority of Parliament, which 
m*y be the act of 25 Hen. VIII. c. 21, cited by 
W. N. ; who does not show by what section of 
that act the power to grant degrees is given. 

The grant of the degree to R. M. I. was con- 
firmed by the Queen's Letters Patent on the 22nd 
day of the same month of November ; and which 
Letters Patent recite that the queen had seen the 
Letters Patent of Creation, which, and everything 
therein contained, according to a certain act in 
that behalf made in the Parliament of King Henry 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[><! S. I. Feb. 15, '62. 



VIII., are thereby ratified, approved, and con- 
firmed. 

Whether the practice of the- Archbishop to 
grant degrees is confined to those of Doctor of 
Laws and Medicine, I do not know ; but from 
the words, "degrees" and "titles of honour," in 
the Letters of Creation to R. M. I., the power 
would not seem confined to Doctor of Laws and 
Medicine. Some, however, of your correspon- 
dents better informed may say, whether the me- 
tropolitan prelate can confer the degrees of Master 
or Bachelor of Arts, or Doctor in Divinity. 

The degrees of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.), and 
D.C.L., as well as of* Divinity and Medicine, have 
been generally supposed to be academical honours, 
and confined to the Universities and academies of 
learning ; but the Letters of Creation of the Arch- 
bishop admits his grantee into the number of 
" Doctor of Laws of the Realm," apparently an 
admitted class in the order of society ; but if so, 
how their precedency is regulated, or how placed, 
does not appear from any recognised authority of 
the Crown. 

By what authority the College of Physicians 
are empowered to grant the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine to their licenciates, unless by their char- 
ter of incorporation, I cannot say. The Fellows 
have it, no doubt, from their university degrees. 

J. R. 



SCRIPTURE PARAPHRASE. 
(2 nd S. xii. 518.) 

Such is the name given by F. J. M. to what I 
would call a rather profane parody on the story 
of the Finding of Moses. 

I fear we must designate as imaginary your 
correspondent's account of the mild old gentleman 
to whom he attributes the authorship, and who, 
he assures us, was invited to many a pious party 
for the treat he afforded " by using his poetical 
talents to make scripture stories more attrac- 
tive." 

^ As for its " disfiguration of the rules of Syntax, 
richly illustrating the serio-comic of the Irish cha- 
racter," I cannot observe any very palpable gram- 
matical absurdities even in the incorrectly quoted 
specimen given by your correspondent, nor can I 
discern in it any " Hibernicisms " (as it is the 
fashion to term all ludicrous mistakes in diction). 

So far as my experience enables me to judg^ I 
believe, that, strange as it may sound, the English 
language is spoken with greater accuracy and 
purity by the middle classes of Dublin than of 
London. 

I am the fortunate possessor of a copy of the 
poem in question. There is no clue given in the 
MS. as to the authorship, but it was, as I remem- 
ber being told, intended to imitate the style of a 
well-known eccentric beggar, called Zozimus, who 



several years ago used to amuse the passers by on 
Carlisle Bridge, Dublin, by reciting verses, and 
asking theological and controversial conundrums. 
One of the latter was, How to prove that St. Paul 
was a good Catholic, which was answered by 
" Shure he wrote an Epistle to the Romans ; but 
shew me if you can any he ever sent to the Pro- 
testants." 

Without discussing the logic of Zozimus, I ap- 
pend a copy of the parody. I have some scruple 
as to whether it is suitable for the pages of " N. 
& Q.," but, as notwithstanding its vulgarity, it 
possesses much real cleverness, and never having 
been printed that I am aware of, and as moreover 
F. J. M. has already introduced the small end of 
the wedge, I submit the document to the Editor's 
clemency, first having altered two of the more ob- 
jectionable passages. 

The Finding of Moses. By Pseudo-Zozimus. 

" When Pharaoh ruled, in dreadful days of yore, 
He vexed the Jews, and did oppress them sore. 
He ordered all his subjects, without fail, 
To drown each Hebrew that was born a male ; 
Lest that the Jews might afterwards outnumber 
The men of Egypt, and the land encumber. 

"'Twas in those times of turbulence and strife, 
A Levite gentleman did take to wife 
A Levite lady, and in time there came 
A little Levite, — one of future fame. 
For three months full they kept him hid to save 
Their beauteous baby from a wat'ry grave. 
This poem, then, will tell you what they did, 
When they no longer could retain him hid: 
Within an ark of rushes, neatly laced 
Their much lov'd babe with mournful care they placed, 
Near the Nile's banks, where Pharaoh's lovely daugh- j 
ter 

Might see the basket when she came to th' water. 

"On Egj'pt's banks contagious [Anglice contiguous] to 
the Nile 

King Pharaoh's daughter came to bathe in style 
Full twenty maidens, all of beauty rare, 
To hide her person from the public stare 
Surround her in a circle so exact 
That none could see a taste of her, in fact ; 
While some in crystal boxes soap conveyed 
T' anoint the person of the lovely maid, 
And others still with sponges soft were girt 
To wipe it off, for fear a towel might hurt. 
But bathing shirts or boxes they had none, 
Nor did they need them, for the glorious sun 
Made them superfluous by his glowing rays, 
Transcending my abilities to praise. 

" Now, after having had a splendid swim, 
She ran along the bank to dry her skin, 
And hot the basket that the babe lay in. 
* What's this,' says she, ' among the flags that lies, I 
A basket 'tis, if I can trust my eyes ! 
Pick it up quickly, for at least 'tis clear 
If 'tis not that, 'tis something very queer.' 

Then, quick as thought, the order was obeyed ; 
And straight before her was the basket laid, 
And round and round on every side 'twas turned, 
But nothing queer their anxious gaze discerned. 
4 Och, Girls ! ' the Princess knowingly exclaims, 
' Give me the box, I'll see what it contains j ' 



3 r<i ;S. I. Feb. 15, '62.] 



135 



The box she got, and straightway burst the strings, 
And quick the cover from the basket flings — 
Perceives at once the little male and all, 
And also made the baby for to squall. 

"'Girls,' says she, with accents bland and mild, 
1 Which of yes is it owns t he darlint child? ' 
And as they all were noisily denying 
The accusation 'gainst their honour lying, 
She straight exclaims, ' The whole affair I see through, 
* The little boy is certainly a Hebrew I ' 
Then, moved by nature, she began to think 
The child had surely cried for want of drink; 
And, if it were not soon and kindly nursed, 
The little innocent would die of thirst. 
Then straightway to her breast she raised the boy, 
His tiny hands and toothless mouth t' employ; 
His little cry for one short moment ceased, 
But, disappointed of the accustomed feast, 
He raised his voice to such a fearful height,' 
That Pharaoh's daughter trembled at the sight. 

" ' No longer, Maids,' says she, ' can I endure 
This mournful scene, so quick, a nurse procure.' 
A nurse they found convaynient to the place, 
Who owned to being of the Hebrew race ; 
She, axed if she would nurse the child and dress it, 
Made answer quickly, 'That I will, God bless it.' 
So Pharaoh's daughter, without more ado, 
Gave her the child, and goodly wages too. 
The child was nursed, and all "the rest I knows is 
That Pharaoh*3 daughter called the baby Moses." 

J. R. G. 

Dublin. 



MINIATURE PAINTER: SI L LETT. 

(3 rd S. i. 39.) 

In compliance with the desires of your corre- 
spondent, Mr. J. N. Chadwick, the following 
particulars of the late Mr. James Sillett have 
been collected from different sources. Mr. James 
Sillett, the father of the artist, resided at Eye, in 
Suffolk, but his eldest son James was born in 
Norwich in 1784. At an early age he evinced a 
strong predilection for the fine arts, and com- 
menced his studies in the humble grade of an 
heraldic and ornamental painter ; but in this oc- 
cupation he only found trammels to his favourite 
pursuit, ill-suited to his native genius, which 
was not long to be controlled, and he soon sought 
employment more in accordance with his taste in 
London. There he commenced as a copyist, and 
was afterwards engaged in that department for 
the Polygraphia Society. From 1787 to 1790 he 
studied from the figures at the Royal Academy 
under Professors Reynolds, Barry, and others, 
whose lectures he attended. lie first exhibited 
his productions in Somerset House in 1796 ; and I 
for the following forty years his pictures were 
generally admitted. Some of these were minia- 
tures, in which branch of the art he particularly 
excelled. Having made himself thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the rudiments of his profession, he 
returned to his native city, where he eminently 
succeeded in faithful delineation of dead game, 



fish, fruits, and flowers, which he skilfully exe- 
cuted in oil and water-colours. Later in life he 
made further advances in his profession, and 
painted some meritable productions from archi- 
tectural designs. 

About the year 1804 he went to Lynn-Regis, 
where he was employed in sketching the views 
afterwards engraved for Prichard's History of 
Lynn. About the year 1810 he again returned 
to Norwich, where he died May 6, 1 840. 

To painting he was devotedly attached, and, as 
a ruling passion, he followed the intricate mazes 
he attempted to weave in the ardour of his pur- 
suit with assiduity and success ; and as his final 
hour approached, he declared that existence 
would be no longer desirable when deprived of 
the use of his pencil. 

He was contemporary with Oldbrome, whose 
landscapes are highly prized ; Hodgson, well 
known for his interiors ; Ladbroke, excelled in 
figures and landscapes ; Stannard, in architectural 
subjects ; Cotman was eminent for his etchings of 
ruins and brasses ; and more particularly with 
Captain (afterwards General) Cockburn, R.A., 
whose water-colour drawings will be long ad- 
mired for the novelty of his colouring, and the 
excellence of his creation. H. D'Aveney. 



NATOACA. 
(2 nd S. xii. 348, 406.) 

I must rescue the character of Natoaca (or Po- 
cahontas, her true name) from the unmaidenly 
imputation of having followed Captain Smith to 
England. Smith was very much her senior, had 
led an adventurous and remarkable life in various 
countries, and while effecting the first permanent 
settlement in Virginia, was twice rescued from 
death by Pocahontas. He was obliged to return 
to England in consequence of a severe wound, 
leaving the colony at Jamestown in confusion and 
danger, deprived of the only man whom the In- 
dians feared or respected. In 1612, two years 
after his departure, Captain Argal sailed up the 
Potomac on a trading expedition, and hearing 
that Pocahontas was in the neighbourhood, and 
knowing her friendship for the English, he invited 
her on board his vessel. He there retained her, 
and carried her to Jamestown ; hoping that from 
love to his daughter, Powhatan would make terms 
favourable to the English. But the noble-hearted 
chief, indignant at the treachery, refused to treat 
till his daughter was restored. 

While at Jamestown, Pocahontas learned En- 
glish, and a young settler named Rolfe, of good 
family, having become attached to her, they were 
married with Powhatan's consent, and peace en- 
sued between the colony and all the tribes subject 
to the chief. Three years after their marriage 



136 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [#* s. i. Feb. is, '62. 



Rolfe and the princess visited England, where 
Pocahontas was suitably received by James I. and 
his queen, the latter being present at her public 
baptism. She remained a year in England ; and 
when preparing to return to Virginia, she died, in 
the 22nd year of her age, leaving one son. This 
son, after having been educated in England, settled 
in Virginia ; and after a life of honour and pros- 
perity, he died, leaving an only daughter, from 
whom some of the best families in Virginia are 
descended. 

This account is abridged from Peter Parley's 
Life of Smith, and Child's First Book of His tory. 
The former volume I have lost, and my notes con- 
tain no account, of Smith's death ; but I think I 
have read that Pocahontas visited him in England, 
and found him an infirm and maimed man, having 
never recovered from his injuries. It was not till 
nine years after Smith left Virginia that the first 
negro slaves were landed there, in 1619. I men- 
tion this, because in these days of rifacciamenti, 
history is so often made subservient to fiction, and 
fiction used to make history palatable, that I fear 
lest Smith should be branded with having intro- 
duced the "peculiar institution" of the south. 

F. C. B. 

Metoaca was the real name of her whom we 
know in history as Pocahontas, which was her 
title. She was christened by the name of Re- 
becca, and married John Ilolfe, an Englishman. 
Some of her descendants are in Philadelphia, and 
they are numerous in the Southern States. The 
eccentric John Randolph, of Roanoke, was one of 
them ; and he was proud of his descent from her. 

Uneda. 

Philadelphia. 



Salt given to Sheep: St. Gregory: Regula 
Pastoralis (2 nd S. xii. 159.) — Happily this 
practice is known as a part of sheep-farming, and 
is in frequent, albeit not universal, use in this 
part of the royal county. My object in asking 
you to insert this Note and Query is not, however, 
so much to afford this information, as to tender 
my thanks to your correspondent Mr. John Wil- 
liams for drawing your readers' attention to that 
singularly beautiful passage in St. Gregory's 
Homily on our Lord's charge to the Seventy 
Disciples — a passage which is the true key-note, 
not only of that Homily, first delivered on 
St. Luke's day or some other apostolic festi- 
val ; but also of that great man's Regula Pasto- 
ralis, addresed by him to his brother, Bishop of 
Ravenna. That whole Homily, indeed, and that 
whole treatise of The Pastoral Rule, prove the 
singular fitness of the first Gregory to have been 
made, if any other, the " rex gregis ecclesiasticse." 
It were even to be desired, so it has always seemed 
to me, that an English version of the treatise 



should be placed in the hands of every one ad- 
mitted to the cure of souls, if not upon the list 
of books required of candidates for holy orders. 
Such is the unequalled knowledge of human 
nature displayed in it, and so wisely does he 
therein apply the principles and precepts of Holy 
Writ to the diversified characters and relative 
positions of the individual members of a pastoral 
charge. And never for a moment in any part of 
that admirable treatise does he lose sight of the 
divinely-inspired idea, of the priest's function be- 
ing to season as salt the souls of God's elect — 
" Sal enim terrse non sumus, si corda audientium 
non condimus." 

The Query with which I end this Note is as 
follows : — Can any of your correspondents in- 
form me what English versions, ancient and 
modern, exist of St. Gregory's Regula Pastoralis 
here mentioned, specifying where they may be 
seen, whether in public or in private libraries ? 

Surely in no language ought such a treatise to 
be so freely available as in that of a people who 
glory in an ancestry derived from those to whom 
its author was the great apostle and pastor. N. S. 

Alchemy and Mysticisms (3 rd S. i. 89.) — 
Delta should consult a catalogue of books on 
these subjects now on sale by Baillieu, Quai des 
Grands Augustines, 43, Paris ; and those of Mr. 
Bumstead, bookseller of London. I will with 
pleasure lend him M. Baillieu's. 

George Offor. 

Hackney. 

Browning's " Lyrics " (3 rd S. i. 89.) — I have 
a strong impression (though I have not sufficient 
confidence in my recollection to vouch quite posi- 
tively for the fact) that Mr. Browning, some few 
years ago/told a friend of mine in my presence that 
the admirable poem, " How they brought the good 
news from Ghent to Aix," is not founded upon 
any historic event in particular. 

W. M. Rossetti. 

London. 

Dr. John Pordage (2 nd S. xii. 419, 473) — 
Some sixteen years since I copied the following 
items from the register of St. Andrews, Bradfieid, 
Berks, of which parish Dr. Pordage was rec- j 
tor : — 

" 1663, Dec. 23, was buried, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Dr. Pordage. 

1668, Aug. 25, was buried Mistress Mary, the wife of 
Dr. John Pordage." 

In Coates's History of Reading will be found 
some account of the ejection of Dr. Pordage by 
the Committee for the Trial of Scandalous Minis- 
ters. The accusation against him charged him 
with holding intercourse with the powers of dark- 
ness. One witness deposed to having heard " un- 
earthly music " proceeding from the parlour of 
the parsonage during the winter evenings, a com- 



3'<* S. I. Feb. 15, '62. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



137 



pliment to Miss Elizabeth's musical skill, and to 
the goodness of her spinet, but fatal to the rector 
■who was turned out, and his accuser, a Presby- 
terian minister out of employment, turned in. In 
1661 the family of the old rector were again 
allowed to return to the parish, and the intruder 
was ejected, was duly commendated as a sufferer 
for conscience' sake in Calamy's Martyrs, and is 
now to be celebrated with other similar worthies 
at the bi-centenary celebration of 1662. 

Wm. Denton. 

Trial of the Princess of Wales (3 rd S. i. 32, 
76.) — It would seem that in the year 1813 vari- 
ous editions were published, in and out of Lon- 
don, all professing to be reprinted from authentic 
copies of the original Delicate Investigation. I 
possess one with the following title : — 

" The Genuine Book. An Inquiry, or Delicate Inves- 
tigation into the conduct of Her Royal Highness the 
Princess of Wales, before Lords Erskine, Spencer, Gi en- 
ville, and Ellenborongh, the Four Special Commissioners 
of Inquiry, appointed by his Majesty in the year 180G. 
Reprinted from an authentic copy, superintended through 
the press by the Right Hon. Spencer Perceval. Bristol: 
Printed and sold by E. Bryan, 51, Corn Street, 1813." 

It will be seen that this title is fuller than that 
of the book published by Lindsell, Wigmorc 
Street, 1813, and corresponds entirely with that 
11 Reprinted and sold by Mr. Jones, 5, Newgate 
Street, 1813." It seems highly probably, how- 
ever, that all these contain the whole of the origi- 
nal book of 1806. F. C. H. 

Christofher Monk (2 nd S. xii. 384, 442, 526.) 
— After trying his right five several times in 
ejectments at law, whether Christopher, Duke of 
Albemarle, was or was not the lawful son of 
George, Duke of Albemarle, all of which were 
decided in favour of Duke Christopher, the Earl 
of Bath filed a bill in Chancery against the plain- 
tiff in the above actions (Sherwin), and moved 
for a perpetual injunction to restrain Sherwin 
from bringing any more actions. Lord Chancel- 
lor Covvper refused the injunction, but the Earl 
of Bath, carrying it to the House of Lords, they 
adjudged the perpetual injunction prayed for. 
See Modern Reports, vol. x. p. 1. Also Sir Wal- 
ter Clarges against Sherwin, Modern Reports, vol. 
xii. p. 343. W. H. Lammin. 

Fulham. 

Taylor of Bifrons (2 n<1 S. xii. 519.)— The 
late and last Edward Taylor, Esq., of Bifrons, 
brother of Sir Herbert and Sir Brook Taylor, 
and of the first Lady Skelmersdale, left many 
sons, who are still living. Burke's Landed Gentry 
gives as complete an account of the family down 
to the living generation as perhaps IIeraldicus 
Would care for. P. P. 

Tenants in Socage (3 rd S. i. 31.) — Cowel 
says this word may be derived from the Fr. 



soc (a colter or ploughshare), and that it is a 
tenure of lands, by or for certain inferior ser- 
vices of husbandry, to be performed to the lord 
of the fee. Webster derives it from the Saxon 
soc, a privilege, from socan, secan, to seek, fol- 
low. The surname Hosa, Hoesse, Iluse, or Hus- 
sey, is certainly not connected with either Husi 
or Hosea. In Cowel's "Table of Antient Sur- 
names," at the end of his " Interpreter," he gives 
Hosatus et de Hosato, Hose, Hussey ; and says, 
"I have seen Johannes Usus Mare in Latin, for 
John Hussey.''' Again : some have translated the 
Latinized name Hosatus or Osatus, " hosed or 
booted " ; and Bailey derives Hussey from the 
French housse, a " sordid garment," both of which 
attempts are absurd. Pr. Ferguson, under 
" House," A.-S. and O. N. hus, says Huso and 
Husi are O.-G. names, correspond ing with our 
House, Huss, and Hussey. The etymology of 
the name Hussey seems simple enough. It is the 
same with the Fr. surnames Houssaie and Hous- 
saye, and is derived from locality ; viz. from the 
Fr. houssaie, " a place full of holly," (Jioux). 
(Lamartine gives as local names Hosseia, and La 
Houssaie). Cf. the French surnames House, 
Houssel, Houssin, Houssart, and the names Husee, 
Husey, Hussy. In Irish names it assumes the 
form of Cushey and Cushee ; thus, Dangean-na- 
Cushey, " the castle of Hussey." Synonymous 
surnames are found in Bretagne ; as Quelein and 
Quelennec ; from Bas Bret, gelenn, holly. 

R. S. Charnock. 

Arms of Cortez (2 nd S. xii. 454, 532.)—- 
Alonso Lopez de Haro, in his work, Nobilario 
Genealogico de los Reyes y titulos de Espana, 
Part ir. p. 409, describes the arms of Cortes, 
Marquis of Guaxara in accordance with the se- 
cond description quoted by Mr. Woodward, but 
with the inescocheon of Or, 3 pallets gu., a bor- 
dure azure charged with 8 crosses pattee argent. 
The 4th quarter described as Mexico may not be 
generally known, and is shown as " Azure, 3 tur- 
retted Chateaux joined by a wall, argent, ma- 
soned, sable. In base, 2 bars wavy arg." 

Moreri, in the " Life of Cortez," in the Dic- 
tionnaire Historique, describes the first wife as 
Francoise Suarez Pacheco, and the marriage took 
place in Cuba ; this may perhaps assist in tracing 
her family. A. W. M. 

Great Yarmouth. 

On the Degrees of Comparison (3 rd S. i. 
48.) — Mr. Siiarpe's theory of inverted degrees 
of comparison is ingenious and novel, but I do not 
think that his facts support his hypothesis. 

I will take up one only of his examples for 
examination : Mr. Sharpe derives better and best 
from the positive bad. But what occasion is there 
to base the derivation of these vocables upon a 
word which contradicts their meaning, when in a 



138 



NOTES. AND QUERIES. 



[3 rd S. I. Fee. 15, '62. 



cognate Indo- Germanic language we find a regu- 
lar and more congenial positive still existing, 
though it is wanting in the English as it had pre- 
viously fallen out of the Anglo-Saxon ? 

The fact is, the original positive of our own 
better and best is still in daily use in the Persian 
language. Therein is to be found the word beh, 
good. Therein are also to be found the compa- 
rative behter, better ; and behtereen, best. JSTo 
native or foreign philologue has ever thought of 
deriving the Persian comparative and superlative 
from bad, bad ; which exists in that language as 
well as in our own. 

I will observe that it is probable that, in the 
Archaic periods of all languages, there were 
several forms of comparatives and superlatives ; 
which were afterwards disused and lost, except 
in those few surviving examples which are now 
considered irregular. H. C. C. 

Lammiman (2 nd S. xii. 529.) — Is not Lammi- 
man a corruption of Lambingman — the man who 
attended the ewes when lambing ? Or is it sim- 
ply Lamb-man (the i being inserted for euphony), 
like Coltman, Horsman, Sheepman, now Shipman ? 

Query, What is the derivation of Whyman ? 

Senescens. 

Authorised Translator or Catullus (3 rd 
S. i. 67.) — Your correspondent S. C. has mis- 
taken the intention of the advertiser. He evidently 
only meant to state that he was the authorised 
translator of Macaulay's History and translator of 
Catullus. Such specimens of bad grammar are 
too frequent in advertisements, but we may hope 
that the advertiser is a better German than 
English scholar. L. 

Oxford. 

Washing Parchment and Vellum (2 nd S. xi. 
190, 234.) — One of your correspondents asks for 
the best method of washing parchment or vellum. 
I will give him the method which I have adopted 
with complete success. I wash the surface with 
paste-water (that is, flour and water), boiled to ] 
the consistence of cream, and applied with a | 
sponge while hot. Hot water and soap will re- 
move the dirt from the surface ; but if there are 
any scratches, or places where the surface is re- I 
moved, the paste helps to restore it. If there are j 
stains or ink spots, these must be removed by 
dilute nitric acid. Slight stains may often be 
removed by putting a few drops of nitric acid in 
the paste-water ; but if they are of old date, and 
intense, the acid must be stronger, according to 
circumstances, and carefully applied after all the \ 
dirt has been washed away. In washing the vel- j 
lum, care must be taken not to let the moisture ! 
remain on the surface long ; as that might per- j 
meate the skin, and loosen it from the mill-board ! 
beneath. There is a greater liability to this in j 
parchment, as it is more porous than vellum. It j 



is not possible to restore the enamel of the vellum 
when once lost ; but it may be partially done by 
the paste, rubbing it when dry with a piece of 
wash-leather. I do not recommend any kind of 
varnish applied to vellum. The natural surface 
of the vellum, when it leaves a good workman's 
hands, on the book is very beautiful ; and if pre- 
served from scratching or scraping, may always 
be restored to its original purity by the process I 
describe. I have books more than two hundred 
years old, bound in vellum, which I have cleaned 
by this process. Some of them have gilt borders, 
and these required great care ; but I succeeded 
in preserving all of the gilding that time had left. 

T. B. 

Quotation Wanted (3 rd S. i. 69.) — 
" Forgiveness to the injured does belong, 
But they ne'er pardon," &c. 

Dryden, Conquest of Grenada, Part II. 
Act I. Sc. 2. 

E. M. 

Daughters or William the Lion (3 rd S. i. 
95.) — Allow me to inform Meletes that the 
substitution of 1225 for 1221 was a clerical error 
in my paper on this subject. I am sorry that 
such a mistake escaped me, and I will endeavour 
to be more careful in future. My authority for 
calling the youngest Princess Margery, or Marion, 
was Mrs. Everett Greens Princesses of England, 
vol. i. p. 393. She says (quoting Balfour) : — 

" The youngest, Marjory or Marion, was exclusively 
under his [her brother Alexander's] care until her mar- 
riage in 1235." 

Hermentrude. 

Pencil Writing (2 nd S. x. 57, 255, 318.)— On 
the back of one of the Cottonian MSS. (Galba, 
B. V.) Charles V. has hastily scrawled his name, 
with the date, "Bologna, 1517" ; and if the ma- 
terial with which he wrote it were not a lead- 
pencil, I never saw a better imitation of one. 

Hermentrude. 

Juryman's Oath (3 rd S. i. 52.) — The Booh of 
Oaths, 1649 : — 

" The oath that is to be given to any Jury before evi- 
dence given in against a prisoner at the Barre : — 

'You shall true deliverance make between our Sove- 
raigne Lord the King and the prisoner at the Barre, as 
you shal have in charge, according to your evidence, as 
neere as God shall give you grace. So helpe you God, 
and by the contents of this booke.' " 

On the trial of the Regicides, the oath to each 
juryman was : 

" You shall well and truly try, and true deliverance 
make, between our Sovereign Lord the King and the 
prisoners at the Bar, whom you shall have in charge, 
according to your evidence. So help you God." 

What can Lumen mean by saying that the 
words " according to the evidence " were left out ? 
See State Trials by Hargrave, 1776, ii. 314. 

G. Offor. 



3'd S. I. Feb. 15, '62.] 



139 



Hebrew Grammatical Exercises. — A Stu- 
dent will find plenty of exercises for translation 
into Hebrew in Mason & Bernard's Hcbr. Gram.> 
published in 1853 by Hall of Cambridge.* At 
the end of the 2nd vol. there is a key to the 
Exercises. F. Chance. 

In T. K. Arnold's First Hebrew Booh, some- 
thing of the kind required by a Student will be 
found. J. Eastwood. 

Neil Douglas (3 rd S. i. 93.)— The sketch 
noticed by your correspondent in his N.B. was 
made by ' Mr. John G. Lockhart, subsequently 
Editor of the Quarterly Review, and son-in-law of 
Sir Walter Scott. Mr. Lockhart was at that 
time in practice (of no great extent) as a Scotch 
lawyer. 

Your correspondent has apparently never been 
present at a Scotch criminal trial, otherwise he 
would not have spoken of Douglas standing at 
the bar. In Scotland a person under trial sits 
during the whole proceeding, except when he is 
called on to rise in order to plead to the indict- 
ment, or to allow a witness to speak as to his 
identity. It is not as in England, where one 
under all the anxiety attendant on a trial (it may 
be for his life) has the additional discomfort of 
standing often for hours, and is, generally speak- 
ing, not permitted the indulgence of sitting, except 
on the score of ill health. The sketch of Neil 
Douglas shows the bust only ; but it is obviously 
that of one in a sitting posture. G. 

Edinburgh. 



Mi&tzTlmeauti. 

MONTHLY FEUILLETON ON FRENCH BOOKS. 

Melanges curieux et anecdotiques, tires d^une Collection de 
Lettres autographes, et de Documents Historiques, ay ant 
Appartenu a M. Fosse-Darcosse ; publics avec les Notes du 
Collecteur et une Notice, par M. Charles Asselineau. 8vo. 
Paris: Techener. London: Barthes and Lowell. 

When this budget is in the hand of our readers, the 
auctioneer will be busy dispersing one of the most splen- 
did collections of autographs that were ever gathered 
together by the zeal of a thorough amateur. M. Fosse'- 
Darcosse, late conseiller refcrendaire at the Paris cour des 
comptes, must have spent a fortune in accumulating these 
treasures, and we have no doubt that the sale thereof 
will produce a perfect harvest, and excite the greatest 
competition. The catalogue we are now announcing, pre- 
pared with the utmost care by M. Charles Asselineau, 
is a curious and instructive contribution to the history of 
literature ; the principal items enumerated are made the 
subject of copious notes, and the preface sets forth both 
the unquestionable importance of autographs, and the 
claims of M. Fosse-Darcosse to the gratitude of enlight- 
ened bibliographers. M. Charles Asselineau takes for his 
text Cardinal Richelieu's well-known remark, viz. that 
"sur quatre lignes de l'ecriture d'un homme on peut lui 
faire un proces criminel ; " and he shows how the charac- 
ter, the habits, the temper, the qualities of an individual 
are, so to say, stamped in his hand-writing. This, per- 

* London S G. Bell (Bell cSc Daldy), Fleet Street. 



haps, is not a very new discovery, if we consider that fair 
advertisers in the columns of The Times newspaper un- 
dertake for the trifling remuneration of two shillings or 
half-a-crown to unravel your own soul before you with 
the help of twenty lines of 3-our best calligraphy; but 
still it proves the real value of autographs, and, we have 
no doubt, with M. Charles Asselineau, that the science of 
autograph-collecting will soon boast of a guide as sure as 
Barbier's Manuel du Libraire. The magnificent collec- 
tion, for which we are indebted to M. Fosse-Darcosse, 
comprises about 4000 separate articles, the chief ones being 
further illustrated by portraits, caricatures, facsimiles, 
newspaper-cuttings, and other documents of the same 
description. Amongst the pieces relating to English 
History the catalogue mentions the following: — A 
letter in the handwriting of James II.; a letter in the 
handwriting of Samuel Richardson, on the death of the 
poet Klopstock's wife (date, January 19, 1759) ; one 
page 4to. in the handwriting of Sir Walter Scott, &c. 
&c. Altogether, the Darcosse gallery will certainly be 
the talk of the season in the literary world, and we recom- 
mend M. Asselineau's catalogue raisonne as an amusing 
study even for those who, alas! like the feuilletoniste of 
"N. & Q.," cannot spend money upon autographs. 

Annuaire du Bibliophile, du Bibliothecaire et de VArchi- 
viste pour VAnnee 1862; publie par Louis Lacour. 3 e 
anne'e. In- 18. Paris: Meugnot; Claudin. London: 
Barthes & Lowell. 

M. Louis Lacour has just issued the third yearl}' vo- 
lume of the Annuaire du Bibliophile. In the preface to 
this excellent publication, the learned author very aptly 
remarks on the useless and imperfect character of the 
common run of annuaires. Instead of putting together a 
few correct details, referring directly to the subject of 
the book, the compilers generally begin by presenting us 
with an almanack; an abstract of the Post-Office Direc- 
tory inevitably follows ; and the few remaining pages are 
devoted to critical, or rather eulogistic, notices of works 
published by the firm which has taken the risk of the 
annuaire. M. Lacour adopts quite a different plan ; biblio- 
graphy being his speciality, he confines himself to books 
and their history, finding within that circle a sufficient 
harvest of facts to set before his readers. The first part 
of the Annuaire du Bibliophile is taken up by statistical 
details of an official nature. Under this head we have 
the list of all the government clerks appointed since the 
Revolution of 1789 to the management and surveillance of 
public libraries ; the list of the chief collections scattered 
throughout the departments is likewise added, as also a 
short, but complete, account of foreign museums, private 
archives, collections of autographs, &c. &c. The second 
division of the work comprises a series of papers interest- 
ing from their practical value or their piquant charac- 
ter: here we have noticed especially the description of a 
useful method for restoring old books. The bibliographi- 
cal new3 of the last year are chronicled in the third 
section ; changes that have happened in the administra- 
tion of libraries, purchases of rare and valuable books, 
legislative or judicial decisions respecting printers, pub- 
lishers, book collectors and book stealers — all these, and 
various other facts bearing upon the same topic, receive 
their due amount of analysis. A necrological list of all 
the literary notabilities, removed from amongst us by the 
hand of death, recalls to our memory a long and mourn- 
ful arrav of worthies; the enumeration of the principal 
book sales has not been forgotten; and the volume winds 
up with a catalogue of the publications of note issued 
during the course of the year. The useful character of 
the Annuaire du Bibliophile will, we hope, be evident from 
the few remarks we have offered about it. M. Louis 
Licour further announces for the 25th of the month the 
appearance of a new periodical, to be entitled Les An- 



140 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



(_3 rd S. I. Feb. 15, »62. 



nales du Bibliophile. It will be conducted by himself, and 
cannot fail to prove a most interesting monthly bulletin. 

In our last feuilleton we alluded to the edition of 
Madame de Sevigne's letters which was in course of pre- 
paration from the MSS. of the late M. de Montmerque. 
The first two volumes have been recently published 
(Pari3 and London : Hachette), and the care which has 
been bestowed upon them, the correctness of the print- 
ing, the beauty of the type and of the paper, amply 
justify the eulogies already passed upon the undertaking 
by M. Sainte-Beuve, M. Cuvillier-Fleury, and several 
other leading critics on the Gallican side of the Channel. 
Since the voluminous collection of the Benedictines, no- 
thing, we may boldly say, had been devised of such mag- 
nitude, of such real importance, as the series now begun 
by Messrs. Hachette; for the reader will observe that far 
more is intended than the publication of Madame de 
Sevigne's correspondence. All the great writers of France 
are to be included in this magnificent library, and the 
contemplated array of three hundred volumes will scarcely 
suffice, even if the editor does not ascend higher than Mal- 
herbe. But our present business is with Madame deSe- 
vigne and with her friends ; let us devote to them the few 
remarks we purpose offering here. The Chevalier de 
Perrin is the first who published a decent edition of the 
famous letters ; his two recueils, bearing respectively the 
dates 1734 and 1754, had been examined and approved 
by Madame de Simiane, the granddaughter of Madame 
de Sevigne; they were accordingly deemed to be beyond 
the attacks of criticism, and they served as a model to all 
subsequent editors. M. de Montmerque himself, in his 
edition of 1818, had followed in many cases the text of 
Perrin ; but this was only whenever he could not have 
recourse to original MSS., and forty years ago the inves- 
tigations of savants and literary men had not brought to 
light the treasures which we now possess. 

There are two questions to be considered in a case of 
this nature — 1st, Whether the alterations made to the text 
are of a serious character ? and, 2nd, Whether they can 
be in some way justified? As for the first, the slightest 
comparison instituted between the edition of 1754 and 
the present one will prove that the Chevalier de Perrin 
modified the letters of Madame de Sevigne in every pos- 
sible manner. Several words or locutions generally used 
during the seventeenth century have since been repudiated 
on account of their coarseness or vulgarity ; these are uni- 
formly eliminated by Perrin ; a few passages are likewise 
suppressed containing allusions to well-known persons, 
whose immediate relatives might have protested against 
statements of an offensive or libellous stamp. Such 
emendations may perhaps be justified ; but when a third- 
rate litterateur like the obscure Chevalier attempts to cor- 
rect Madame de Sevigne's style, curtailing here, arrang- 
ing there, striking out whole pages, and condensing 
what appears to him unnecessary gossip, we cannot com- 
plain too loudly of such unwarrantable liberty. The fair 
epistolographer says in one of her letters: " J'espere que 
si mes lettres meritoient d'etre lues deux fois, il se trou- 
veroit quelque charitable personne qui les corrigeroit." 
This passage seems no doubt to justify the task attempted 
by the Chevalier de Perrin ; but still we think that the 
safest course is to leave classical authors just as they were. 
Our ideas of taste, propriety, bienseance, &c, are apt to vary 
exceedingly from one century to the other, and if the 
system of corrections is adopted, it will be necessary to 
new-arrange, every fifty or sixty years, our standard 
writers so as to meet the taste of the public. After half 
a dozen such emendations, what would become of the 
original text? 

By way of preface to the work, M. Paul Mesnard has com- 
posed a biography of Madame de Sevigne', which, although 
designated under the modest appellation Notice, is in every 



way a truly remarkable work. Whilst discussing such a 
subject, it was almost impossible to avoid treating de 
omnibus rebus ; for Madame de SeVigne was connected by 
ties of either relationship or close intimacy with the 
leading personages of the seventeenth century, and her 
voluminous correspondence illustrates the whole history 
of the reign of Louis XIV. The trial of Fouquet, the 
campaigns and melancholy death of Turenne, the affairs 
of Port Royal, the fortunes of Madame de Montespan and 
Madame de Maintenon, — in fact, the entire annals of Ver- 
sailles are referred to, more or less in detail, by the lively 
marchioness; and her anxiety to supply her daughter 
with the latest court news led her to observe closely the 
various scenes which she was called upon to take a part 
in. Hence the necessity for M. Paul Mesnard to group 
round the principal figure of his sketch a number of 
secondary portraits, which complete the effect, and, be- 
sides, serve as a kind of key to many incidents re- 
lated in the lettei'3. We wish time would allow us to 
reproduce here a few of M. Mesnard's judicious. strictures; 
the attentive perusal of his Notice biographique has con- 
firmed us in the opinion that Madame de Sevigne was a 
very independent original character, at an epoch when 
dull uniformity reigned supreme; her admiration for 
Corneille; her sympathies with Pascal and Nicole; her 
partiality for Cardinal de Retz, revealed in her a strong 
leaven of the Frondeur element, and proved that she 
would not submit to be fettered either by public opinion 
or by interest. But we must forbear from further details. 
We shall only state in conclusion, that the first two vo- 
lumes of M. Hachette's edition contain two hundred and 
sixty letters, accurately printed, and copiously annotated ; 
a few are now published for the first time; the others 
have been collated with the originals or with the most 
genuine texts. 

GUSTAVE MaSSON. 

Hanw-on-the-Hill. 



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3 rd S. I. Feb. 22, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



141 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1862. 



CONTENTS.— N°. 8. 

NOTES:— The Registers of tlio Stationers' Company, 141 

— Letters of Archbishop Lcighton, 143 — James Ander- 
son, 144 — Treacle, 145 — John Milton, 146 — Rev. Henry 
Piers's Sermon, lb. 

Minor Notes : — " Green Sleeves "—Trade Prohibitions, &c. 

— Burns and Andrew Horner — Savonarola's incdited 
Manuscripts — Sir Walter Raleigh and Virginia — Was 
Henry I. rightly surnamed Beauelerc? 147 

QUERIES : — Anonymous Plays — Lord Bacon — Bullen 
Queries — Custumarius Abbathia) de Milton — Doublcr 

— Early Emigrants to Maryland — Fossils — Origin of the 
Name of Glastonbury — Gold Rings to the Inlirmarius — 
Hereditary Dignities — Ben Jonson — Nockynge and Do- 
Well Money, &c. — Payment of Members of Parliament — 
Postage Stamps — Chief Baron James Reynolds: Baron 
James Reynolds — " Tancred and Gismund " — Turgesius 
the Dano — Vicinage, 148. 

Queries with Answers: — Fairfax and Dsemonologia — 
Bankers, 1G76 — Zwinglii, " The Ymage of bothe Pastoures" 

— Calas — Sir Robert Godschall — Samaria — Quotation, 
150. 

REPLIES :— Starachtcr and Murdoch, 152 — Lady Vane, lb. 
— Interdicted Marriages, 153— Judge Page, lb.— Deflection 
of Chancels, 154 — Order of Merit — Standgate Hole — Fri- 
days, Saints' Days, and Fast Days — King Plays — Sir 
Henry Langford — Doctor of Medicine — Bibliography of 
Alchymy and Mysticism — Mary Woffington— Starch.— 
Sir Francis Bryan — Mathews and Gough Families — 
Holand, Duke of Exeter — The Emperor Napoleon III. — 
Cruel King Philip — Fullught, the Anglo-Saxon Baptism 

— Ffolliott Family — Irish Wolf-dog — Redmond Famdy 

— Epitaph in Canterbury Cathedral, 155. 

Notes on Books. 



THE REGISTERS OF THE STATIONERS' 
COMPANY. 
{Continued from 3 rd S. i. 105.) 

27 Augusti [1591].— Rob. Bourne. Assigned 
unto him for his copie, &c. A pleasant ballad of a 
combat betwene a man and his wife for the breeches 

vj d . 

[There was a tract printed without date, but not very 
long afterwards, upon the same subject, and ornamented 
with a wood-cut of two women contending for the pos- 
session of a pair of breeches, under the following title : 
« Women's Fagaries, shewing the great endeavours they 
have used to obtain the Breeches. Being as full of Mirth 
as an Egg is full of meat. Printed for J. Clark in West 
Smithfield." We know nothing of the earlier production 
registered above, of " a combat between a man and his 
wife" ; but such scenes are not very uncommon, although 
the ballad may be so.] 

Rob. Bourne. Assigned in like sort unto him 
A ballad of a Dialogue betwene a Lord and his 

Lady vja^ 

^ 30 Augusti. Jo. Oxenbridge. Assigned unto 
him for his copie to print a book intitled The pro- 
gresse of pietie, or the harbor of heavenly harts- 
ease yjd^ 

[Whether in verse or prose does not appear. This was 
not the entry of a license to publish or to sell, but to 
print, and perhaps the work never came from the press. 
It does not seem to be known, but we may speculate that 
it was by N. Breton.] 



xv° September. — John Wolfe. Entred for his 
Copie, The Lamentation of the Prince of Parma, 
&c vj*. 

[This satirical production perhaps grew out of the 
event celebrated in a ballad under the date of 22 July, as 
noticed inour last article.] 

xvii t0 September. — Henrye Chettle. Entred 
for his copie, by warrant from Mr. Watkins, The 
bay tinge of Dyogenes vj d . 

[This was somewhat too early a date for Goddard, 
who before 1600 published A Satyricall Dialogue, or 
sharplye invective Conference betweene Alexander the great, 
and that trulye woman-hater Diogenes, which was printed 
" in the Low Countrie " in order to avoid proscription. 
Some of Goddard's earlier pieces appear to have been 
publicly burned, as he himself states with reference also 
to Marston's Satires, which had recently been condemned 
to the flames : — 

"Bad are these men, such is their perverse kind, 
They burne all books wherein their faults they find, 
And therefore, earthlie angels, my desire 
Is you'll protect this from consuming fire," &c. 

Henry Chettle was at this time a stationer, as well as 
a dramatist, and was subsequently much employed in 
searching out unlicensed books and their publishers, or 
any others who contravened the bye-laws of the Sta- 
tioners' Company. Before he put forth this Baiting of 
Diogenes, doubtless a satire, he took care to provide 
himself with the authority of Mr. Watkins, then one of 
the wardens.] 

1 die Octobris. — |John Wolf. Entred for hig 
copie The honorable entertaynement gyven to the 
queues ma tie in progresse at Elvetham, in hamp- 
shire, by the righte honorable the Erie of Hertford 

y'f. 

[Printed in 1591, 4to, the above entry being an exact 
copy of the title-page. It was reprinted in vol. xlix. of 
the Gentleman's Magazine, and is of course to be found 
in Nichols's Progresses.^ 

4 Oct. — Mystres Broome wydowe, late wyfe of 
Willm. Broome. Entred for her copies, under 
the hand of the B. of London, Three Comedies, 
plaied before her majesiie by the Children of Paules, 
thone called Endimion, Thother Galathea, and 
thother Midas xviij d . 

[The first of these comedies (all of them by John Lilly) 
bears the date of 1591 ; the two others were probably 
not published until 1592, which date is on the title-pages. 
Endymion was performed by the children of the Chapel, 
as well as by the Children of Pauls, at Greenwich, before 
Queen Elizabeth. All three plays are included in Blount's 
vol. of 1632.] 

12 Octobr. — Tho. Adams. Entred for his 
copies, by assignment from M r Robert Walley, 
these copies folowing, viz. : 

The Shephardcs Calendar in fo. 

Josephus of the Warres of the Jewes. 

Es.opes fables in English. 

Grafton s computation, 

Salust in English. 

Pyches farewel. 

Simonides, 1 pars. 



142 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. s. i. Feb. 22, '62. 



Art of English poetry. 
Robin Conscience, 2 partes. 
KastelVs tables. 
Cato, English and latin. 
Proverbes of Salomon, 16. 
Richys military practis. 
Simonides, 2 pars. 

With Herodian in English, and all other the said 
Rob. Walleis bookes and ballets whatsoever. All 
which bookes, yt is agreed, shalbe printed|by Jo. 
Charlwood for the said Tho. Adams, &c. 

[Of some of these works we must speak separately. 
The first is the old Shepherd's Calendar, originally printed 
by W. de Worde, and to which title new attention had 
perhaps been drawn by three editions of Spenser's Pas- 
torals with the same name. With several of the others, 
it had been assigned to Eobert Walley from his father in 
the preceding March. Referring to what we said on 
p. 45, we may pass over the four next items, but of 
Ryche's Farewel it is necessary to remark that it was by 
Barnabe Rich, and that it was originally printed in 1581 
under the title of Farewell to Militarie Profession, a book 
from which Shakespeare took the plot of his Twelfth 
Night; and as the same work comprises other tales 
dramatised by poets of that da}', the whole of them were 
reprinted by the Shakespeare Society in 1846. The two 
parts of Simonides were also by Rich, although his name 
is not here given, and although we see it stand before his 
Pathway to Military Practice, which came out in 1587. 
Above two parts of Robin Conscience are mentioned ; so 
that the interlude thus called had a sequel, although 
only a fragment of the first part has reached -our day. 
Art of Englishe poetry most likely relates to Puttenham's 
work, which had been published in 1589; but it may 
possibly refer to Spenser's lost treatise on the same sub- 
ject. The figures " 16 " after the Proverbs of Solomon 
means that it was in 16mo, and not in 4to, or folio. 
For some reason it was stipulated that John Charlwood 
should have the monopoly of printing all these books, 
and his name therefore is upon most of those extant.] 

8 Nov. — Tho. Woodcock. Entred for his copie 
&c. A booke entitled Martin Mar Sixtus . vj d . 

[A tract published first in 1589, and again printed in 
1591. It has been attributed to Thos. Nash, but upon no 
sufficient authority. The Mar-Martin tracts of this 
period contain a good deal of amusing, besides abusing 
matter: in one of them, " The just Censure and Reproof'e 
of Martin Junior," we meet with the subsequent warning 
to the young Earl of Essex (afterwards executed) for 
allying himself too much to the Puritan party : it has 
never been quoted. — "And in faith, I thinke they doe 
my Lord of Essex greate wrong that say he favours 
Martin ; I doe not thinke he will bee so unwise as to 
favour those who are enemies to the State ; for if he doe, 
her Majest} 7 -, I can tell him, will withdraw her gracious 
favour from him." Martin Mar- Sixtus appeared once 
more in 1592, just after the death of Robert Greene, who 
is mentioned in the preliminary matter. It consists of 
three 4to sheets.] 

Mr. Cawood. Entred for his copie, &c. a booke 
entituled Mary Magdalen's funerall tears . vj d . 

[A copy of this piece is now before us, " London : 
Printed by A. I. G. C. 1594," possibly a mistake for 
1591, 8vo. The dedication to " Mistresse D. A." is signed 
" S. W." as well as the address to the reader. A produc- 
tion with the same title is attributed to Robert South- 



well, the Jesuit, but the earliest copy we have seen bears 
date in 1607, L and it was several times reprinted.] 

24 Novembris. — Rych. Jones. Entred for his 
copie under the handes of Thomas Crowe and 
Richard Watkins, A lamentable discourse of the 
death of the righte Honorable Sr. Christopher 
Hatton, Knighte, late lorde chancellor of England. 

vj d . 

[The subject of this " discourse " had died on the 20th 
Sept. preceding. We know nothing of any such perform- 
ance.] 

6 Decembr. — Tho. Nelson. Entred for his 
copie, under thandes of Mr. Fr. Flower and Mr. 
Watkins, A Maydens Dreame uppon the death of 
my late Lord Chancellor vj d . 

[This poem was an entire novelty when it was pro- 
duced before the Shakspeare Society, nobody having 
ever heard of such a piece, and the Rev. Mr. Dyce 
having published two volumes of " Robert Greene's 
Works " without knowledge of its existence. He is 
not to be blamed, because he was only in the condition 
of other bibliographers, excepting the discoverer of the 
tract. It has for title The Maiden's Dreame upon the 
Death of the Right Honorable Sir Christopher Hatton, 
Knight, late Lord Chancelor of England. By Robert 
Green, Master of Arts. Imprinted at London by Thomas 
Scarlet for Thomas Nelson, 1591, 4to. It consists of only 
ten leaves, all in verse, excepting the dedication to Lady 
Hatton, wife of Sir William Hatton, who, when subse- 
quently a widow, was married to Sir Edw. Coke. In the 
dedication Greene refers to such publications on the same 
theme as that noticed in the previous entry : he says, 
" While I thus debated with my selfe, I might see (to 
the great disgrace of the Poets of our time) some mycani- 
call wits blow up mountaines, and bring forth mise, who 
with their follies did rather disparage his honors than 
decj'pher his vertues." In consequence he took up his 
pen, and wrote The Maiden's Dream, and calls himself 
Lady W. Hatton's " poor countryman," both being from 
Norfolk : she had married first Sir C. Hatton's nephew, 
who had inherited his uncle's debts as well as his property, 
and Queen Elizabeth claimed from him many thousand 
pounds, which Sir Christopher had borrowed from the 
Lord Treasurer. The Maiden's Dream was obviously 
printed in haste, and it contains many errors, but is all in 
Roman type. It consists of the " Complaints " of Justice, 
Prudence, Fortitude, Temperance, Bountie, Hospitality, 
and Religion for the loss of the Lord Chancellor. Re- 
specting Sir C. Hatton's hospitality there is a remarkable 
passage in B. Rich's Farewell to Military Profession, where 
he is speaking of Holdenby. The dedication is nearly all 
in praise of dancing, in which art Hatton, as we know, 
was a great practiser and proficient.] 

13 Dec. —Edward White: Tho. Nelson. En- 
tred for their copie, &c. The arte of Connye 
Katchinge vj d . 

Wm. Wright. Entred for his copie, to be printed 
alwayes for him by John Wolf, The second parte of 
Connye Katchinge . - vj d . 

[The first of these registrations must relate to R. 
Greene's Notable Discovery of Coosnage, which came out 
with the date of 1591. It was followed, with the date of 
1592, by The second and last part of Conny- catching, 
which was printed by John Wolfe for William Wright, 
and evidently is the tract to which the second entry 
refers. There was, however, in the same year, The third 



3 rd S. I. Feb. 22, '62. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



143 



and last part of Conny- catching : with the new devised 
Knavish Arte of Foole- taking, which the Kev. Mr. Dyce 
inserts in his list, but he could hardly have seen a copy 
of it, because he introduces words which are not found 
in the title-page, changes others, and gives at least half 
a dozen minor variations. It is not at all impossible that 
by mistake he followed some edition, which was not the 
original.] 

xvj° die Decembris. — Thomas Gosson. Entred 
unto him for his copie, &c. The Seconde parte of 
the Gigge betweene Rowland and the Sexton, so it 
apperteyne not to anie other vj d . 

["Jigs " were usually performed at our early Theatres 
by way of " merriment," and for the sake of dismissing 
spectators cheerfully after some tragical representation. 
Wc have notices in the Stationers', Registers of several by 
Tarlton, Kempe, Phillips, Singer, and others ; and one by 
Tarlton has survived in MS., but no others are known. 
This between Rowland and the Sexton may remind us 
of the commencement of the Grave-digger scene in Ham- 
let : possibly Shakespeare took a hint from it.] 

28 Decembr. — Thorns Gosson. Entred for his 
copie, &c. The Thirde and last Parte of Kempe 's 
Jigge, so yt apperteyne not to anie others . vj J . 

[The terminating words of the two last registrations 
may shew the contention among publishers of that day 
to obtain the right of printing popular productions. This 
entry is of the third part of *' Kempe's Jig," whatever it 
may have been entitled ; so that two other parts, not en- 
tered at Stationers' Hall, had preceded it, and had secured 
the public favour. Kempe was an actor in Shakspeare's 
plays until the beginning of the next century. He 
was Peter in Romeo and Juliet, Dogberry in Much Ado 
about Nothing, and perhaps the original Grave-digger in 
Hamlet. This point is, however, doubtful.] 

xxx° Decembris. — Hoberte Dexter. Entred 
for his copie, &c. A booke entituled Propria que 
maribus, construed, and also as in presenti. Pro- 
vided alwaies that if anie of the copartners in the 
Grammer, perteyninge to the priviledge of Mr. 
Francis Flower, shall finde him selfe grieved with 
this booke, then this entrance to be voide, and the 
said Roberte Dexter to cease to printe the saide 
booke or anie parte thereof vj a . 

[Four years before the date at which we have now 
arrived, Francis Flower was a member of Gray's Inn, 
and had assisted Bacon, Hughes, and others in the pro- 
duction, before the queen at Greenwich, of the tragedy of 
The Misfortunes of Arthur. We have already met with 
Flower's name in connexion with the licensing of books 
for the press, but what was his particular office, and what 
the " privilege " he at this time enjoyed, we are without 
information. The publication of school-books, like those 
included in the preceding registration, was, and is, usually 
very profitable.] 

J. Payne Collier. 



LETTERS OF ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON. 
(Continued from 3 rd S. i. 125). 
x. 

Edin. Nov. 9 [1669?]. 
May it please yo r Grace, 
It were, I know, an unpleasant thing, and now 
scarse pertinent for mee to say any more of y e 



struggles and tossings of my thoughts concerning 
my engaging in this station, both before my sub- 
mission to it and even since ; only what I sayd 
once, and again to bespeak y c liberty and right 
construction of my retiring in case of necessity, 
though yo r Grace thought not fit to take any 
notice of it at present ; yet I must humbly beg 
it may not be wholly forgott, and I will mention 
it no more till I find myself forc'd to make reall 
use of it. For them y* are in eminent employ- 
ments, and are no less eminently qualified for 
them, God forbid they should think of withdraw- 
ing ; but as for us of this order, in this kingdom, 
I believe 'twere little damage either to church or 
state, possibly some advantage to both, if wee 
should all retire ; but that, whatsoever the event 
of it will prove, is a thing neither to be feared 
nor hoped. For myself, how great soever be my 
longings after a retreat, they ought not to hinder 
my most humble acknowledgements of his Ma tie * 
undeserved favor (though it still detains me from 
that w h of all things in this world I doe most 
passionately desire) ; and next to his Ma tics favor, 
I cannot but be sensible of my singular oblige- 
ment to your Grace for so much unwearied kind- 
ness and patience in this affair : for how much 
reason soever I may seem to myself to have for 
my reluctancy, yet I think yo r Grace had much 
more reason long 'ere this to have despised and 
neglected it, as y e peevish humor of a melancholy 
monk ; but whatsoever I am or shall be, while I 
live, yea, though I turnd hermite, I am sure not 
to put off the indelible character of 

My Lord, Yo r Grace's most humble Servant, 

R. Leighton. 

My Lord, — The Commissariate of Laurock 
becoming vacant, I was forced to dispatch, and 
thought of one for it on purpose to avoid the crowds 
of severali recommendations, and the vexatious im- 
portunities with which they were prest. The per- 
son I have chosen is one John Graham, Commis- 
sary Clerk of Dunblain, and have putt another in 
his place, being under some kind of promise to 
them — both to doe them a kindness, if any op- 
portunity should offer, and I have done it freely 
to them both ; whereas, for the Commissariate, 
though one of the meanest, more was offered 
mee by some of the competitors, than I think one 
much better were worth, if sett to sale in y* 
market place. And I think it a shameful abuse 
that churchmen should so commonly doe by these 
places, disposing the .... man more . . . . , 
and I heartily wish they were discharged. But 
that which pains me now most in this par- 
ticular is, that I understand by the Earl of Kin- 
cardine, that yo r Grace had aimed to recommend 
one to the place ; which, could I have had the 
least foresight of, there is no doubt it would have 
been reserved for him. But I hope yo r Grace 



144 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. I. Feb. 22, '62. 



will pardon my hastening to dispose of it, for the 
true reason I have given account of. The person 
I fixt on is both of approv'd honesty and ability, 
and will reside upon it and attend it constantly ; 
and is indeed worthy of a better place, if any 
such were in my dispose. And yet after all this, 
rather than your Grace should take it ill, either 
that I was so sudden, or that y e person yo r Grace 
intended for it should bee disappointed, I would 
doe my utmost, and I hope might prevayl with 
my friend to surrender back his gift. But if yo r 
Grace incline not to putt him or mee to y e retro- 
grade, I would engage myself for that gentleman 
for whom yo r Grace designed this place, that y e 
first and best of that kind within the diocese, if it 
should fall vacant in my time should be no other- 
wise disposed of. I again beg your Grace's par- 
don, and that I may know your mind in this, and 
to my utmost power it shall bee obeyed. I hope 
this long postscript will be pardoned, for some- 
times the circumstances of these little affairs 
require more words than matters of greater im- 
portance. 

XI. 

Edg r , Jun. 16. 

May it please yo r Grace, 
Whether it bee y e fatall unhappinesse of this 
order in this corner of y e world, or our unskilful- 
nes in managing it, or somewhat of both, I cannot 
tell ; but it is evident to all y e world y* it hath 
not produc'd since it's restitution those good 
effects y fc were wish't and expected from it, and is 
now in lesse appearance to doe so then before, 
and likely rather to occasion more trouble than 
yet it has done ; unles it please God to avert it, 
and to suggest such counsels to those in power as 
may prove effectual to prevent it. I am far from 
presuming to offer advice in so dismall a buissnes. 
But though my own private concernment in it 
will soon expire, if anything occurr'd to my 
thoughts that I did but imagine might bee of any 
use, I would not affect y e modesty of concealing 
it. What I sayd in my last, I see as yet no rea- 
son to retract, whatever other ways of quieting or 
curbing that froward party may bee us'd, it 
seems not wholly useles to put them once more 
to 't, to give account of y e reasons of their opinions 
and practices, and why they have now run to so 
entire a separation, and to such wild and insolent 
attempts ; and certainly while those coercions and 
civill restraints that for a time were intermitted 
are now found needfull to be renew'd upon them, 
if churchmen shall doe nothing in their own pro- 
per way. I see not how they can bee thought 
worthy that so much should bee done for them, 
and such pains taken in their behalf, while they 
doe not so much as offer to speak for themselves 
and y e Church, and by y e clear evidence of reason 
either to reduce their opposers to union, or to 
stripp them in the view of y e world of all fur- 



ther excuse; but unles this take with others, I 
shall presse it no farther, for there is none of us 
has lesse pleasure in disputes and contests about 
these pitifull questions, then, May it please y r 
Grace. 

Yo r Grace's 

Most humble Servant, 
R. Leighton. 

I have now received y e 
presentation for Jedburgh, 
for w h I most humbly 
thank yo r Grace. 

That w h hath made y e wound of our Schism 
almost incurable, was y e unhappy act of Glasco 
turning out so many ministers at once ; and 
though a good number of them are perfectly si- 
lenc'd by death, and not a few permitted to preach 
and provided to parishes by indulgence, yet there 
remains a considerable part of them that were not 
willing of themselves to goe and bee confined 
within the parishes to w h they were assigned 
double, and these are mainly they y* now disquiet 
y e country. And I see no help, unles some way 
can bee found out how these may bee quieted and 
bound to y e good behaviour, without binding upp 
their mouths from preaching and from eating, and 
so neither stifle them nor starve them. Nor is it 
probable that this can quickly and fully bee done 
by giving them liberty to bee presented to vacant 
churches ; there being not at present so many 
vacancies, nor likely on a sudden to bee so many 
within y e kingdom, as will suffice to place y e half 
of them single. And if they, and their zealous 
followers, will bee so drunk with opinion of them- 
selves as to think so, I cannot tell ; but sure none 
beside themselves will think it reasonable to turn 
out any of y e regular ministers on purpose to 
make room for them : so y fc it would seem some 
other way must of necessity be thought of. 
For my Lord Duke of Lauderdale, 
His Grace. 

C. F. Secretan. 

(To he concluded in our next.) 



JAMES ANDERSON. 
The following letters are from a cousin of the 
same name to James Anderson, the antiquary. 
They may be useful as throwing light on the 
family history, besides being interesting from the 
gossip they contain : — 

James Anderson, London, to Ins Cousin James Anderson, 
Esq., Post-Master- General. 

[No date.] 

" I never yet got your Catalogue priced from Mr. 
Brown, but promis'd it every week ; and when I have it, 
I shall remitt it to you, that you may chuse your five 
pounds worth of books and what more you please. 

" Madam de Garden * has never been near me since 

* The antiquary's daughter, married to a foreigner. 



3 rd S. I. Feb. 22, '62.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



145 



she came from Scotland. I believe she thinks I have 
heard of her nonsense when she was at Edinburgh, and 
she knows I was against her going thither. Pray give 
my service to Mr. Hart, and tell him he might write to 
me now as freely as ever, for that I am as much his 
humble servant. 

" All our news at present is about the rising and fal- 
ling of stocks; the Members of Parliament and all the 
quality and gentr}', a few excepted, having bought large 
parcels. However, I hope the national debts will be 
sooner discharged than was at first feared ; and not with- 
out hope that the several Companies that have subscribed 
for a Royal Fishery may be consolidated into one large 
Company, which may prove the most beneficial that ever 
was in England, to the coast of Scotland in due time, 
"lis not certain yet whether the King will go to Han- 
nover after [his] birth- day, tho' I wish and hope he may 
stay in England. I don't find any of the Duke of Ar- 
gyle's friends yet preferr'd, because people say the Earl 
of S(underla)nd is glued to the squad, or they to him; 
and he being viceroy, as it were, doth what he pleasies: 
but a short time, you. know, discovers great changes in 
Courts. There are proposals for printing some additional 
volumes of Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum, and also 
for Anglia Illustrafa, and for a new general Atlas ; but 
these things you know better than I. Pray write at the 
first conveniency by post, and as soon as you can to 

" Your most affectionate, 
Jam. Andekson. 

" It's certain the D[uk]e of 
Wh[arto]n is gone over 
to the P[retender]'s side 
upon some disgust he 
met with at Court. 
u James Anderson, Esq., 
Writer to the Signet, 
at Edinburgh." 

" London, 18, Februey, 17l|. 

" Sir, 

" Pray pay to Mrs. Anderson, my mother, now at 
Edinburgh, five pounds sterling upon eight days' sight 
of this my Bill of Exchange, and place the same to my 
account, whereby you will oblige, 

" Your most humble servant, 
Jam. Anderson." 

At the foot is written, in a large tremulous 
hand : 

" Received, the contents of the above written bill be 
me Jean Campbell." 

Addressed : 

M Mr. Anderson, at Mr. How's, Glover, near the Cross 
of Edinburgh." 

On the back there is this notandum : 
" 26 Nov. 1714. I lent Mrs. Anderson £20 sterling, 
which was not deducted from the bill, but is still owing." 

Subsequently, 18 th January, 1717, James An- 
derson wrote to his cousin with, as he says, con- 
siderable " smartness " touching repayment of a 
loan he had made him. On the back of this dun- 
ning epistle, there are written some interesting 
particulars relative to the Royal disputes at the 
time : — 

i " All the news at present is the hope of a reconcilia- 
tion at Court, grounded on the Prince's answer to the 
King's message on Sunday last. The message was, that 
the King demanded £40,000 out of the Prince's revenue of 



£100,000 per annum, for erecting a Family to the Prince's 
children. The answer was to this effect, viz. that he 
would readily yield to that, or any other thing within 
his power that his Majesty should demand; but hoped 
his Majesty would believe that the Princess, who had 
never offended him, was very capable of educating her 
own children in a way worthy of his grandchildren. 
That nothing grieved him but being under his Majesty's 
displeasure; that what he said to the Duke of Newcastle 
was indeed the effect of an unguarded passion, which he 
was sorry for, and he promised never to resent any thing 
to the detriment of that Lord in any time coming. This 
answer, and the Prince's friends in both houses being 
ready and prepared to receive the attack, induced the 
ministry not to make any motion against the P[rince3 
on Munday last, as was talked of last week; and people 
apprehend this as a ground of hoping matters may be 
compromised quickly. But I can not say so positively. 
The Prince goes every day to the House of Lords ; and 
is attended with the good wishes of the people, as if glad 
to see him, and sorry for his misfortune. Pray tell Mr. 
Hart this, and that I shall shortly write to him. Colonel 
Ereskin is not yet come." 

J. M. 



TREACLE. 

This word is universally acknowledged to come 
from 077piah.-(fc, of, or belonging to, a wild-beast (&i'ip). 
The Lat. form, theriaca, is derived either from the 
fern, of this, e^piaKt], or else (though much less pro- 
bably, as the noun in Lat. is sing.), from the neut. 
plur. dripiaica,, inasmuch as we find (dypiana (pdp/xaKc, 
drugs (antidotes) against the bites of wild beasts 
(see Liddeli and Scott). As, however, iheriaca, 
and still more, its Fr. derivative theriaque, offers 
at first sight no very striking resemblance to 
treacle, it may not be uninteresting to trace the 
steps by which the former has become converted 
into the latter. These steps seem to me to have 
been the following. Theriaca, teriaca, triaca, dimin. 
triacula, triacla, triacle, treacle. Now, curiously 
enough, all these steps with the exception of one, 
triacula*, still survive, either in languages still 
spoken, or in books. Thus, we find theriaca (Port, 
(also theridga'), Prov.), teriaca (Pro v., Ital., Span.), 
triaca (Prov., Ital., Span., Port, triaga), triacha 
(Mid. Lat.), triacidum (Mid. Lat. — Migne), triacla 
(Prov.), triacle (Old Fr., Old Eng. f— Halliwell), 
— treacle. 

Now Mr. Walcott (1 st S. xii. 283), says that 
the theriaca (theriaque de Venise) was a confec- 
tion of viper's flesh \, but it would seem generally 
to have had a much more complex composition, 

* Triaculum, however, does occur. See infra. I may 
say here that I traced out and wrote down all these steps 
before I consulted the dictionaries. 

f Used in the same sense as theriaca. 

% Liddeli and Scott give as the second meaning of 
©TjpiaKos, via de from wild beasts, whilst Pape in his Gr. 
Lex., after defining it, " von wilden, bes. giftigen Thieren 
gemacht " adds, " q e^piatcr, (sc. Zi>TiSoTo<;) Arznei gegen 
den Bisz giftiger Thiere; iibh. eine Arznei gegen Gift, 
aus vielen Stoffen, auch aus Vipernfleisch zusammen- 
gesezt." 



146 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. I. Feb. 22, '62. 



and is stated to have been an electuary (confec- 
tion) composed of about seventy different ingre- 
dients* What these ingredients were or are (for 
it seems still to be made up in different parts of 
Europe) I cannot discover, and I have not a Galen 
by me, but at any rate it contains a certain quan- 
tity of opium, for the sake of which, in France at 
least, it seems chiefly to be retained in use. Bou- 
chardat in his Formulaire Magistral (Paris, 1856) 
says (p. 79) concerning it, " Cet electuaire, chaos 
informe, oii toutes les drogues jadis employees 
sont venues se confondre, est encore tres utile- 
ment employe ; il reunit les proprietes les plus 
contraires ; on y remarque des medicaments sti- 
mulants, toniques, astringents, antispasmodiques 
et, par-dessus tout, l'opium. 4 gram, de theriaque 
renferment a peu pres 5 centig. d' opium brut " f 
(about ^th. part or 1*25%). 

This electuary (or confection) seems originally 
to have been used against the bite of wild beasts, 
but afterwards to have served as an antidote to 
any poison. The idea is said to have originated 
with Mithridates J, though his antidote did not 
contain more than three or four ingredients. 

But how did our word, treacle, come to be exclu- 
sively used in so very different a sense, for the 
purpose, namely, of designating merely the " vis- 
cid, dark-brown, uncrystallizable syrup *which 
drains from refined § sugar in the sugar moulds " 
(Pereira) ? I cannot say, unless it be that treacle 
very frequently enters into the composition of 
electuaries (or confections), and that so a name 
which was originally applied to a certain electuary 
only, ultimately, but in England || alone, came to 

* In the Conversations-Lexikon (Leipzig, 1855) I find 
the following: " Theriak, ein beriihmtes Gegengift in 
Form einerLatwerge [electuary], wurde von Andromachus 
aus Kreta, dem Leibarzte des Kaisers Nero, zusammen- 
gesetzt, und in einem Gedichte beschrieben, welches uns 
durch Galen in seiner Schrift ' De Antidotis ' aufbehalten 
worden ist. Dieser Theriak ist eine Zusammensetzung 
von fast 70 Arzneimitteln, deren einige ganz unwirksam, 
andere sich untereinander ganz entgegengesetztj sind. 
Doch hat er sich bis in die neuere Zeit in Ansehen erhal- 
ten, und es ist noch nicht lange her, dasz ihn die Apotheker 
in Venedig, Holland, Frankreich und an andern Orten, 
mit gewissen Feierlichkeiten im Beiseyn der Magistrats- 
personen zusammensetzen muszten." 

t See also Trousseau, Traite de Therapeut. (Paris, 
1858), vol. ii. p. 43. 

X Hence theriaca was sometimes called Mithridatium, 
from which no doubt, by the suppression of the first syll., 
the Fr. thridace (extract of lettuce — lactucarium) is de- 
rived, which contains a principle slightly akin to opium 
(lettuce-opium). 

§ Molasses (or melasses) is (says Pereira) " the drain- 
ings from raw or Muscovado sugar." 

|| On the continent, as far as I know, the derivatives 
from theriaca are 'never used to designate what we call 
treacle, for which the equivalents of molasses (Fr. melasse, 
Ital. melassa, Span, melote, &c), are used by some 
nations, whilst others, as the Germans, Dutch, Danes, and 
Swedes, term it svgar-syrup, or sugar dregs (sacchari fce.r, 
in medical Lat.). 



designate a substance, which, as often forming the 
great bulk of electuaries, would naturally often 
resemble them both in appearance and consistence. 

F. Chance. 



JOHN MILTON". 
In a return of householders within the several 
parishes of London, made in or about May, 1638, 
pursuant to a warrant from the king and council, 
the name of John Milton occurs, thus entered 
under the heading of " Port Lane, St. Dunstan's 
East." The names as they occur in order (no 
doubt of the houses occupied) stand thus : ".Widow 
Hartoc, Mathew Taylor, Thomas Lynnis, John 
Lane, Mr. Hutchins for the Alley, John Watts, 
Wm. Chisworth, Widow Maycott, John Milton," 
&c, &c. John Milton's yearly rent is set down 
at 257., and the tithes at \l. 7s. 6d. Could this 
have been John Milton, the poet? Masson, in 
Life of Milton (p. 601), says: "whether Milton 
did take chambers in London for the winter of 
1637-8, is not known." But the poet is said to 
have gone abroad in April|1638, while about the 
same period his father was at Horton. I leave it 
for such of your readers as are curious in Mil- 
tonia to say if there be any ground for supposing 
that the poet or his father had a residence here. 
Perhaps a few others of my notes from this MS. 
might not be without interest. Sir Anth. Van- 
dyke lived in St. AndrewVin-the- Wardrobe, as- 
sessed moderated rental 201. Sir Corn. Vermuden 
lived in St. Dion., Backchurch, rental 601. Dame 
Francesca Weld in St. Olave's in Old Jewry, 
rated at 80/ ; of this house the rector in his re- 
turn makes the following note : — 

" Old Gurney kept's shrievalty in her house payd 
100 u rent for it, told mee it was worth an 100 u a-yere ; 
and that he would have been tenant of it for 21 years, 
and have paid an 100 u yerelie, but could not obtain his 
desire; yet this said old Gurney does owe me tithes 3 
quarters, unless I will take half-a-crowne for a quarter." 

In the return for the parish of St. John the 
Evangelist, Watling Street, the clergyman has 
added the names of the signs of the various houses, 
viz. : — " The Black Boy ; The Fox and Goose ; 
The Lambe ; Golden Bell ; Pied Bull ; Wheat- 
sheaf ; The greate Inne at the Bell ; The Blue 
Bell ; Golden Lyon ; Bore's Head ; Harrow ; Red 
Cross ; Spread Eagle ; The Sunne ; The Little 
Bell ; Bolte and Tunne ; Three Pigeons ; Naked 
Boy ; Greyhound ; Swan ; Half Moon ; Seven 
Stars." Raymond Delacourt. 



REV. HENRY PIERS'S SERMON. 

I have had for some time in my possession, but 
without taking steps to make literary men ac- 
quainted with it, a very curious, and I believe, 
rare old sermon, illustrating with singular force 



3 rd S. I. Feb. 22, '62.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



147 



and interest the lax doctrines and lives of the 
generality of the clergy only 120 years ago. The 
sermon is in quarto, and I will here transcribe its 
title-page: — 

"A Sermon Preached (in Part) before the Right Wor- 
shipful, the Dean of the Arches, and the Reverend the 
Clergy of the Deanery of Shoreham ; Assembled in Visi- 
tation at Seven Oaks', in Kent, on Friday, the 21st Day 
of May, 1742.* Addressed to them by the Rev. Henry 
Piers," A.M., Vicar of the Parish of Bexley; sometime 
Student of Trinity College, Dublin, Author of Two Let- 
ters in Defence of our Present Liturgy. The Fifth Edi- 
tion. London : Printed and sold by YV". Lewis in Pater- 
noster Row, uear Cheapside, 1757." 

The sermon is an admirable 'one, but far in 
advance of the times. After pointing out the 
importance of the character borne by the minis- 
ters of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of 
God, he shows how much faithfulness is required 
in them ; he describes the doctrines they should 
teach, the tempers they should be of, the lives 
they should lead ; and, lastly, he inquires, " Do 
we preach these doctrines, and have such tempers, 
and lead such lives ? " 

This his audience would not stop to hear ; for, 
as we are informed in a foot-note, " It was just 
here thut the Right Worshipful the Ordinary, to- 
gether with the clergy, rose up, and left me to 
finish my discourse to the laity." 

Those of your readers who are interested in the 
history of the clergy in our country, and study its 
bearings upon national character, will be glad to 
mark from this the vast improvement in the gene- 
ral tone of our clergy. 

I might give you an analysis of the sermon, or 
at least extract from it certain information as to 
what doctrines were notoriously neglected, and 
what malpractices most prevailed in the lives of 
those men, but this would perhaps extend my 
communication to a greater length than would be 
deemed desirable. 

F. A. Malleson, M.A. 
Enfield-Claughton, Birkenhead. 



" Green Sleeves." — Perhaps it may not be 
generally known, that the real name of the beauti- 
ful old tune, introduced into the Beggar's Opera, 
with the words of Tyburn Tree, and called Green 
Sleeves, is Slieve na Grian, the Mountain of the 
Sun — an ancient Irish Druidical piece of music. 

L. M. M. R. 

Trade Prohibitions, etc. — The following 
"Presentments" are extracted from the old 
Sessions books at Wells : — 

" 1602. — "Item we p'sent Gorslege Widowe, for 

that she the xviijth day of December, 1601, dyd Colowre 
and dye Stockyngs contrarie to a Statute in that case 
made and p'vyded. 

* 1741 in another place. 



" We p'sent John Whytt, who is a Straunger suspected 
to be a Southsayer and Conjerer for money and goods. 

24 Sep. ) The Jury "present by the oath of Edward 
8 James I. j Stambourne and Anthony Smyth that Bene 
Dunckerton of Wells, Cordw. the last day of December, 
Anno R.R's Jacobi. xiiij, did buy butter, Cheese, Apples, 
Eggs, and other thinges in the Markett in Welle3 and 
other places and the same dyd putt to sale againe in 
Welles by which he dyd inhance the Markett, as makinge 
the prize of those things the dearer contrary to the 
forme of the statute." 

In a. 

Burns and Andrew Horner. — I have read, 
or heard somewhere, that Burns once met in a 
country tavern a local versifier, who expressed his 
disbelief in the poet's power of extemporaneous 
composition. After some conversation, they agreed 
to test their respective poetic talents in the im- 
mediate production of a single stanza. Burns, 
making choice of his antagonist for a subject, 
asked his name and the year of his birth. The 
man replied his name was Andrew Horner, and 
he was born in 1729. Burns at once gave the 
following : — 

" 'Twas in the year o' twenty -nine, 
The deil gat stuff to mak a swine, 

And threw it into a corner; 
But after that he changed his plan, 
And made it something like a man, 

And ca'd it Andrew Horner." 

Can any correspondent of " N. & Q." inform 
me of the circumstances of the above, or name 
any edition of the works of Burns in which the 
stanza appears ? Thomas Craggs. 

West Cramlington. 

Savonarola's inedited Manuscripts. — In- 
quiry has been made, what has been done with 
"the beautiful transcript" from the margins and 
interleavings in Savonarola's Bible in the Maglia- 
becchian library at Florence ? 

After finding that nothing satisfactory could be 
accomplished in England (as the original could 
not with facility be referred to), Mr. Charles Jop- 
ling, who had procured the transcript, having 
returned to Italy, sent for the work, which he has 
now given up to Mr. Villari, the historian of Sa- 
vonarola, who is going to publish extracts from it. 

Joseph Jopling 

Sir Walter Raleigh and Virginia. — Under 
this heading appeared, in the early volumes of 
" N. & Q.," some very interesting articles on the 
connection of Sir Walter Raleigh with the early 
voyages to and colonisation of Virginia, in which 
the popular idea that Raleigh in person discovered 
that colony was very successfully confuted, and 
the fact just as clearly established, that he did 
not at any period of his life visit Virginia; but I 
am not aware that any of your correspondents 
noticed at the time that this wide-spread error 
in regard to Raleigh, in all probability originated 
with Theodore de Bry. 



148 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[3 r d S. L Feb. 22," '62. 



In Thomas Heriot's narrative in Hakluyt is 
the sentence, "the actions of those who have been 
by Sir Walter Raleigh therein employed." Now 
De Bry, in his Latin edition of Voyages, 6 vols, 
folio, first published in 1624, translates this pas- 
sage, " Qui generosum D. Walterum Raleigh in 
earn regionem comilati sunt." D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

Was Henry I. rightly surnamed Beauclerc ? 
-In Cott. MSS. Vesp. F. III., will be found the 
signature of the learned Henry I., which, un- 
fortunately for his reputation for learning, con- 
sists of a mark, with " S. Henrici Regis " around 
it, in the hand of the same scribe who penned 
the document thus signed. The illiterate William 
Rufus wrote his name, and legibly too : the learned 
Beauclerc signs with a cross. His signature has 
not even the rugged grandeur of Montmorency, 
who, being requested to sign, and too much of a 
nobleman to be able to write, signed by slashing 
a cross on the parchment with the soldier's pen — 
his sword. Hermentrude. 



Anonymous Plays. — Can any of your Devon- 
shire correspondents give any information regard- 
ing the authorship of the two following plays ? 

1. Ivar, a Tragedy, 8vo, 1785. Printed at 
Exeter. 2. The Reception, a Play in 3 Acts. 
Printed at Plymouth, 1799. By a Chaplain in 
the Navy. Zeta. 

Lord Bacon. — The name of the sculptor of the 
statue of Lord Chancellor Bacon, over his grave 
in the chancel of the church of St. Michael in St. 
Alban's, Herts. Peter Cunningham. 

Bullen Queries. — 1. Can any of your readers 
inform me of the ancestry of Jeffery Bullen, who 
married Ann Dixon at the parish church of St. 
Clement's, Cambridge, in 1584? There is good 
reason for supposing him related to the Bullens 
of Stickford — proof is required. 

2. Dr. W. Stukeley claimed descent (through 
his maternal grandfather, Robert Bullen,) from 
William Bullen, M.D., of Ely. Now this William 
Bullen had two brothers, Richard and Robert ; 
but only one child — a daughter. Can anyone in- 
form me of the names of the sons and grandsons 
of Richard and Robert Bullen. Can anyone give 
me monumental, or other evidence, of a family of 
Bullen bearing the following arms : Or fretty sa. 
on a chief of the 2nd, 3 plates. Crest. Two 
branches of thorn disposed in orle ppr. ? 

M. N. B. 

CUSTUMARIUS ABBATHIiE DE MlLTON. Hutch- 

in^s, in his History of Dorset (iv. 215), mentions 
this Customary as having been " in the hands of 
the late Mr. John Bailey, Rector of South Cadbury 



in Somersetshire." Is it in existence still ? And 
can any of your readers inform me where it may 
be seen ? M. W. 

Doubler. — Some r time ago I went to one of 
our chapels to hear a discourse from a person who 
always preaches in the Yorkshire dialect, for the 
reason that he cannot speak in any other way. 
During his harangue he used the word " doub- 
ler;" and that you may see the connexion I will 
quote the passage as he spoke it : — 

"Ah wunce went ta preitch at a place a gort way off, 
an when od doin thewer noabdy ta tak ma ta get a bit 
a dinner bud a varry poar owd wuman. When ah gate 
tue hur haase, an shoo'd taan hur shawl off, shoo tuke a 
posnett offat fire at hed sum stew in it o' brokken bones 
an meit, an shoo tem'd it all aat intue a doubler," &c. 

He pronounced it almost like dubbler. Can you 
or any of your readers tell me what is a doubler, 
and whence thejword is derived ? 

Abraham Holroyd. 

Bradford, Yorkshire. 

Early Emigrants to Maryland. — Does any 
list of the early emigrants to Maryland exist in 
the State Paper Office, or elsewhere ? 

D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

Fossils. — Will some correspondent tell me the 
best method of extracting the fossils, chiefly bones 
and carapaces of tortoises (very soft), from the 
hard clay off Harwich ? The principal difficulty 
in getting them out is, that the rock is harder 
than the fossil enclosed in it. J. C. J. 

Origin of the name or Glastonbury. — Mr. 
Jago Emlyn, a Welsh bard and antiquary, gives 
the following opinion as to the origin of the name 
of Glastonbury : — The ancient British name of 
this place is mentioned in some old Welsh re- 
cords, and called Gwydr or Gwydwr, which 
means " water land ; " and the supposition is this, 
that when the abbey, or the first religious edifice, 
was founded there, the monks ascertained that 
the old British name was Gwydwr ; but as there 
were then no books or dictionaries to refer to, 
they merely depended upon verbal explanation of 
the word. Now it so happens that there is another 
word which sounds or is pronounced much the 
same to an English ear as the word above ; and 
that word is Gwydzr, and means in the Welsh 
language "glass." 

It is, therefore, not at all improbable that the 
monks were told the word meant glass ; and when 
we bear in mind how similar in sound the two 
words are, and that they possibly had no means of 
comparing the spelling of the words so as to detect 
the mistake, the origin of the name " Glaston- 
bury" now suggested does not seem unlikely. 
For as regards the sound or pronunciation of the 
words they are both right, although Water Land, 



8" S. I. Feb. 22, '62.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



149 



or Gwydwr, was what the Britons meant, and not 
Gwydzr, which means "glass." 

I should be glad to see what maybe the opinion 
of other readers of "N. & Q." on this curious 
subject. Ina. 

Gold Rings to tiie Infirm art us. — In a col- 
lection of monastic charters, which have lately 
passed through my hands", I find one in which it 
is stated that the abbot of a monastery delivered 
to the " infirmarius " several gold rings, set with 
precious stones, which are described. Can any of 
your readers inform me what was the object of 
these rings ? E. V. B. 

Hereditary Dignities. — Can an hereditary 
dignity be granted by the mere warrant or sign 
manual of the sovereign-lord, or must there be 
letters patent under the Great Seal ? 

Is there any instance of a title in existence 
which has passed, or is inherited, under a sign 
manual only ? Q. 

Ben Jonson. — In a letter to Cavendish, Earl 
of Newcastle (Westminster, 20th Dec. 1631), the 
City Poet (that is, Ben himself,) writes : — 

rt Yesterday the barbarous Court of Aldermen have 
withdrawn their Chandlerly Pension for Verjuice and 
Mustard, 33/. 6s. 8rf." 

Any notice of the withdrawal in the'Books of 
the Corporation of London ? 

Peter Cunningham. 

NoCKYNGE AND DoWELL MoNEY, ETC. In an 

ancient book of accounts of the churchwardens of 
the church of the Holy Trinity in Guildford, ap- 
pear the following entries : — 

"Anno Domini 1509. 

*. d. 

Receyved for gaderying alfowhjn branche xvj 



Item of JDowell money - vij i 

Item rec. for paskall money - - - ix v 

Item for men's novkynge money - - ij jx 

Item for wymenys nockinge money - - ix x 
Item of the godeman Shyngylton for his 

gnyfte vj viij 

Item of Jemys Mengar for the bells for a 

stranger - ii 



Anno Domini 1511. 
Received of Sent Jemys breihered - - iij 
Payd for kyngs rent - iij." 

May I display my ignorance by asking for an 
explanation of the terms I have italicised ? 

D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

Payment of Members of Parliament. — 
Whatever estimate the people of the present day 
may put upon the elective franchise, it would seem 
that our ancestors held the privilege very lightly ; 
for although the wages to be received by Mem- 
bers of Parliament were fixed by the 16th of Ed- 
ward II. at the low rate of 4,9. a day for a knight 
of the shire, and 2s. for a citizen or burgess, yet 



we are told by Prynne, that many boroughs 
petitioned to be excused from sending members to 
Parliament, on account of the expense ; and in a 
note to Blackstone we learn, that from the 33rd 
Edward III., uniformly through the five succeed- 
ing reigns, the Sheriff* of Lancashire returned, 
that there were no cities or boroughs in his county 
that ought or were used, or could, on account of 
their poverty, send any citizens or burgesses to 
Parliament. There were some instances where 
even a less sum than that established by statute, 
was allowed ; and it is on record that in 14G3, Sir 
John Strange, the member for Dunwich, agreed 
to take a cade and half a barrel of herrings as a 
composition for his wages. 

The object of this note is to ask your readers 
for the names of any boroughs exempted from re- 
turning members, on the plea of poverty ; and at 
what time, and under what circumstances, the 
practice of paying members was discontinued. 

I have an entry in my note- book to the effect, 
that Andrew Marvell, member for Hull, in the 
Parliament after the Restoration, was the last 
who received payment for his services as a repre- 
sentative of the people, but unfortunately have 
not marked my authority. D. M. Stevens. 

Guildford. 

Postage Stamps. — In the present rage for 
collecting postage stamps of all countries, a short 
account of their first introduction and the gradual 
development of the system to its widely-spread 
adoption, would be very interesting. 1 have a 
twopenny blue envelope, with a design of Mul- 
ready's ; and should like to know whether it was 
the first that appeared, and in what year ? The 
oval blue twopenny embossed envelope stamp, I 
presume, followed, and then the black penny label. 
Query, In what years ? Also, When were the red 
penny labels first issued ? I. S. A. 

Chief-Baron James Reynolds : Baron James 
Reynolds. — Can any of your correspondents 
oblige me by stating what was the precise degree 
of relationship between these two judges, who 
flourished in the reign of George II., but were not 
contemporaries on the English Bench : the latter 
not taking his place on it till after the former's 
death, though he had been Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas in Ireland for nearly fourteen 
years before ? 

They both seem to have descended from James 
Reynolds of Bumsted, in Essex ; who married, in 
1655, Judith, the eldest daughter of Sir William 
Hervey of Ickworth, near Bury St. Edmunds—- 
the ancestor of the Marquis of Bristol. This 
lady, I believe, was the Chief Barons grand- 
mother ; his mother was named Bridget, who, 
dying in 1723, was buried in Castle Camps in 
Cambridgeshire. The Chief Baron died in 1739, 
and was buried in St. James's church, Bury St. 



150 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. i. Feb. 22, '62. 



Edmunds, of which borough he had been recorder 
and representative in Parliament. In his will he 
mentions the Baron, then Chief Justice in Ireland, 
without stating any relationship ; but he be- 
queaths a large legacy to his niece Judith. The 
Baron had a sister Judith (evidently a family 
name, and no doubt adopted from the daughter 
of Sir William Hervey,) who, on his death in 
1747, erected a monument to him at Castle Camps 
church, the inscription on which makes no allu- 
sion to the Chief Baron, but states that the Baron, 
her brother, was " the last male descendant of Sir 
James Reynolds, Knight, who flourished in these 
parts in the reign of Queen Elizabeth." Who 
was he ? 

If the Chief Baron's niece Judith was the same 
person as the Baron's sister Judith, the Baron 
must of course have been the Chief Baron's nephew, 
though born in 1684, two years before his uncle. 
This, however, might easily have occurred; but 
another difficulty arises from the father of both 
being, as far as I discover, named James. But 
as that name appears to have been invariably 
adopted by the family, it may only afford another 
instance of two brothers having the same baptis- 
mal name. 

Though the Baron was knighted, the Chief 
Baron never accepted that honour. 

Edward Foss. 

" Tancked and Gismund," a Tragedy, written 
by five gentlemen of the Inner Temple, was per- 
formed before Queen Elizabeth, and was pub- 
lished in 1592, 4to, by Robert Wilmot, author of 
the 5th Act. Sir Christopher Hatton was one of 
the authors, Henry Noel another. The remain- 
ing two writers are known only by the initials, 
G. Al. and Rod. Staff. Can you give me any in- 
formation regarding the authors whose names are 
indicated by these initials ? The initials may, 
possibly, refer to the names Gulielmus or Wm. 
Allen, and Rodger Stafford. I give this merely 
as a conjecture. Zeta. 

Turgesius the Dane. — This formidable ruf- 
fian is well known to all readers of Irish history ; 
but I have never heard or read of any suspicion, 
that it is quite'impossible that the common appel- 
lation could ever have been the name of any 
Dane, living or dead. This is philologically true, 
however. As he was unquestionably a real person 
of his class, it is worth inquiring what was his 
real name. Thorgisel comes near, and is to be 
found amongst the Anglo-Danish gentry who at- 
test a deed of the Confessor. (See Kemble's Cod. 
Dip. JEvi. Sax., vol. iv., No. 801, Thurgysel min- 
ister.) H. C. C. 

Vicinage. — Horace Walpole, in Letter 2557, 
Cunningham's edition, says that this is a word of 
the late Lord Chatham's coining. Upon what 
occasion, in a public speech or otherwise, did the 



great commoner first make use of the word ? 
Voisonage is a word used on several occasions by 
Jeremy Taylor. ' H. ]ST. 

New York. 



Fairfax and D2emonologia. — Mr. Hartley 
Coleridge, in his Yorkshire Worthies, makes men- 
tion of an unpublished work by Edward Fairfax, 
the poet. He thus refers to it : 

" He was so much affected with the superstitions of 
his age, as to fancy his children bewitched, and that on 
so very weak grounds, that the poor wretches whom he 
prosecuted for this impossible crime were actually ac- 
quitted. Yet even the verdict of a jury, little disposed 
as juries then were (or dared to be) to favour witches, 
does not seem to have disabused his senses, for he left 
behind him in manuscript, 4 Daemonologia ; a discourse 
of Witchcraft, as it was acted in the family of Mr. Ed- 
ward Fairfax, of Fuyistone, in the Count}' of York, in 
the 3'ear 1621.' This has never been printed. A copy 
was in possession of the late Isaac Reed, Esq. As an 
important document in the history of human nature it 
most assuredly ought to be given to the world. * It must 
be remembered that Fairfax in this instance only coin- 
cided with the spirit of the age, and bowed to the wisdom 
of his ancestors." 

The Isaac Reed referred to is doubtless the 
editor of Shakespeare. I cannot find that the 
work said to be in his possession has ever been 
published, or that any account of it has been 
given by his executors. The recovery of this 
book would be an acquisition. The belief in 
witchcraft and demonology has always been pre- 
valent in that part of Yorkshire, in which the 
Fairfax family had their seat, and still lingers 
there with considerable tenacity. I recollect 
within the present century several persons who 
had a great reputation as " wise men," and who 
were supposed to have the power of disenchanting 
those who were " ill wished," or labouring under 
the spells of witches or evil-minded persons. The 
enchantments were supposed to be cast also upon 
cattle. A fatality among cattle, whether in a dis- 
trict, or in the shed of a particular farmer, was 
rarely ascribed to natural causes, but almost in- 
variably to the malevolence of some person having 
influence with the devil. The means taken to 
avert the mischief, and punish the original de- 
signer, were curious and somewhat various. They 
serve to show the skill and ingenuity of the few 
charlatans who practised upon the credulity of the 
ignorant by their conjurations to discover the 
guilty parties, and to counteract the " evil wish." 
With some smattering of medical knowledge, and 
considerable experience in that human nature 
with which they had to deal, many of them picked 
up a good harvest. If the MSl of the work is 
still in existence, it would be desirable to have it 
published. The superstitions of a people are 



3*> S. I. Feb. 22, '62. ] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



151 



always a subject of eager study to the historical 
student. T. B. 

[A transcript from the original copy of Edward Fair- 
fax's Discourse on Witchcraft, 8vo, is No. 8672, of Isaac 
Reed's Sale Catalogue, and was sold to Mr. Triphook for 
1/. 2s., who resold it to B. II. Bright, Esq. At the sale 
of Mr. Bright's manuscripts on June 18, 1844, it was 
purchased by Mr. Rodd for 6/. 15s„ and is now in the 
valuable collection of James Crbssley, Esq. of Manches- 
ter. This transcript was made about the year 1711. The 
writer has added a few more relations, and illustrated 
the whole with a series of drawings of the witches, devils, 
imps, incubi, monsters, &c, who figure among the dra- 
matis persona, all from the life, and striking likenesses !] 

Bankers, 1676. — A MS. letter of February 
17, 1675-6, says : — 

" A great misfortune hath lately befallen the bankers ; 
which hath straightened all, and proved very fatal to 
some." 

What was this misfortune ? C. H. 

[The misfortune was the extravagant luxury of the 
court of Charles II. The king about this time found 
himself at the mercy of the rich goldsmith or banker, 
who made the royal debtor pay ten, twenty, and thirty 
per cent, for accommodation. Even for defensive war the 
resources of the nation were found insufficient. The 
country was in danger; and the monied portion of the 
community seized with a panic. The people flocked to 
their debtors; they demanded their deposits; and Lon- 
don witnessed the first run upon the bankers. Consult 
Macaulay's History of England, i. 216, ed. 1856 ; Francis's 
Hist, of the Bank of England, i. 32 ; and Thomas Tumor's 
Case of the Bankers and their Creditors, 4to, 1675.] 

Zwinglii, " The Ymage of bothe Pastoures." 
— I should be greatly obliged if any of your 
readers can help me to the discovery of the follow- 
ing book. I copy the description as given in 
Herbert's Ames's Typographical Antiquities, vol. ii. 
p. 690 : — 

" ' The ymage of bothe pastoures, sette forthe by that 
mooste famouse clerck, Huldrych Zwinglius, and now 
translated out of Latin into Englishe by John Vernon 
( Veron) Sinonoys. A most fruitefull and necessary boke, 
to be had and redde in all churches, therwyth to enarme 
all symple and ignorant folkes, agaynst the raueninge 
wolues and false prophetes.' At the end < % Of the metynge 
of Mayster John Hooper, byshop of Gloceter, and of 
mayster doctoure Cole, quondam chaunceler of London, 
and now wardeyn of the new college in Oxforde.' In 8 
leaves. Cum priv. solum. Printed, 1550, by W. Seres 
with Kele, octavo." 

Henry Leach. 

11, Somerset Street, Portman Square. 

[A copy of this very rare tract, quoted, bv Master 
Prynne in his Antipathic to Lordly Prelacie, p. 3*38-9, was 
purchased by Mr. Rodd at Bindley's sale, Aug. 7, 1820, 
for 16s. who resold it to the Bodleian library. (See Bod. 
Cat. vol. iv. p. 1024.) Another copy turned up at the 
sale of Inglis's books on June 19, 1826, which was" pur- 
chased by Arch for 16s.] 

Calas. — Can you refer me to the works of 
Voltaire in which he animadverts on the trial and 
condemnation of Calas ? Yerac. 

[There is a separate work by Voltaire on the trial of 
the Calas, entitled Histoire d'Elizabeth Canning, et de 



Jean Calas. 2. Memoire de Donat Calas pour son Pere, 
sa Mere et son Frere. 3. Declaration de Pierre Calas. 
Avec les pieces Origin ales, concernant la mort des Sr?. 
Calas, et le jugement rendu a Toulouse. Par Mons. de 
Voltaire. A Londres, 8vo, 1762. See also The History 
of the Misfortunes of John Calas, a Victim to Fanaticism. 
To which is added, a Letter from M. Calas to his Wife 
and Children; written by M. de Voltaire. Lond. 8vo, 
1762, 1772. Consult also " N. & Q.," 2 n <» S. i. 13, 123, 
179.] 

Sir Robert Godschall. — In Berry's Ency- 
clopaedia Heraldica is the following : — 

"The arms of Sir Robert Godschall, Lord Mayor of 
London, with G. Heathcote in 1742, are azure 3 bends 
wavy, argent." 

There is some mistake here, for Sir G. Heath- 
cote died in 1733. I wish to learn what year Sir 
Robert Godschall was Lord Mayor, when was he 
knighted, who was he the son of, and any other 
particulars about him — his marriage, death, and 
what family he left, &c. ? T. F. 

Northiam. 

[On a black marble pyramid on the north wall of the 
chancel of Albury church, Surrey, is the following in- 
scription: "In memory of the Right Honourable Sir 
Robert Godschall, Knt,, Lord Mayor of the City of Lon- 
don, and late of Weston House in this parish, whose 
natural as well as acquired abilities endeared him to man- 
kind. He was unanimously chosen Alderman of the 
ward of Bishopsgate in the year 1732 ; served the office 
of Sheriff in 1736 ; was elected a Representative in Par- 
liament for that great metropolis 1741 ; and in the same 
year had the chief magistracy of that city conferred upon 
him ; under the fatigues of which honourable trusts, 
supported by the hopes of a joyful resurrection, and rely- 
ing on the merits of his dying Saviour, he departed this 
lite June 26, 1742, jet. fifty." Above are his arms, with 
a crescent, impaling Azure, a fess embattled Or, between 
six stars of the same. Below is a civic crown, with the 
sword and mace. He was knighted Oct. 31, 1735. At 
his death the estate at Weston came to his only brother, 
Nicholas Godschall, Esq., who died May 21, 1748; for 
a notice of whose descendants, see Manning and Bray's 
Surrey, ii. 127, 130 ; iii. 309.] 

Samaria (2 nd S. xii. 328.) — One of the pas- 
sages referred to in your answer to Lumen (1 
Kings, xiii. 32) raises what appears to me to be 
a question of some difficulty. 

The old Prophet of Bethel is there described 
as speaking of the Cities of Samaria. But in a 
subsequent chapter of the same book (xvi. 23) 
we learn that Samaria itself was not founded till 
some years afterwards by Omri. How, then, came 
the cities of the ten tribes to be called the Cities 
of Samaria in the time of Jeroboam? Memor. 

[Scott seems disposed to explain this apparent diffi- 
culty by suggesting that the Sacred Historian (writing 
after the city of Samaria was built), calls the neighbour- 
ing cities "cities of Samaria " by anticipation. It will 
be observed, however, that the words 1 Kings xiii. 32, 
are spoken by the " Old Prophet," who is speaking of 
a judgment not to be accomplished till a subsequent 
period. Possibly, therefore, he may be understood to de- 
scribe the cities prophetically, or as what they were 
when the judgment was executed, " cities of Samaria."] 



152 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Od s. I. Feb. 22, '62. 



Quotation. — Who is the author of this dis- 
tich : — 

" Hypocrisy ! the only evil which remains invisible 
With all but God"? 

Clifton. 

[Is our correspondent thinking of the following lines 
by Milton? — 

" For neither man nor angel can discern 
Hypocrisy, the only evil that walks 
Invisible, except to God alone, 
By his permissive will, through heaven and earth. w 
Paradise Lost, b. in. lines 682-5,] 



STARACHTER AND MURDOCH. 
(2 nd S. xi. 12.) 
" Starachter" is a slip of the pen for Starchater, 
one of the Scandinavian giants, whose deeds are re- 
corded by Olans Magnus, and probably by " Wor- 
mius ap. T. Hearne," though I have not been able 
to verify the reference. I cannot find in the 
British Museum a copy of Olaus Magnus. There 
is a German translation, with some curious plates, 
Olai Magni, Historien der Mittnachligen Lander, 
fol., Basil, 1567, which says : — 

" Das er auch den vergeblichen iiberfluss der Dann- 
marcker absthete, und sie durch solche wollust nicht 
weich und weibisch wurden, dichtet er etliche Lieder, da- 
rinnen die edel tugend der Massigkeit hoch geprezen 
wirt, und wie den Menschen so voll austehe das sie von 
alle iiberfluss essens und trinkens, kleidung auch anderer 
ding sich hiiten, durch welche der Leib zu Starkheit ge- 
zogen, und ganz untauglich (wie Cicero sagt) zu allem 
ampt der Tugend und giiter leer gemacht wirt." — L. v. 
c. ii. p. cxxxv. 

For want of the original, I quote the abridg- 
ment : — 

" Profusam dapum indulgentiam aspernatus, fumidoque 
ac rancido cibo usus, famem eo sapidius, quo simplicius 
pepulit, ne vera? virtutis-nervos externarum deliciarum 
contagione, tanquam adulterino quodam dulcore remit- 
teret, aut priscaa frugalitatis normam inusitatis gula? 
superstitionibus abrogaret. Cseterum indignanter ferebat, 
assam dapem, eandemque elixam, unius ccense sumptibus 
erogari: edulium pro monstro accipiens, quod culinse 
ardoribus delibutum, fartoris industria multiplicis tem- 
peramenti varietate perfricuit. Igitur ut Danicum luxum, 
Teutonum ritu, unde effceminati fierent, introductum aver- 
teret, inter alia, patrio carmine, multis omissis, sic ce- 
cinit : ■ — 

" STARCHATERI CARMEN DE FRUGALITATE. 

" Fortium crudus cibus est virorum, 
Nec reor lautis opus esse mensis, 
Mens quibus belli meditatur usum 
Pectore forti. 
" Aptius barbam poteris rigentem, 
Mordicus presso lacerare dente, 
Quam vorax lactis vacuare sinum, 
Ore capaci. 
" Fugimus lauta? vitium popinae, 
Rancidis ventrem dapibus foventes* 
Coctiles paucis placuere succi, 

Tempore prisco. 



" Lacteum qui tunc adipem liguris, 
Induas mentem petimus viriiem," etc. 

p. 164. 

Olai Magni Gentium Septentrionalium Histories 
Breviarium, Ludg. Bat., 164 >, 18mo, pp. 589. 
These are about a third of the " rules of diet," 
and enough to justify Woty's opinion as to the 
cookery and versification. As they are trans- 
lated from " patrio carmine," I shall be glad to see 
the original, if it is preserved. 

I am not able to answer the Query as to Mur- 
doch. Many years ago an account appeared in a 
magazine of a foul-feeding clergyman, pedestrian, 
and polemic, in the time of Charles II., whose 
theological adversary was Dr. Dambrod. I doubt 
whether the name was Murdoch. He was repre- 
sented as orthodox ; and a complimentary epigram 
was quoted which, as nearly as my memory serves 
me, ran : — 

" In Holy Writ to know we're given, 
That narrow is the way to Heaven : 
Sage ' Murdoch 5 ( ?) takes the converse road, 
And shows the way to Hell, Dambrod." 
Perhaps this imperfect recollection may direct 
some reader of " N._& Q." to the article. 

FlTZHOPKINS. 

Garrick Club. 



LADY VANE. 
(2 nd S. xi. 289.) 

Lady Vane (wife of Viscount Vane of the king- 
dom of Ireland) was a gay and beautiful woman, 
who despised her husband. She is the " lady of 
quality" whose memoirs are introduced by Smol- 
lett, in his Peregrine Pickle ; but that portion of 
the novel is said to have been written by Sheb- 
beare, who received 1000Z. from the lady for de- 
faming her husband. 

In an old copy of Peregrine Pickle which I 
once possessed, some one had pasted a cutting 
from a newspaper of the day ; being an advertise- 
ment inserted by Lord Vane for the purpose of 
recovering his wife, who had run away from him. 
In it the lady's personal appearance is minutely 
described, and she seems to have been really 
beautiful, notwithstanding that " one of her front 
teeth projected a good deal beyond the others." 
Can any correspondent of " N. & Q." give me a 
copy of the advertisement. 

Lady Vane brought her husband no issue, con- 
sequently the Irish title became extinct. She 
was daughter and sole heiress of Francis Hawes, 
Esq., of Purley Bottom, Berks. Lord Oxford, in 
his Memoranda of the Peerage*, speaks of both 
husband and wife in opprobrious terms. 

She must not be confounded with Miss Vane, 
mistress to Frederic, Prince of Wales, and after- 
wards to Lord Harvey. That lady was a mem- 
ber by birth of the Vane family, and was the 

* Notes and Queries, 2 nd S. i. 326. 



3 rd S. I. Feb. 22, '62.] NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



153 



person celebrated by Dr. Johnson in his Vanity 
of Human Wishes : — 

" The teeming mother, anxious for her race," &c, 

Lord Monboddo objected to both Vane and 
Sedley, as not being beauties, and proposed to 
substitute for theni Shore and Valliere. But I 
am wandering from my proper subject. 

Lady Vane is thus alluded to by Earl Nugent, 
when he is speaking of Isabella, Duchess of 
Manchester : — 

. " Yet she's as gay as Lady Vane, 

"Who, should she list her amorous train, 

Might fairly man a fleet. 
Sprightly as Orford's Countess she, 
And as the wanton Townshend free, 
And — more than both — discreet." 

M F. H.for Wit, vol. iii. p. 48, 1784. 

W. D. 



INTERDICTED MARRIAGES. 
(2 nd S. xii. 69.) 

In 1653 and 1654 the laws relating to marriage 
were in a very unsettled state, and Puritan mis- 
rule prevailed, not only in that matter, but in 
many others. It was less a question with many 
in authority whether " existing laws" justified 
their proceedings, than whether they seemed right 
in their own eyes. It is not perhaps generally 
known that many marriages took place under the 
Act passed in the Barebones Parliament, which 
may perhaps have sanctioned some such arbitrary 
proceedings as those referred to by Me. Pishey 
Thompson. 

The Parish Register of St. Giles, Camberwell, 
Surrey, records no fewer than fourteen, celebrated, 
not by a clergyman, but before a magistrate, sit- 
ting authoritatively in the " Public Meeting Place 
of the parish, commonly called the Churclrof the 
said parish," and attesting the ceremony " after 
the Puritan way, and the laudable custom of 
Holland." 

The officiating magistrate, in some of these 
instances, was Mr. Samuel Moyer, one of the 
honourable members for London, and the zealous 
colleague of Mr. Leatherseller Barebones in the 
short-lived Parliament that bore his name. 

The connexion of Moyer with the strange 
doings of his day has given him more than a local 
celebrity. He was not only one of the " persons 
fearing God, and of approved fidelity and honesty" 
selected by Cromwell to carry out his designs, 
but a leading man amongst them. Had its ex- 
ecutive ability equalled its intentions, the Parlia- 
ment would have earned a name the world would 
have taken care of. It was to abolish tithes ; to 
amend the law ; to improve prison discipline ; to 
devise and practice the most thorough retrench- 
ment and economy in public affairs ; to settle 
Ireland and Scotland; to advance trade and 



learning ; to remove all civil and religious disa- 
bilities ; to " take away," like a naughty child, 
the Court of Chancery ; and to consider, with a 
view to getting rid of, every thing that hindered 
the progress of the Gospel ! 

In fourteen months it was to do this ; but in 
six, it came to an inglorious end, having, as the 
sum total of its practical labours, " considered a 
way for marriages ;" debated the question on the 
7th of August, 1653 ; passed it on the 16th ; and, 
apparently forgetting what had been done, agreed 
on the 20th that it should become law. 

But we have not yet done with Mr. Moyer. 
When this Parliament of Incapables broke up, 
some " thirty odd " determined to die hard ; and 
although forty had been declared a House by 
Cromwell, refused to move off. In resolute de- 
termination not to go home till morning, they 
voted Moyer to the chair, and broke out into a 
volley of protests. The climax is well-known, 
and poor Moyer, in the cold twilight of a De- 
cember morning, repaired doggedly to a home 
shorn of all the usual genialities of the season, 
doubting probably for the first time his " clear 
call " to take a " part in the supreme authority of 
the Commonwealth." Douglas Allport^ 



JUDGE PAGE. 

(3 rd S. i. 13.) 

A friend having lent me ISTo. 1 of your New 
Series, I beg to add some particulars respecting 
Sir Francis Page (the hanging judge). He was 
the son of the Rev. Nicholas Page, Vicar of Blox- 
ham, admitted of the Inner Temple June 12, 
1685 ; called to the Bar, June 2, 1690. In 1708 
he was returned M.P. for Huntingdon with Ed- 
ward Wortley alias Montague; and again in 1720 
with the same colleague. The dates of his judicial 
promotions, given in p. 14, are correct. His first 
wife, whose name I have not discovered, was 
buried at Bloxham. His second wife, many years 
his junior, Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Wheale, of Glympton, Baronet, also predeceased 
him, and was buried in Steeple Aston church, 
Oxfordshire (not North Aston as stated), in a 
vault beneath a chantry on the north side of the 
true chancel. Page purchased an estate at Mid- 
dle Aston, part of the parish of Steeple Aston, 
and built or greatly enlarged a mansion there. 
It was his ambition to found a family, but he re- 
mained childless in both his marriages. Upon the 
death of his second wife, in 1731, he took posses- 
sion of the chantry chapel ; broke up ancient 
alabaster monuments, blocked up two arches, and 
erected a huge monument by Scheemacker, which 
is still in good preservation : it consists of a full- 
size figure of himself, judicially habited, reclining 
like a Roman of the time of Augustus at a ban- 



154 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3^ S. I. Feb. 22, '62. 



quet; and another of his second wife, habited 
like an Athenian matron of the time of Pericles ; 
"both under a lofty canopy supported by a pair of 
Corinthian columns. Both effigies are portraits ; 
Page's being verified with an engraven portrait of 
him when he was a Baron of the Exchequer, 
which I found in a farmhouse, and gave in 1856 
to the County Hall at Oxford. He died Oct. 31, 
1741 (not Dec. 18), at Middle Aston; and I 
gather the following particulars from a decree in 
Chancery, made by Lord Chancellor Hardwick, 
July 2, 1750, which recites that a suit was com- 
menced in 1744 between Isabella Bourne, Francis 
Page, late Francis Bourne, and others, plaintiffs, 
and Richard Bourne and several others, including 
Sir Thomas Wheale, defendants. It appears that 
Page executed deeds in August, 1740, stipulating 
that Francis Bourne should, as a condition to 
taking the estates at Middle Aston as Page's heir, be 
in future known and called as Francis Page only ; 
and on July 4, 1741, he made a will to the same 
effect, when the defendants averred his mind was 
not in a testamentary state. This was, however, 
negatived by the evidence on the part of the 
plaintiffs. Francis Page, ne Bourne, became M.P. 
for the University of Oxford, and lived into the 
present century ; but he died unmarried, and the 
estates have long since passed to possessors by 
purchase. Judge Page left a large personal estate, 
which was nearly absorbed by the tedious] and 
costly Chancery suit